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January 14, 2014

Happy New Year!: May your 2014 be filled with joy and health!

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Artefact Listing

This page lists all artefacts in the game, of which there are 1436.

Industry / Artefact Description
Music
Pied Piper
Owners: 917
Music has been noted to be an instrument of mood manipulation, from the aroused state to the highly agitated, to very calm, to a almost suggestible state. All of these moods have been observed in careful study of participants listening to the Pied Piper.
Politics
Senator
Owners: 1120
The Senator is a useful government official to have in your pocket. He busies himself passing legislation that favours you and makes sure the law enforcement agencies don't look too deeply into your shady deals.
Film and Television
Director
Owners: 756
Short, dictatorial, and uncrossable, the Director wields all the power on the set of any film. No star will mess with a Director, lest his performance be left on the cutting-room floor.
Life
Tree of Life
Owners: 1043
"The affinities of all the beings of the same class have sometimes been represented by a great tree... As buds give rise by growth to fresh buds, and these, if vigorous, branch out and overtop on all sides many a feebler branch, so by generation I believe it has been with the great Tree of Life, which fills with its dead and broken branches the crust of the earth, and covers the surface with its ever branching and beautiful ramifications."
From Origin of Species by Charles Darwin
Humor
Gag Master
Owners: 928
The clown, the buffoon and stand up have nothing on this great invention from the dephs of corporate research labs. The Gag Master takes all the guesswork out of this vital human condition. Its mood analysis and artificial intelligence unit can prepare the right quip, retort and punchline in nanoseconds. Its ear receiver is unnoticable but a synaptic cord plug upgrade exists for the person serious about getting in the gags all the time without detection.

Be the life and soul of the party and disarm your business oponents with wity one liners that will be the envy of the BS100.
Sex
Pornstar
Owners: 871
Pornstars are always useful to have around. If you're trying to persuade a businessman, offer him a free ride in a limo and dinner on the house. If it is a businesswoman offer her a free couple of hours with a trained masseur. Keep it strictly business though, remember what happens when the press gets wind of this.
News
Scoop
Owners: 993
An exclusive news story acquired before a competitor sounds like music to every publisher's ears. Better not forget to check and double-check though. Or the so-called scoop might turn into a real nightmare seriously undermining your credibility.
Relationships
Counselor
Owners: 747
Even a glance at the make/break statistics for relationships reveals that many just don't seem to work out as well as one might hope. It is difficult, if not impossible, to be objective and unbiased when so closely involved with another person -- and the very closeness often leads one to believe that one knows more about the partner's needs than is actually the case. Enter the Counselor, who can mediate between the parties and help them achieve mutual understanding and acceptance. However, there are some relationships that even a skilled Counselor cannot mend... hence the existence of divorce attorneys.
Hobbies
Workroom
Owners: 752
Every hobbiest, gamer, tinkerer and writer wishes they could have a place that was just their own, where no one could bother them or disturb them. What better than your own Workroom where you can craft, shape, or play? Let your creative side out and enjoy your hobby in the comfort of your own Workroom, after all you deserve it.
Cameras and Photographic Techniques
Lens Junky
Owners: 824
The Lens Junky is in love with his camera equipment. He buys only the best, and spends almost every dime to do so. He'd sooner go without pizza or sex than his beloved Nikon SLR. He sometimes talks to it, when he thinks he is alone. Be that as it may, he is also a very talented individual, good at acessing restricted photo spots and telling racy stories.
Writing
Shakespeare's Quill
Owners: 857
Inspiration is at hand if you have something so remarkable as Shakespeare's quill. All you need do is imagine him busily jotting down his next play or poem. Truly the muse will be with you, so use it as only a writer could.
Love Life
Love Letter
Owners: 649
The love letter is the most romantic form of communication between two lovers, and can be cherished no matter the distance apart. A well penned letter can raise the heart rate, and bring to mind the most beloved memories in a relationship. One site online says "The most ancient love letter was found in Iran, it can be dated to about 4000 years ago. A young man called Gimisa was in love with a young lady called Dasbuai, that was why he wrote a love message to her in which he asked her to meet with him. It took much patience and much force to write and to receive this kind of love letter as its weight was more than 16 kilograms!"
Literature
Blustocking
Owners: 779
A smart woman who hides behind a spinsterish facade, she knows everything there is to know about any book placed before her, from the year it was written to the author's favorite food to the typographical error that occurs on page nine of the first one hundred printed. She can also quote Dorothy Parker and Ogden Nash in her sleep.
Art
Bohemian
Owners: 819
Never having quite enough cash, and sometimes forced to the streets, the Bohemian is very resourceful at living. A Bohemian relies on talents, charm, and instincts to insert him or herself amongst those with wealth and power, and therefore eat at another's expense. Because the Bohemian is often a fascinating person, most of his or her victims seem not to mind.
Technology
Master Hacker
Owners: 1003
The Master Hacker is a useful person to have in your employ. He solves problems using a variety of technologies and can be entertained by pizza, porn and lots and lots of hardware.
Internet
Network Engineer
Owners: 957
Network Engineers are the masters of connectivity, with the pulse of the digital world at their fingertips. Their favour can be the difference between packet loss hell and high speed heaven.
Blog Services
Soapbox
Owners: 909
More and more people are keeping weblogs - diary-style websites on which they post commentaries and recommend links. Webloggers typically offer pithy, sarcastic commentary about the links, or about news stories they've read, or about happenings in their daily lives. A weblog is, for many webloggers, their chance to stand upon a personal Soapbox and proclaim to the world-at-large what they think. Underestimate the power of the Soapbox artefact at your peril.
Fun
Pleasuredome
Owners: 806
The purely hedonistic pursuit of an idea or activity that is pleasurable to oneself. The repeated use of the Pleasuredome is noted to produce an uncanny effect of always being in a good mood. Keep smiling and everyone will wonder what you have been up to.
Computers
Improbability Drive
Owners: 922
The principle of generating small amounts of finite improbability by simply hooking the logic circuits of a Bambleweeny 57 Sub-Meson Brain to an atomic vector plotter suspended in a strong Brownian Motion producer (say a nice hot cup of tea) was of course well understood - and such generators were often used to break the ice at parties by making all the molecules in the hostess's undergarments leap simultaneously one foot to the left, in accordance with the Theory of Indeterminacy. Many respectable physicists said that they weren't going to stand for this - partly because it was a debasement of science, but mostly because they didn't get invited to those sort of parties.
Gay
Brochure
Owners: 762
The Brochure is designed to educate the general public on the true facts of the gay community, as well as to fight both right wing and religious right rhetoric. Brochures are designed to show people why the gay vote is so important, the importance of equality for all, and also covers in great detail such important issues as immigration equality, adoption equality, and marriage equality.
Journal
Anne Frank's Diary
Owners: 1076
The diary of a young girl surviving the extraordinary tragedy of the Holocaust is an inspiration to all journalists. Her recounting of experiences highlights a great scope of the human condition from terror through faith to hope. The simple, eloquent, personal style is a model for online journals which bring life to their times amidst the passage of history.

In the understanding of journals, Anne Frank's Diary is an invaluable asset.
Links
HTTP 404 - File Not Found
Owners: 922
Hailed as the nightmare of the web, the 404 Error surfaces in even the best web pages. Known to generate earth-shattering white pages with no navigational links, web surfer and web designer alike are warned to stay away from this cold, merciless scourge of the deep.
Geek
Glasses
Owners: 908
For those that don't have 20/20 vision, their glasses are like their eyes. If you are caught wearing them, you will normally be called 4 eyes. If you are caught without them, you are probably stumbling everywhere trying to find them when they fell off. For some, a curse, for others, the cure, but one thing is for certain: they will always be called by all geeks everywhere "my pair of eyes" or, more lovingly, "eyes 3 and 4."
Religion
Spiritual Retreat
Owners: 795
Every religious denomination should have a place where one can contemplate, meditate, discuss, search or study. With this artefact one can always look to the tranquility that comes with such places and why they are so important.
Christianity
Gospel
Owners: 826
The gospel is the centerpiece of the Christian faith. It consist of three primary events: the death of Jesus Christ on the cross, his burial in a closed tomb, and his resurrection three days after his death. The communities of christianity rest upon this foundation in their belief system. for christians, those who embrace the truth of the gospel will be in heaven in the afterlife and be in relationship with God in this life.
Buddhism
Bodhi Tree
Owners: 533
For three days and nights, Siddhartha meditated beneath the Bodhi Tree. When he arose, he was enlightened, and became Buddha.
Islam
Schism
Owners: 613
Islam is divided into two main sub-divisions, the Sunni, who form about a 90 percent majority of the Muslim world, and the Shia, who form about 10 percent. The origins of the two schools are steeped in the early history of Islam. The Sunnis hold that the first four caliphs, or rulers, after the Prophet Muhammad were 'rightly guided' whereas Shi'ites are 'the partisans of Ali' who believe that the Prophet's son-in-law should have succeeded him directly. These struggles in the seventh century broadened out into a schism as great as that between the Orthodox, Catholics and the Protestants in Christianity.
Sikhism
Guru Granth Sahib
Owners: 189
"Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Living, awake Sri Guru Nanak Sahib who talks," wrote Baba Nand Singh Ji Maharaj. Sikhs revere this Granth, the holy book of the very words spoken by founders of the Sikh religion, as a living Guru. The sacred scripture consists of over 5000 Shabhads, poetic hymns written in Gurmukhi, with a message of perfect universal love.
Hinduism
The Trinity
Owners: 209
In Hinduism, the Trinity signifies the three most important deities that control the entire creation. Brahma, the creator, makes everything, the Earth, the skies, the Universe. Vishnu, the preserver, ensures that everything is stable and nothing that could threaten the creation continues to happen. Shiva, the destroyer, destroys the creation and the cycle is repeated.
Judaism
The Torah
Owners: 464
The Torah is the primary document of Judaism, and is the source of all Biblical commandments.

Torah, is a Hebrew word meaning the teaching or the law. It refers to the first section of the Tanakh; the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses. These books of the Torah include Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The Hebrew names for these 5 books are Bereishit, Shemot, Vayikra, Bemidbar, and Devarim.

As it is the holiest document in the Jewish religion, theTorah is carefully hand-written using a quill on specially prepared unblemished animal hide which is called Gevil. A sefer ("kosher") Torah contains 304,805 letters, all of which must be duplicated precisely by a trained sofer ("scribe"). The ink is special, the scroll is special, and it is witnessed by Rabbis in the process to insure that it is kept within those standards. When completed, it is dressed in elaborate textile covers, crowned with silver ornaments and kept in the holiest spot within the synagogue called the Ark. The Ark is usually built along the wall that most closely faces Jerusalem, the direction faced by Jews when engaged in prayer.

The text of the Torah is also commonly printed as a book, known as the Chumash ("five", for the five books of Moses), and is often accompanied by commentaries or translations.
Paganism
Julian The Apostate
Owners: 131
Flavius Claudius Julianus, also as Julian the Apostate, was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire. In an effort to save Rome and her values he purged attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the cost of Christianity. His rejection of Christianity in favor of "Neo-Platonic paganism" caused him to be called Julian the Apostate by the church.
Web Design
WYSWYG
Owners: 896
Commonly mistaken for "What You See, What You Get", WYSWYG is an ancient demonic presence brought to the modern world to fool niave web designers into the believing that their drawings will translate into documents presentable on the Web. These sirens call newbies and crash them on the rocks of bloated mark-up, browser incompatibility and table hell. Used against your (blog) enemies it can disrupt and reduce productivity allowing you and your trusty text editor to steam ahead of the game.
Personal
Peeping Tom
Owners: 1006
Peeping Toms are never praised, like novelists or bird watchers, for their keenness of observation yet they are everywhere. He's there when you write about your glorious moments but he won't close his eyes when it gets embarrassing. Be warned.
Poetry
Muse
Owners: 777
A beautiful, but often pouting woman, fickle in her times of appearance and her moods. When she shows, however, nothing and no one can be more inspiring, and no one can resist her allure. Many a man has fallen to his death chasing his muse over a cliff.
Friends
Friendship Bracelet
Owners: 622
"Birds of a feather flock together", so goes the cliche. Man is a social creature, and to connect with people of like minds, keeping the company and sharing the same interests, answers a basic human need for acceptance and affirmation.<br />Friendship bracelets are usually cheap plastic, wooden or plastic beads, or even hemp and stones, but regardless of its contents, the meaning is always clear. Friends often swap friendship bracelets to demonstrate a commitment to each other, and wear them as symbols of their pride in a strong friendship.
Education
Dean
Owners: 777
The Dean runs the school, and everything must pass his office and receive his stamp of approval. Cross the Dean and you're cooked. Know the daughter of the aunt of the Dean's cousin, and you might get free tuition.
High School
Bully
Owners: 576
Commute to and from school earlier or later in the day. Take different routes to school. Try not to be alone in the hallways, locker rooms, restrooms, or empty classrooms. And DON'T bring any lunch money.
University
Degree
Owners: 853
'Bachelor', 'Master' or better yet 'Doctor', a degree is a wonderful thing. If it doesn't get you a decent job, it's still a nice decoration on the wall.
Games
Mario Brothers
Owners: 768
Timing is everything in the business of games. When it comes to gaming, who could forget Mario and Luigi, two Italian plumber brothers from Brooklyn. If your portfolio is leaky give the Mario's a call, they'll put the wrenches to your opponent's pipes.
Philosophy
Philosophers Stone
Owners: 718
The Philosopher's Stone, able to bring about bring about a permanent transmutation of base metals into gold. When a solution of the Stone in spirits of wine is consumed, health and youth are restored. The Philosopher's Stone has an immense range of powers, not only possessing the secrets of life and health, but also the purity and sanctity of the highest realm of pure thought and altruistic existence.
Media
Bloggers
Owners: 848
As the Internet is gaining ground to become the most influential media sector at the expense of the more traditional sectors such as TV, radio, press and publishing, PR & advertising, we witness the rapid emergence of a whole new generation of mini media moguls whom we call ‘Bloggers’.

From a personal diary which probably no one bothers to read to the real time report from the Baghdad Blogger who scooped our news network with over 20,000 readers a day, the blogging community (now over one million members and still growing strong) is fast becoming a genuine alternative for news sources and for PR and advertising. As Guardian, UK puts it, “Underestimate their power at your own peril”.
TV
Boob Tube
Owners: 702
The Boob Tube has designs on turning your mind to mush. Repeated exposure to mindless sitcoms and reality shows will gradually dull your senses, make you lose your eyesight, and give you a bad case of couch potatoitis. There is a cure for this however it's only recommended for those with thought processes still intact. Turn it off.
Radio
Wolfman Jack
Owners: 475
For millions, Wolfman Jack--indisputably the world's most famous DJ--was the master of ceremonies for the rock 'n' roll generation of the '60s on radio. In the early 1960s, when much of the airwaves were segregated, Bob Smith created his shadowy wild man alter ego so that he could DJ on the radio the "rhythm and blues" race records he loved so much. As the enigmatic Wolfman Jack, the young white man from Brooklyn, could easily hide behind a voice that masked his true ethnic roots.

Wolfman Jack held court over his young audience from XERF-AM, just south of Cuidad Acuna, Mexico, where the 250,000 watt signal (five times more powerful than any U.S. radio station could legally be) blanketed most of North America. Many teens first discovered The Wolfman while scanning the AM radio band as they cruised Main Street U.S.A.

Out of the night came a howling, guttural, ethereal voice amid a collection of rock 'n' roll, inner-city ethnic rhythm, and deep-south blues records that wouldn't be found on any "legal" radio station. Without the benefit of traditional advertising, it was word of mouth that spread the news about the provocative Wolfman and his nonconformist style -- the kind of style that horrified parents, making it all the more appealing to a growing legion of young followers.
Newspapers
Extra Edition
Owners: 586
The newspapers deliver the news to our homes daily or weekly. But when a special event happens, "Hold the presses!" newspapers put out a Extra Edition to let everyone know. Back in the early days of the press, it wasn't uncommon for the newsboys selling the paper to shout "Extra! Extra! Read all about it!" Which, when you think of it, is the heart and soul of a newspaper... read all about it.
Magazines / Periodicals
Time Magazine
Owners: 650
This very informative magazine was co-founded by Briton Hadden and Henry R. Luce in 1923. Hitting the stands for the first time in March 2, 1923, this weekly magazine had its unique writing style that people seemed to enjoy. One of its most demanded issues is their yearly "Man of the Year" (recently renamed to "Person of the Year") that recognizes not only humans for their contribution to society, but machines and ideas as well .
Cinema / Film / Video
Latham Loop
Owners: 649
A ingenious solution to an early problem in film projection, the Latham Loop reduced the stress on the long lengths of film used in cameras. By allowing a "loop" of film before entering the projection chamber, the Latham family were able to stop film from breaking under the duress of projection. The technology was the subject of long patent litigation.
Drawing
Charcoal Pencil
Owners: 550
The charcoal pencil -- some artists swear by it, while others despise it completely. It's messy and smudgy, but it allows for effects unattainable with any other tool. Regardless of opinions, drawing just wouldn't be drawing without the familiar and distinct drag of the charcoal pencil. It allows for drawings to lose their reflective value and still retain shadows and some degree of detail. Artists of the world, grab your charcoal pencils and allow your hands to blacken.
Art History
Caves of Lascaux
Owners: 281
This is where you can find some of the oldest man-made images on earth. These caves hold the prehistoric paintings that begin every chronologically taught history of art class. The Lascaux Caves, along with those in Altamira and Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc, contain the seeds of all human artistic development. The first artists began producing public murals of animals and hunting scenes between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago. The images astounded the first modern people who saw them. They could not not believe that such beautiful, elegant, and accurate paintings could have been done by "cave men." But carbon dating has told us they did. Today, the caves at Lascaux are no longer open to the public because of the rapid deterioration of the paint surfaces due to the moisture and carbon dioxide produced by hundreds of tourists every day. But we can still enjoy them in detail in our art history classes and at their websites.
Painting
Ultramarine Blue
Owners: 372
Painters during the middle ages didn't have half the color choices we have today. All of their pigments were natural, coming mostly from mineral sources. But one pigment was so rare and so fine and so beautiful that it was more expensive than gold: Ultramarine Blue. The pigment came from the lapis-lazuli gem, mined only in present day Afghanistan, so importing it was costly. The deep blue color is lightfast, and is still just as bright today as when it was applied to panels 700 years ago. It was the color of a Duccio Virgin's cloak, and the feathers on the wings of Fra Angelico's angels. When patrons commissioned paintings, they specified how much gold leaf and Ultramarine Blue to use - the more blue and gold, the more spectacular the painting, the more prestigious the donor. Both the cost and the beauty of Ultramarine Blue reflected God's glory. However, the use of this color declined in later centuries. In the 19th century, Cobalt Blue was discovered, and replaced Ultramarine as the most beautiful of blues. In the 20th century, synthetic pigments appeared on the market. Today, most of the pigments painters use are synthetic, whether they be in oils or acrylics or watercolors. Even as a synthetic, Ultramarine Blue is still one of the most popular colors in painting.
Hometown Blogs
Main Street
Owners: 349
Every town has a Main Street, a path that takes citizens through the heart of a place. It might have a post office next to a gas station, or a small store where the proprietor lives next door, or an arts and crafts shop next to a cafe where the regulars sit and sip their coffee and pass the time of day while the rest of the world walks and drives by.

A hometown blog can open up the hearts and minds of readers and introduce them to the characters of the town, the places, values and events that knit the residents together. Think of a Hometown Blog as a character on Main Street, giving us insight into people and places we might otherwise never know.
Science
Experiment
Owners: 733
In the scientific method, an experiment is a set of actions and observations, performed to verify or falsify a hypothesis or identify a causal relationship between phenomena. The experiment is a cornerstone in empirical approach to knowledge.
Food and Drink
Connoisseur
Owners: 737
A person with expert knowledge or training, especially in the fine arts. A connoisseur of foods or drink is a person of informed and discriminating taste.
Recipes / Techniques
Chef
Owners: 678
The Chef can prepare exquisite dishes using superb ingredients and taking great care in preparation and presentation thus arousing intense delight. But are you willing to trust him? What if he put arsenic in your delicacies?
Cooking
Fannie Farmer Cookbook
Owners: 448
Fannie Merritt Farmer (23 March 1857 - 15 January 1915) published The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book in 1896. What made the book immensely popular was not so much the 1,849 recipes ranging from milk toast to Zigaras à la Russe, but that she provided scientific explanations of the chemical processes that occur in food during cooking and she helped standardize the system of measurements used in cooking. Prior to the Cookbook's publication, other recipes frequently called for amounts such as "a piece of butter the size of an egg," or "a teacup of milk." Farmer's systematic discussion of measurement -- "A cupful is measured level . . . A tablespoonful is measured level. A teaspoonful is measured level." -- led to her being named "the mother of level measurements." Even a hundred years later, the "Fannie Farmer Cookbook" is still popular.
Programming
HexHacker
Owners: 799
The HexHacker spends so much time before his computer, hacking hexidecimal code, that he begins to think and speak in it. He hasn't combed his hair in months, but he can access every webcam on the planet in seconds, and break almost any security system remotely. He's secretly building a web-based program which will help him in his schemes to dominate the globe, all from a shiny G5 Mac, or a Unix server.
Web Technologies
Router
Owners: 828
File transfer, IRC, instant messaging, online purchases and even the humble web page - none of these would be possible without the humble Router. It directs your request for information to the right place and directs it back to you. Without it, online commerce wouldn't exist.
XML
Validator
Owners: 631
Numerous standards and extensibility can be a confusing mess in the world of XML, so where would you be without your schema and trusty Validator? Human readable machine communication no longer needs to be a grammatical nightmare.<br />The true BlogShares entrepreneur offers his validator, gaining market support and influence. Competition in this space can be neutralized by shifting the ground underneath them to your advantage through interpretive messages from your Validator.<br />But be careful not to cry foul to often, less your Validator be exposed for the monopolising antagonist it truly is.
PHP
Rasmus Lerdorf
Owners: 358
PHP is primarily an Internet-based programming language that powers many high-profile sites, including BlogShares. PHP was, however, originally designed as a small set of Perl scripts and not a language in its own right. This was quickly followed by a rewritten set of CGI binaries in C by the Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. He originally wrote them to display his résumé and to collect certain data, such as how much traffic his page was receiving. "Personal Home Page Tools" was publicly released on 8 June 1995 after Lerdorf combined it with his own Form Interpreter to create PHP/FI.
Artisanal Sales
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Animals and Pets
Crock Hunter
Owners: 572
Normally found in the zoo at Australia, The Crock Hunter has vast resources to travel all over the globe to bring new light and understanding to various animals, and support or condemn those that deal with them. Be careful when dealing with him, as his brainwashed fans will no doubt support any move he makes.
Cats
Laser Exerciser
Owners: 650
As all serious ailurophiles know, cats tend to rest often. And objects at rest tend to remain at rest. The Laser Exerciser can be used to raise the energy level of most felines above the rest state for limited periods of time.
Weird
Mind Goo
Owners: 724
The union of chaos, apathy and banality the Mind Goo keeps the masses occupied with the bizarre. A modern, networked avatar of the circus freak show.
Travel
Weary Traveller
Owners: 657
Sometimes the best stories come from those who have seen it all. They know the world and they know the people who live in it. Business wise. Shouldn't you know the people too?
Performing Arts
Bon Vivant
Owners: 727
The Bon Vivant lives a carefree lifestyle, enjoying only the finer things, wiling away his days in dinner jackets at the opera, or attending high society balls, or chasing beautiful girls with even more beautiful inheritances, usually while sipping champagne and humming a phrase from Carmen.
Female
Morrighan
Owners: 1147
One and three, the Morrighan is a Godess to be reckoned with. Queen of Phantoms and Deamons, Specter Queen, Supreme War Godess, Moon Godess, Patroness of priestesses and witches, Her names are many. She's associated with revenge, prophecy, wisdom and war or peace. She reigns over the battlefield and you certainly would not want to insult her. Watch the Raven or the hooded Crow.
Team Sports
The Jersey
Owners: 537
The sight of a bunch of people running around on the field, blazing around the rink, or smashing into each other in a bone-crunching tackle can sometimes be confusing. Not knowing whether it was your favourite team or the "bad guys" would always have you at the edge of your seat. That is, of course, if there were no Jerseys to tell the two teams apart.

The Jersey is as much a part of the game as the player. The colours and symbols that are worn on Jerseys all over the world help us to distinguish our favourites from the ones we hate. Jerseys are instantly recognizable by true fans of any game, and the numbers on the back help us to spot our favourite players.

The Jersey unifies the players, becoming a symbol of who they are and what they are playing for. The Jersey makes the team a team.
Baseball
The Perfect Game
Owners: 712
The perfect game is the rarest feat in baseball. It has only been achieved sixteen times in the history of the Major Leagues. A pitcher is said to have thrown a perfect game if he retired all twenty-seven hitters over nine innings -- no hits, no walks and no errors. A perfect game does not require that the pitcher get twenty-seven strike-outs. Often, his teammates have to make good defensive plays to get the opposing players out. The last pitcher to throw a perfect game was David Cone of the New York Yankees when, on July 18, 1999, the Montreal Expos lost to New York 6-0.
Soccer / Association Football
World Cup
Owners: 559
The seeds which marked the beginning of this great event were planted by the President of the World Football Federation, Jules Rimet, in 1926. The positive message infused by Rimet is summarized by his famous words "Soccer could reinforce the ideals of a permanent and real peace", as he pushed to organize an international event which would make no discrimination on the grounds of professional or amateur status of the athletes. As his words were spoken, a world tournament involving all of the national federations was being planned. Rimet and five other officials organized the event for 1930. The first World Cup match was held in Pocitos Stadium on July 13, 1930 where the host, Uruguay, won the first world cup. Today the World Cup remains the most watched soccer event.
Basketball
Harlem Globetrotters
Owners: 560
The Harlem Globetrotters are one of the most well known basketball teams, and for good reason: The team was established on January 26th, 1926 by Abe Saperstein, in Hinckley, IL. The team was originally named the "Savoy Big Five" after the famous Chicago's Savoy Ballroom.
Saperstein would later add his family name to the jersey thereafter, "Saperstein's New York Globetrotters".

The Globetrotters became real "globetrotters", travelling the world and entertaining millions. With players such as Geese Ausbie, Goose Tatum, 1998 Hall of Famer Marques Haynes, Curly Neal and Meadowlark Lemon, the Globetrotters became ambassadors of basketball, bringing their high-flying showmanship to the world. The team has played over 20,000 games in more than 100 countries around the world.

1976- Celebrated their 50th anniversary, the Harlem Globetrotters become history's first professional basketball squad to play in a free democratic South Africa.
1982- They are the first and only sports team to receive the famous star on the Hollywood "Walk of Fame".
1985- Signed their first female player, Olympic Gold Medallist, Lynette Woodard from Kansas.
1993- Mannie Jackson becomes the first African-American and former player to own a sports/entertainment organization with his acquisition of the Harlem Globetrotters.
2000- Wilt Chamberlain becomes the first Globetrotter to have his jersey retired at a March ceremony at his Philadelphia alma mater, Overbrook High School.
Cricket
Lords Cricket Ground
Owners: 118
Known as 'The Home of Cricket', Lord's Cricket Ground holds vast historical significance and enormous sentimental value to cricket players worldwide.

Founded by Thomas Lord in 1787, Lord's was relocated twice before it reached its current location in 1814. It was the site of the first Test (international level) match and houses the world's oldest and best cricket museum, with memorabilia dating back to 1864. Portraits of cricketing greats are displayed in The Long Room at Lord’s and it is considered a mighty honour when a portrait of a modern cricketing hero is added to the gallery of past legends. In addition, honour boards in the dressing rooms list the names of any batsmen to score at century (100 runs) or bowler who takes five or more wickets in one innings or 10 wickets in a match.

Lord's also watches over the Ashes - a symbol of the Ashes Test cricket series played biennially (and with fierce rivalry) between Australia and England. The Ashes is both a sporting event and an actual, physical object. The trophy for the Ashes Test cricket series is the actual "Ashes"--an urn containing the burnt remains of a piece of cricket gear, the exact nature of which no one knows to this day. Replicas of the urn are sometimes made and used to celebrate a Test victory, but the original Ashes are always kept in the museum at Lord's.

Home of Middlesex County Cricket Club, the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB), and the European Cricket Council (ECC), Lord’s hosts Test matches and one-day internationals, as well as local club and village games and even a cricket school for young players. Rather than just standing as a tribute to the history of cricket, Lord’s is also a vibrant centre of action for the game today.
American Football
Quarterback
Owners: 544
When the team plays well, he's a hero - when they lose he's the scapegoat. The field general of the offense who touches the ball on every play - the player that every child wants to be.
Golf
Green Jacket
Owners: 319
Awarded to the winner of the U.S. Masters tournament, this is one of the most coveted prizes among professional golfers. It symbolizes the best of the best.
Tennis
Grand Slam
Owners: 233
Considered the greatest achievement in Tennis, the Grand Slam is accomplished by winning the four Grand Slam tournaments--Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, and the U.S. Open in one year. Originally restricted to winning all four events in the same calendar year the Grand Slam now commonly refers to holding all four titles simultaneously. Since first being achieved by Don Budge in 1938 only six other players--Maureen Connolly, Rod Laver, Margaret Smith Court, Steffi Graf, Martina Navratilova, and Serena Williams have accomplished the feat in singles play.
Netball
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Snow Skiing
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Alcoholic Beverages
Hangover
Owners: 397
A common after-effect of ethanol intoxication is the unpleasant sensation known as hangover, which is partly due to the dehydrating effect of ethanol. Hangover symptoms include dry mouth, headache, nausea and light sensitivity. These symptoms are partly due to the toxic acetaldehyde produced from alcohol by alcohol dehydrogenase, and partly due to general dehydration. The dehydration portion of the hangover effect can be mitigated by drinking plenty of water between and after alcoholic drinks. Other components of the hangover are thought to come from the various other chemicals in an alcoholic drink, such as the tannins in red wine, and the results of various metabolic processes of alcohol in the body, but few scientific studies have attempted to verify this. Consuming a large amount of water is the best way to overcome a hangover.
Beer
Kegger
Owners: 389
A huge keg falls out of a passing delivery truck, complete with a dispenser. The entire business community grinds to a halt as the party commences...the beer industry profits plummet on lost productivity.
Wine
Vineyard
Owners: 313
A vineyard is a place where grapes are grown, most notably grapes for wine making purposes. Vineyards are often on hillsides and on soil of marginal value to other plants. A common saying is that "the worse the soil, the better the wine." Planting on hilllsides, especially facing south, is most often in an attempt to maximize the amount of sunlight that falls on the vineyard. For this reason some of the best wines come from vineyards planted on quite steep hills.
Fashion / Clothing
Catwalk
Owners: 552
<i>I'm a model you know what I mean<br />
And I do my little turn on the catwalk<br />
Yeah on the catwalk on the catwalk yeah<br />
I shake my little touche on the catwalk</i><br />
- Right Said Fred<br />
<br /><br />
Every season, the stunning models balance their high heels on the catwalk, showing the latest creations by the world's most famous designers. Photographers, journalists and strategically invited guests hold their breath. What do the geniuses of creativity have in store this time? What will be the new colours, patterns and even more important: will the skirts be mini or maxi? It is all shown on the catwalk.
Web Services
SOAP
Owners: 684
SOAP is a lightweight protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment. It is an XML-based protocol that consists of three parts: an envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses. SOAP can potentially be used in combination with a variety of other protocols; however, the only bindings defined in this document describe how to use SOAP in combination with HTTP and HTTP Extension Framework.<br />Get your developers on the marketing hype wagon and your applications internetworked in the latest upgrade to interop.
Networking
TCP/IP Model
Owners: 218
The Internet Protocol Suite is composed of two separate protocols: The Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). These protocols started being developed in the 1970's by the Department of Defense as a way to transfer information over satellite and radio ground packets. By March of 1982, the TCP/IP Protocol was made standard for all military networking.

Though the OSI Model was the standard networking protocol, it has been abandoned to internet age's adoption of TCP/IP.
Wi-Fi / Wireless Networks
Bluetooth
Owners: 460
Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). It provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers and digital cameras via a secure, low-cost, globally available short range radio frequency.

Bluetooth lets these devices talk to each other when they come in range, even if they are not in the same room, as long as they are within up to 100 metres (328 feet) of each other, dependent on the power class of the product.

The specification was first developed by Ericsson, and was later formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG was formally announced on May 20, 1999. It was established by Sony Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and Nokia, and later joined by many other companies as Associate or Adopter members.

The system is named after a Danish king Harald Blåtand (Harold Bluetooth in English), King of Denmark and Norway from 935 and 936 respectively, to 940 known for his unification of previously warring tribes from Denmark (including Skåne, present-day Sweden, where the Bluetooth technology was invented) and Norway. Bluetooth likewise was intended to unify different technologies like computers and mobile phones. The Bluetooth logo merges the Nordic runes analogous to the modern Latin H and B. This is the official story; however, the actual Harald Blåtand that was referred to in naming Bluetooth was most probably the liberal interpretation given to him in The Long Ships by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson, a Swedish best-selling Viking-inspired novel.
Communications
Post Office
Owners: 582
Letters and parcels; bill-paying and Valentines; the postal mark that means your college application was in by the due date and the budget-saving Western Union transfer from your folks once you’ve gotten in – the post office facilitates some of our most important communications. Your sister goes off to work in another city? Don’t worry, she’ll send photos, and maybe some souvenirs, too! Meanwhile you’re at home and the post office is taking care of your business dealings. Need a signature on that? Email’s no good – send it through the post. No wonder the post office is at the heart of every local community. But the power of the post office goes far beyond that.

Have you ever wondered why the people of our troubled world can’t just make the effort to understand each other and cooperate? While governments still struggle with this concept, the postal system has been the keystone of international cooperation for centuries. Think about it. When you pop that envelope in the post box on the corner, who are you trusting to deliver it at the other end? Post offices across the world work together, reading each other’s languages, understanding each other’s laws. You might not know that you can’t send a package to Australia in a carton once used for fruit, but the Japanese post office does. The average American may not be able to pick out Spain on a map of the world, but their post office can get that same map of the world to España within a week for a mere $1.70.

Locally, nationally, internationally - want to have an impact in Communications? You need a Post Office!
Dutch
Max Havelaar
Owners: 650
Max Havelaar or The coffee auctions of the Dutch Trading Company was written by Multatuli (Latin: I've suffered a lot), pseudonym of Eduard Douwes Dekker, and when first published in 1860, it ignited a major political and social brouhaha. The novel, written by a former official of the Dutch East Indian Civil Service, exposed the massive corruption and cruelty rife in the Dutch colony of Java. The government even held an official inquiry into the Lebak affair featured in the novel, concentrating on the factual truth. - - However, the book goes far beyond an indictment of Dutch colonial policy of the 1850s. In the course of time, the accent has shifted slowly but steadily away from the controversial historical facts to the undisputed literary value of the book, and nowadays appreciation of it is focused mainly on its style and composition. - - At first glance, the book may appear to be a medley of styles and incongruent composition. For the Dutch reading public it was the very first book in which a everyday colloquial style is presented alongside the more formal literary style, with matter-of-fact passages abutting sentimental poems; dry official documents and letters juxtaposed with emotional outbursts, straight out sarcasm is mingled with irony. Hidden beneath its chaotic appearance there is a coherence, a well-constructed unity. The various styles are used highly functionally and effectively in the characterizations and they link up the various perspectives.
French
Asterix the Gaul
Owners: 816
The history of the French language begins with the invasion of Gaul by Julius Caesar's armies in 59 B.C. The land was then inhabited by a multitude of different tribes who spoke various related Celtic languages. Subsequent to the conquest of the territory by 51 A.D., however, the language of the Romans was gradually adopted by most Gauls over the next few centuries. The Latin spoken by the invaders was not the careful, cultivated form of Latin used in the Roman Senate and in literature, but rather, a completely oral form of the language, complete with its own grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation patterns. Once established and adopted in Gaul, the language naturally changed rapidly, particularly after the fall of Rome. It is interesting to note that language of the Gauls had practically no influence on the Latin vernacular that subsequently developed. Beginning in the fifth century, the land was subject to numerous invasions--Germanic tribes from the east (the Franks) and the Vikings from the North. Each left only minor influences on the language. The invasions did, however, serve to accelerate a growing division between the language spoken to the south of the Loire--Langue D'Oc--from that spoken in the North, Langue D'Oïl (Oc and Oïl are the words for 'yes' in their respective dialects). The Southern dialect remained close to its Roman roots, while the Northern dialect showed exterior influences. In 987, Hugues Capet was elected king of the small kingdom of Île de France, centered around Paris. Although France at this time was essentially composed of small, independent kingdoms, this event marked the beginning of political unity, and therefore, of linguistic unity. Capet was the first king in the territory to speak the vernacular, and as his kingdom grew larger and more powerful through his successors, so too did the prestige of its language (called Francien today).
German
Faust
Owners: 721
German poet, novelist, playwright, courtier, and natural philosopher, one of the greatest figures in Western literature. Throughout his life Goethe was interested in a variety of studies and pursuits. He made important discoveries in connection with plant and animal life, and evolved a non-Newtonian theory of the character of light, which was viewed with suspicion by scientists. In literature he gained fame early with The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), but his most famous work was the poetic drama in two parts, Faust. - - The first part of this masterwork appeared in 1808, and the second part in 1832. Goethe had worked for most of his life on this drama. It was based on Christopher Marlowe's Faust, and depicted a disillusioned scholar, who makes a pact with Satan. The original figure in the Faust legend was Gregorius Faustus (or Gregorius Sabellicus, Faustus Junior, c 1480-1510/1), a seeker of forbidden knowledge. His true identity is not known, but he claimed to be an astrologer, expert in magic, and an alchemist. This legend attracted Christoper Marlowe, who offered in his play a psychological study of the battle between good and evil. Marlowe's play ends with the protagonist's damnation. Goethe's story created a new persona for the Devil - Mephistopheles was a gentleman, who had adopted the manners of a courtier. Faust's lust for knowledge is limitless and he makes a contract with Mephistopheles: he will die at the moment he declares himself satisfied. In the first part Faust loses Margaret, an innocent girl, who is condemned to death for murdering her illegitimate child by Faust. In the philosophical second part Faust marries Helen of Troy and creates a happy community. Faust is finally satisfied, but Mephistopheles loses his victory, when angels take Faust to heaven.
English
Oxford Dictionary
Owners: 1177
The Oxford English Dictionary is the accepted authority on the evolution of the English language over the last millennium. It is an unsurpassed guide to the meaning, history, and pronunciation of over half a million words, both present and past.
Spanish
Don Quixote de La Mancha
Owners: 815
El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (The Ingenious Knight Don Quixote of la Mancha), better known simply as Don Quijote, was written by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and is by far the most well-known Spanish literary piece ever written. It has been translated, fully or in parts, into more than 60 languages. This novel was written in two parts: Part I in 1605 and Part II in 1615. It was originally conceived as a comic satire against the chivalric romances then in literary vogue. It narrates the adventures of an elderly knight, Don Quijote, and his horse Rocinante and squire Sancho Panza.
Italian
Divina Commedia
Owners: 746
The Divina Commedia (Italian for "divine comedy") is Dante’s masterpiece and is the best literal expression of medieval culture. The original title of the work was simply Commedia. Giovanni Boccaccio suggested adding the adjective Divina in order both to explain the kind of content and to celebrate the greatness and beauty of the work.

The word Commedia indicates the literary genre of the work: Dante himself explains, in his XIII epistle (addressed to Cangrande della Scala, duke of Verona) that a commedia is a work representing a story with a happy ending (opposite to tragedia, Italian for "tragedy", an episode which ends badly): in fact, Dante’s Commedia ends well, since the protagonist meets God. The commedia genre is also characterized by a varied content and style.

Basically, Dante modified Virgil’s pagan vision of after-life, according it to the religious dogmas of the Bible. Moreover, he used Aristotle’s physical vision of Universe and Thomistic philosophy. The result is a typical medieval vision of the cosmos, based mainly on religious ideals, but considering also classical culture. - - Generally speaking, the Commedia is an eschatological adventure. In other words, it’s the description of Dante's travel through the three transmundane kingdoms: Hell (Inferno), Purgatory (Purgatorio) and Heaven (Paradiso). During this imaginary journey, Dante tries to describe the situation of the human souls after their deaths.

The unifying elements are the constant presence of some protagonists and the theme of the travel. The whole journey can be also seen as a moral and religious conversion of the protagonist, Dante, symbolizing the conversion of the whole mankind: the result of this conversion is the refuse of sin and a life tensed towards God and eternal bliss.

The protagonists of this travel are three, above all. The first is Dante himself, symbol of the whole mankind. The second is Virgil, symbol of human reason. He’s Dante’s guide through Inferno and Purgatorio. The third is Beatrice, a woman loved by Dante during his life. In the Commedia, she’s the symbol of God’s love which can help the man to be saved. She guides Dante through Paradiso.
Farsi
Shahnameh
Owners: 780
Written by the great poet Ferdowsi, born in Khorasan in a village near Toos in 940AD, this great epic was originally composed for the Samanid princes of Khorasan, who were the chief instigators of the revival of Persian cultural traditions after the Arab conquest of the seventh century. The Shahnameh or The Epic of Kings is one of the definite classics of the world. It tells hero tales of ancient Persia. The contents and the poet's style in describing the events takes the readers back to the ancient times and makes he/she sense and feel the events. Ferdowsi worked for thirty years to finish this masterpiece.
Japanese
Kanji
Owners: 697
(From the Japanese "kan" - the Chinese Han dynasty, and "ji" - glyph or letter of the alphabet. Not capitalised. Plural "kanji") The Japanese word for a Han character used in Japanese. Kanji constitute a part of the writing system used to represent the Japanese language in written, printed and displayed form. The term is also used for the collection of all kanji letters.

US-ASCII doesn't include kanji characters, but some character encodings, including Unicode, do.
Arabic
Koran
Owners: 513
The Koran is the sacred book by which all Islams swear. Inside, you will find tales and stories that tell of the times of the great Allah, the Islam god. This sacred book is much like the Bible for Catholics. If you read it, you will find yourself endowed with new knowledge about this different yet interesting religion.
Portuguese
Port wine
Owners: 561
Port wine (also porto wine) is sweet, fortified wine from the Douro Valley in the northern part of Portugal; it takes its name from the city of Porto, the centre of port export and trading. Port has been made in Portugal since the mid 15th century. Port became very popular in England after the Methuen Treaty of 1703, when merchants were permitted to import it at a low duty, while war with France deprived English wine drinkers of French wine. The continued English involvement in the port trade can be seen in the names of many port shippers: Croft, Fonseca, Taylor, Dow, Graham, and Symington. Similar wines, often also called "Port", are now made in several other countries, notably Australia and United States. In some nations, including the European Union and (after a phase-in period) Canada, only the product from Portugal may be labelled as "port."
Theater
West End
Owners: 248
Along with New York's Broadway Theater, West End theater in London is usually considered to represent the highest level of theater in the English speaking world. Seeing a West End show is a common tourist activity. Many famous star-studded shows and musicals have been played out on the hallowed stage. The longest-running is Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats, which closed in 2002 after running for 9,000 performances and 21 years, whilst the longest-running current musical is Les Misérables with a run of over 8,500 performances and now in its 21st year.
Male
Stud
Owners: 1139
Every guy wants to be him. He's the guy whom women drool over. He walks in the room with his perfectly groomed hair and clean shaven face. His boyish good looks and his physique can sway almost any woman. And in business, women are whom you need to sway.
Roleplaying
Fairy Dust
Owners: 368
With Fairy Dust you will never lose heart so the adventure can continue. May your life be long and interesting, very interesting indeed!
Sexually Explicit Content
John Holmes
Owners: 710
John Holmes aka Johnny Wadd is probably the most notorious male porn star. He made 2000 full length hard core films. Furthermore, he is reported to have bedded more than 10,000 women over the span of twenty years, the length of his professional career.
80s' Music
MTV
Owners: 284
MTV started in New York City in 1981, and became available in most of the United States in the mid-1980s with the nationwide expansion of cable. Aptly, the first music video shown on MTV was "Video Killed the Radio Star" by The Buggles (with similar tongue-in-cheek humor, the first video shown on MTV Europe was "Money for Nothing", by Dire Straits, which starts with the line "I want my MTV"). The early format of the network was modeled after Top 40 radio. Fresh-faced young men and women were hired to host the show's programming, and to introduce videos that were being played. The term "VJ" (video jockey) was coined, a play on the term "DJ" (disc jockey.) Many VJs eventually became celebrities in their own right.

The early music videos that made up the bulk of the network's programming in the '80s were often crude promotional or concert clips from whatever sources could be found; as the popularity of the network rose, and record companies recognized the potential of the medium as a tool to gain recognition and publicity, they began to create increasingly elaborate clips specifically for the network.

A large number of rock stars of the 1980s were made into household names by MTV. Bands immediately identifiable with MTV include Ari Liner and Bon Jovi. Michael Jackson launched the second wave of his career as an MTV staple. Madonna rose to fame on MTV in the 1980s, and she is still heavily dependent on the network to promote her music.

In 1984 the network produced its first MTV Video Music Awards show. Seen as a fit of self-indulgence by a fledgling network at the time, the "VMAs" developed into an important music-industry showcase, and a hip antidote to the often-stuffy Grammy awards.
Classical Music
Concerto Grosso
Owners: 344
A baroque style of music in which a small group of solo instruments (the concertino) plays in opposition to a larger ensemble (the ripieno).
Jazz
Louis Armstrong
Owners: 321
Louis Daniel Armstrong was an African American jazz musician. Probably the most famous jazz musician of the 20th century, Armstrong was a charismatic, innovative performer whose musical skills and bright personality transformed jazz from a rough regional dance music into a popular art form.

Armstrong first achieved fame as a trumpeter, but was also one of the most influential jazz singers, and towards the end of his career was best known as a vocalist.
Pop Music
Casey Kasem
Owners: 439
Casey Kasem (born Kemal Amin Kasem in Detroit, Michigan) is an American radio personality and voice actor.  Kasem is best known by name as a music historian and disc jockey, most notably as host of the weekly American Top 40 radio program from 1970 to 1988, and again from March 1998 until January 10, 2004.  He is well known for his catch phrase: "Keep your feet on the ground and keep reaching for the stars."

He hit the Billboard Singles Charts himself in 1964, coming in at #103 with "A Letter from Elaina".

Kasem is also a prominent voice-over actor, most notably for the voice of Shaggy in Hanna-Barbera's Scooby-Doo cartoons from 1969 until 1991.  Being a strict vegetarian, he walked out on his role as Shaggy in 1995 when he was asked to voice Shaggy in a Burger King commercial.  He returned to the character in 2002, after Hanna-Barbera and Warner Brothers agreed to portray Shaggy as a strict vegetarian.

In 1992 he became the youngest member ever to be inducted into the Radio Hall of Fame, has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and received the first-ever Lifetime Achievement Award from Billboard Magazine in 1997.
Monkeys and Primates
Hanuman
Owners: 325
Hanuman the monkey god, an ardent devotee of Lord Sri Rama, is worshipped by millions of people in India. Hanuman is the embodiment of devotion, dedication and strength. Devotees pray to Hanuman to remove the sufferings created by Saturn's god for humans and also to fulfill their wishes.
Jokes
Punchline
Owners: 543
Have you ever told a joke only to have the audience stare silently at you with disbelief? You need never fear getting that reaction again. You will have them in side-splitting laughter at the end of your Joke when you deliver the Punchline.

The Punchline is the piece dé resistance, the "rest of the story", if you will. Without the Punchline, your Joke may end up being a mere anecdote instead of comedic genius. While other comics such as Robin Williams and Jim Carey may rely on the physical humor of slapstick, with the Punchline you'll be joining the ranks of the thought provoking comics such as George Carlin and Jerry Seinfeld.
Urban Music
Rapper's Delight
Owners: 341
Urban Music

Rapper’s Delight


“I said a hip hop,
Hippie to the hippie,
The hip, hip a hop, and you don't stop, a rock it
To the bang bang boogie, say, up jump the boogie,
To the rhythm of the boogie, the beat.”

In the fall of 1979, Sugarhill’s ‘Rapper’s Delight’ hit the airwaves and later went platinum. Fans, young and old jammed to the beats of a song that help popularize rap music and hip hop, an integral part of what the world knows as urban music. Rhythm & Blues (R&B) is also synonymously used when defining urban music. Commercialized R&B and hip-hop have been around since the 1940s and 1970s respectively, but where does urban music come into play? In the 1980s, the production and performance style of R&B and hip-hop changed dramatically. Traditional R&B and hip-hop artists began to collaborate with each other. Examples of this collaboration include: Mariah Carey and ODB – ‘Fantasy,’ Jon B. and 2Pac – RU Still Down? and Usher, Ludacris and Lil Jon – ‘Yeah.’ The sound of a new era began and was defined as urban music.
Heritage Places
UNESCO World Heritage List
Owners: 27
The UNESCO World Heritage List contains (as of Aug. 10, 2013) 981 properties, places, or items that are considered to have "outstanding universal value" and form part of the "cultural and national heritage" of the city or country where they are located.

Those selected for the list are considered to have "outstanding universal value" and have met at least one of ten criteria:


1. to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;

2. to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design;

3. to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;

4. to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;

5. to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;

6. to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);

7. to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance;

8. to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;

9. to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;

10. to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.
Novels
Jane Austen
Owners: 435
Jane Austen, English novelist, was born in 1775 at Steventon, in the county of Hampshire, England. She was the seventh of eight children, and the only daughter besides Cassandra, her lifelong closest friend. Her father was a clergyman, neither rich nor poor. When he retired, the Austens moved to Bath, then to Southampton, and finally to Chawton, where Jane began to write for an audience beyond her family.

She wrote what she knew: her own middle-class, provincial society, its everyday events and interactions depicted with keen, accurate wit. Through this then-radical approach, she established the characteristics of the modern novel.

Austen wrote six major novels: Sense and Sensibility (published in 1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), Emma (1815), and Persuasion and Northanger Abbey (both 1817, the year of her death).

Since their first publication, these books have never been out of print. In addition, each has been dramatized, sometimes repeatedly. For example, two film versions of Emma were released in 1996.

Some of Austen's early, minor works reached publication only in the 20th century. Her last, unfinished novel, Sanditon, was completed by "A Lady" and published in 1975. Sanditon reveals how Austen's work differs from the romances of her time and all times since. Where "A Lady" takes up the story, it becomes frothy and charming and unimportant. Austen's part, like all her major work, offers characters and situations so acutely observed that they transcend the fictional setting and become people we know.

As Mr. Bennett in Pride and Prejudice says to his daughter, "For what do we live, but to make sport for our neighbours, and laugh at them in our turn?"
Comedy Films
None!

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Horror Films
None!

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Action / Adventure
Yakima Canutt
Owners: 260
Yakima Canutt (November 29, 1896 - May 24, 1986) was an actor and stuntman in Hollywood movies of the 1920s through the 1950s.
Born Enos Edward Canutt in the rough ranchlands near Colfax, Washington, "Yak" Canutt moved as a young man to Yakima, Washington (the town from which he borrowed his nickname). There he gained fame as a very successful rodeo rider. He met actor Tom Mix at a rodeo in Los Angeles, and was persuaded to work as a cowboy in films.
He met and married Kitty Wilks at the 1916 Pendleton Roundup in Oregon, in which she was the All-Around Champion Cowgirl. They divorced in 1919.
He had some success as an actor, primarily playing "heavies," but he was more successful as a stuntman and stunt coordinator. He staged some memorable action scenes in film, including the chariot race segment in the 1959 film Ben-Hur.
For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Yakima Canutt has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1500 Vine Street. In 1967, he was given an Honorary Academy Award for achievements as a stunt man and for developing safety devices to protect stunt men everywhere.
His sons Joe Canutt and Tap Canutt also worked as stuntmen. His autobiography "Stuntman" was published in 1979.
He has been inducted into the Cowboy Hall of Fame.
Film Stars
Greta Garbo
Owners: 400
Born Greta Gustafson in Sweden in 1905, Greta Garbo became the ultimate film star. Beginning her career in silent movies, she successfully made the transition to the talkies, despite her heavily accented English, whilst many of her contemporaries fell by the wayside. Her photogenic looks made her one of Hollywood's top actresses and starred in 34 movies during her career. These included Anna Christie (1934), Grand Hotel (1932), Anna Karenina (1935) and Ninotchka (1939). She quit the film business in 1941 and lived a reclusive life in New York until her death, aged 84, in 1990, refusing all requests for interviews or public appearances and ensuring her mystique remained intact.
Adult Education
ProLiteracy
Owners: 128
ProLiteracy is a nonprofit international literacy organization formed by the 2002 merger of Laubach Literacy International and Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. ProLiteracy is the oldest and largest nongovernmental literacy organization in the world. It achieves its mission, championing the life-changing benefits of literacy for adults and their families, by sponsoring educational programs that help adults acquire the literacy practices and skills they need to function more effectively in their daily lives.
Opera
The Fat Lady
Owners: 278
Operas typically include a highlighted aria sung by a featured soprano. For decades, even centuries, these featured singers were, to put it politely, pleasingly plump. The stereotyped soprano of the cartoon opera is a rubenesque, pig-tailed singer wearing a horned helmet and metal breastplate, straight out of a Wagner opera. Every traditional opera -- from Mozart's Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute) to Puccini's La Bohème -- includes an aria for the soprano. As a result, the sports saying, "It's no over till the fat lady sings" developed. Most people correlate this saying to the fat lady of the opera. After all, no opera is over till the fat lady sings.
Ballet
Swan Lake
Owners: 154
Tchaikovsky's 20th opus, Swan Lake, is one of the most famous and critically acclaimed ballets of all time, though it was very poorly received when it premiered in Moscow. The original ballet was first performed at the Bolshoi Theatre on February 20, 1877 and remained in the repertoire until 1883. After Tchaikovsky's death, the ballet was revised by his brother Modest and the conductor Riccardo Drigo. This revised version received its premiere at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg on January 15, 1895 and was acclaimed as a masterpiece. Swan Lake features one of the most strenuous of all ballet roles, namely the twin, but entirely contrasting, roles of Odette and Odile, both played by a single dancer.
Pop Culture
Rock Star
Owners: 783
Having a rock star in your pocket is great because you get a handle on pop culture. Who sets the trends? The rock stars! But be careful. Rock stars tend to get into unsavory business if you leave their leash too long.
Dogs
Milk Bone
Owners: 378
Since 1908, dog-lovers have been giving their pets Milk-Bone Brand dog biscuits. They have been around so long that Milk-Bone has become synonymous with dog-treats. According to the the Milk-Bone company, they're good for your dog's teeth, made from the finest ingredients, and approved by veterinarians the world over. And they taste great too! Of course, most dogs will eat anything you give them, including old socks from the dirty clothes hamper, but we all feel better when we give them Milk-Bones instead.
Cows
Cow Bell
Owners: 198
While the bell itself is not specific to the bovine species, the cow bell has its own unique sound, rarely found in use elsewhere. Its dull rattle can be heard for long distances, telling the owner where their supply of milk has wandered off to this time.
Frogs
Kermit the Frog
Owners: 182
Dr. Kermit The Frog (Long Island University 1996) is a fine example of an amphibian of humble beginnings making good but retaining those values we have come to respect in this champion of "the little guy" and those who are a "little bit different." He began his television career on a local Washington D.C. station and soon became a valued TV guest on renowned national television programs. Kermit was even tapped as a Tonight Show guest host. His cinema credits include "The Muppet Movie", "The Christmas Muppet Caper", "The Muppets Take Manhattan" and "The Muppet Christmas Carol". As well as recording with his Sesame Street fellow cast Muppets, Kermit has been featured on the album, "Kermit Unplugged". Kermit has not limited himself to the visual or vocal media as evidenced by his book "One Frog Can Make a Difference, Kermit's Guide to Life" in the 90's. Kermit has been presented to Queen Elizabeth II of England, served as the 1996 Grand Marshall of the Tournament of Roses Parade and addressed the students at Oxford University (the first amphibian to do so in their long and illustrious academic history). Kermit is well known for his concern for children's welfare and has long associated his celebrity with UNICEF to promote projects benefiting children of all nations.
TV Shows Fashion
None!

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60s' Music
Yesterday
Owners: 244
One vocalist, an acoustic guitar, a string quartet ...

This is 60s music? This is rock?

Paul McCartney without John, George and Ringo ...

This is The Beatles?

Recorded in the very middle of the 1960s, “Yesterday” was anomalous in several ways, yet it is one of many examples of the innovative use of disparate musical elements from an eclectic spectrum (jazz and classical music, folk and world music, psychedelia) that characterized the decade’s dominant musical genre, rock, and many of its greatest bands, such as Cream, Pink Floyd and Led Zeppelin.

A ballad of love lost, "Yesterday" was performed over seven million times in the 20th century alone, has the most cover versions of any song ever written, and remains popular today. It was the first official Beatles recording that featured a single member of the band (the string quartet accompaniment was added in the editing phase a few days after the solo track was laid down) and differed so greatly from other works by The Beatles that the other three members of the band vetoed the song's release as a single in the United Kingdom. Although written solely by McCartney, the song was credited to "Lennon/McCartney" as were all Beatles songs written by either of the pair.
70s' Music
Glam & Glitter
Owners: 227
It wasn't until the 1970’s that glam came to the fore, specifically through the newest music genre glam rock. Overnight the world changed, teenagers worshiped the gender-bending stars that looked good with a guitar. Glitter, make-up and platform boots became the unofficial uniform of 'the children of the revolution' and the three-minute power beat of glam rock was heard on radios everywhere.
Rock Music
The Distortion Pedal
Owners: 614
Distortion is what has made rock music what it is today. Grunge, Heavy Metal, and Nu Metal, to name a few, wouldn't exist without it. Distortion is created when the signal sent from the guitar is too powerful for the circuit to cope with, resulting in the unique sound that bands like Nirvana, Metallica, and Muse, along with many others, use to their advantage. Without The Distortion Pedal rock music wouldn't have the necessary X-factor that makes it so popular.
Documentary
Kino-Pravda
Owners: 139
In 1922, Dziga Vertov started a documentary series known as Kino-Pravda (literally meaning 'film truth') in Russia. Vertov's philosophy held that film could capture truth and meaning that the human eye could not, leading him to become a one of the earliest documentarians.

Kino-Pravda set out to capture moments, often candid and taken without permission of the subject, of everyday experience. Vertov's style was one of description rather than narration or style, and led his works to be very straightforward, offering facts and observations rather than interpretation and manipulation.
Fast Food
Franchise
Owners: 332
The restaurant kit in a box. Just add water and a down payment of $100,000. The branding power of your franchise guarantee instant success, as long as you can keep your minimum wage employees in line.
Vegetarianism
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Emotions
Four Humours
Owners: 612
The early Greeks developed the theory of the Four Humours which were believed to be bodily fluids influencing one's emotions and health.

If one is courageous, hopeful and amorous one is of sanguine temperament and influenced by the Blood Humour.

If one is calm and unemotional, one is of phlegmatic temperament and influenced by the Phlegm Humour.

If one is easily angered and bad tempered, one is of choleric temperament and influenced by the Yellow Bile Humour.

If one is despondent, sleepless and irritable, one is of melancholic temperament and influenced by the Black Bile Humour.
Miserable
None!

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Happiness
Laughing Buddha
Owners: 348
Even though nobody can give a universal definition of happiness, it's something we all strive for. Some people wear, carry around or keep good luck charms that will make them happy, or so they believe. Symbols are very diverse and vary from culture to culture. One of the symbols for happiness is the Laughing Buddha with its hands up. It is believed that by rubbing his belly, which is said to contain much wealth, it will bring good luck and prosperity. The Laughing Buddha is also known as the Happy Man.
Night Clubs
Cotton Club
Owners: 230
The Cotton Club was one of the most famous nightclubs in New York City both before and after Prohibition. Opened by boxing champion Jack Johnson in 1920, it was one of the hottest meeting spots in Harlem. Over the years it featured many of the greatest Black entertainers such as Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway & Ethel Waters but almost always denied Black people admission. It closed in 1936 after race riots the previous year but reopened at Broadway and 48th street the same year, closing in 1940. The club re-opened in Harlem in 1978 and the current owner John Beatty has made it a policy that previously excluded clientele can now patronize the club.
Pubs / Bars
Drunkard
Owners: 279
When you go to a bar, who do you get advice from? The town drunk. Now imagine having the town drunk in your pocket! Imagine the persuasion and the power which is grasped through your puppeting his advice. But keep in mind he may not be 100% responsible, he is a drunk.
War
Soldier
Owners: 751
He's five foot two and he's six feet four
He fights with missiles and with spears
He's all of thirty-one and he's only seventeen
He's been a soldier for a thousand years

He's a catholic, a hindu, an atheist, a jain,
A buddhist and a baptist and a jew
And he knows he shouldn't kill
And he knows he always will
Killing for you my friend and me for you

And he's fighting for Canada, he's fighting for France
He's fighting for the U.S.A.
He's fighting for the Russians and he's fighting for Japan
And he thinks we'll put an end to war this way

And he's fighting for democracy, he's fighting for the reds
He says it's for the peace of all
He's the one who must decide who's to live and who's to die
And he never sees the writing on the wall

But without him how would Hitler have condemned him at Dachau
Without him Caesar would have stood alone
He's the one who gives his body as a weapon of the war
And without him all this killing can't go on

He's the universal soldier and he really is to blame
His orders come from far away no more
They come from here and there and you and me
And brothers can't you see
This is not the way we put the end to war
Short Stories
Chapbook
Owners: 576
These small, inexpensive paper booklets, known as chapbooks, were the main recreational reading for the adult poor and children of all classes in the eighteenth century. Sold by traveling hawkers, or chapmen, the penny books had up to twenty-four pages and often included crudely printed woodcuts. Chapbooks were largely responsible for keeping alive and transmitting traditional fairy tales, folklore, and nursery rhymes, and they served as a welcome alternative to the moralistic and didactic pamphlets of the time. Today chapbooks often contain poetry and short stories. The Chapbook artefact will be useful for finding new blogs containing short stories.
Economics
Power Suit
Owners: 689
The power suit usually dwells in lofty corporate headquarters for financial institutions, working as an advisor on business investments and such things as reciprocal synergy. They can easily affect the financial world's view of companies in both positive and negative ways, or could just call together a 'power lunch' to get people excited.

Always a good person to have in your corner.
Business and Finance
Buzzword Bingo
Owners: 755
Think outside the box to leverage goal-setting, principle-centered mindshare. Envision appropriate solutioning via result-driven intellectual capital, or forever herd cats.

Half the shareholders will be impressed into following along and the rest confused into submission, leaving you in charge!
Education Policy
Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA)
Owners: 439
Education Policy Analysis Archives is a peer-reviewed, open access scholarly journal created in 1993 by Gene V Glass at Arizona State University. Articles are published in English, Spanish or Portuguese. The journal considers for publication submitted articles dealing with education policy at all levels of the education system in all nations.
Celebrity Bloggers
Wil Wheaton
Owners: 437
Best known for his role as Wesley Crusher on Star Trek: Next Generation, Wil turned to writing later in life and became one of the earliest and most famous celebrity bloggers with his "Wil Wheaton Dot Net" blog. His witty descriptions of his daily life with his wife and step-children, his struggles with writing books, his poker adventures and his tentative steps back into the world of acting have brought him a wide audience of faithful readers - enduring beyond a database error in 1995 that led to his current blog "Wil Wheaton Dot Net: In Exile". With his blog, Wil has become the quintessential geek of his generation.
Fashion Design
The Essence of Style
Owners: 371
The Essence of Style: How the French Invented High Fashion, Fine Food, Chic Cafes, Style, Sophistication, and Glamour, published by Joan DeJean, was a column in The Free Press. Due to its high popularity, it was produced in other languages and eventually became a worldwide sensation. The Essence of Style is still used in the fashion industry today, and is the basis of most works of art in Fashion Design.
90s' Music
None!

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50's Music
None!

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Software and Software Platforms
Killer App
Owners: 805
After many sleepless nights the developer finally declares... It's ready, and unleashes a powerful new application to the unsuspecting public. In record numbers the application takes the software world by storm. It also has the nice side effect of making the developer very wealthy.
Law
Judge
Owners: 832
The judge often sets precedents that impact the legal community as a whole, and is looked at with a certain degree of reverence by his peers. He can greatly affect the outcomes of cases and the values of various firms both directly and indirectly.
Marketing
Edward Bernays
Owners: 430
Having so spectactularly achieved Woodrow Wilson's objective as an advisor to the Committee on Public Information - created in 1917 with the express aim of generating support for American participation in the war then raging in Europe - Edward Bernays was approached by American Tobacco Company after the war, who saw an untapped market for their Lucky Strike cigarettes among newly enfranchised women. Bernay's campaign convinced women that cigarettes were not just for men, but represented a symbol of emancipation, that cigarettes themselves were "torches of freedom." Lucky Strike's market shares rose by more than 200% on the back of Bernays' campaign. For these and other successes, Bernays has come to be called the father of modern marketing.
Advertising
Jingle
Owners: 554
Advertising is all about getting customers to buy your product instead of another product. A key factor in advertising is getting the customer to (a) notice your product and (b) remember your product so that when they're in the store facing multiple product choices, they'll feel more familiar with your product and buy it.

With the emergence of radio and television mass media in the 20th century, advertisers discovered one of the most effective ways to get customers to remember a product message is to encode it into a catchy song. Musical melodies touch the emotions. Rhyming lyrics are fun and easy to remember. Combine the two and you have a powerful mnemonic device so effective that it may take days to get the silly tune out of your head.
Management
Pointy-Haired Boss
Owners: 671
The prophet of workplace strife, Scott Adams, has definitively identified the iconic representation of Management: the Pointy-Haired Boss (PHB). The PHB positively affects employee job security by a) ensuring that all workers have more than enough to do, and b) being adamant about lessening job security by hiring more workers. When used properly, PHBs can keep employee morale energy high by causing discontent to manifest in the form of rage directed at the PHB itself -- who will be unaware and unaffected by it.
Horses
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Western Philosophy
Academy
Owners: 603
Modeled on Plato's Academy, this institution of philosophical discourse still follows his guidelines in only accepting those "intoxicated to learn what was in their souls." The Academy is the foundation of higher learning and a useful aide in the exploration of man and his place in the universe.
Eastern Philosophy
Meditation
Owners: 428
The human mind has two directions, external and internal. Our thoughts are usually directed outward and, much less frequently, inward. And this is natural: in order to avoid discomfort and seek pleasure, we need to be constantly concerned with the external world. So gradually we develop the habit of taking in and reaching out for the external world and, sooner or later, of constantly and restlessly thinking about it. We run after a piece of bread, worry about those close to us, work hard, seek diversions and entertainment when we're tired, and try to resolve our constantly arising problems. This way we are incessantly drawn into the drama of worldly existence, the main hero of which is the restless, ever-curious "me." This "me" has so little time to examine itself that we have but little idea to what degree we are entangled in this drama. We are so lost in, so confused by, the external that we forget who we are and what we really want!

Meditation is a powerful tool, one that not only provides us the opportunity to see this "drama," but also to slow it down, to let it cool off and, finally, to leave it entirely--to finish off our slave-actor career. It helps us to remember and get in touch with what we really long for, to learn about our real needs and to find and connect with our authentic life's calling, which is to follow our inner bliss. (The latter should not be confused with following one's desire.) Through regular and persistent meditation practice we gradually calm down and begin to come alive from within. Sooner or later we begin to see the external world as it is --God's Drama. And having seen this, our imagination, which is fed by the external world, loses its power over us and we gain freedom.
Journalism
Journalist
Owners: 843
A master of expressing (and occasionally interpreting) opinion, the journalist is a key player in molding public perception of issues. Often a stay-at-home media junkie, sometimes an on-the-spot fact finder, each journalist has a distinct style and viewpoint that attracts a following of readers.
Astronomy
Telescope
Owners: 519
To help them understand the stars and planets, astronomers use many different kinds of telescopes. Telescopes can make things look bigger and they also help astronomers to see things that are very faint. They do this by using lenses or special mirrors to collect a lot of light.

The telescopes that astronomers use are very big. These big telescopes help astronomers to see the faintest and smallest things in the night sky.
Biology
Photosynthesis
Owners: 480
Sunlight plays a much larger role in our sustenance than we may expect: all the food we eat and all the fossil fuel we use is a product of photosynthesis, which is the process that converts energy in sunlight to chemical forms of energy that can be used by biological systems.

Photosynthesis is carried out by many different organisms, ranging from plants to bacteria. The best known form of photosynthesis is the one carried out by higher plants and algae, as well as by cyanobacteria and their relatives, which are responsible for a major part of photosynthesis in oceans. All these organisms convert CO2 (carbon dioxide) to organic material by reducing this gas to carbohydrates in a rather complex set of reactions. Electrons for this reduction reaction ultimately come from water, which is then converted to oxygen and protons.

Energy for this process is provided by light, which is absorbed by pigments (primarily chlorophylls and carotenoids). Chlorophylls absorb blue and red light and carotenoids absorb blue-green light, but green and yellow light are not effectively absorbed by photosynthetic pigments in plants; therefore, light of these colors is either reflected by leaves or passes through the leaves. This is why plants are green.
Physics
Schroedinger's Cat
Owners: 361
This hypothetical experiment in quantum mechanics suggests that while you can predict the probability of an event occuring, nothing happens until you observe it.

The same thing happens when you use an artefact. You don't know what has happened until it's too late but there's an even chance that someone will end up with a dead cat.
Soul Music
Sam Cooke
Owners: 143
The "King of Soul", Sam Cooke left an indelible mark on the music industry in his short lifetime. He garnered 29 Top 40 hits in the U.S. between 1957 and 1965, including the Top 10 hits "You Send Me", "Chain Gang", "Twistin' the Night Away," and ""Another Saturday Night," as well as the enormously popular "Wonderful World." His tragic, controversial shooting death in 1964 at the age of 33 shortened an immensely influential musical career. In 1986, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its inaugural class.
Hip Hop / Rap
Old School
Owners: 262
Old School was born in the poor neighborhoods of the Bronx during the early 70s. Using turntables and mixers to create new compositions, the DJs kept the party going and the people moving. The main themes of this early hip hop style were friends, partying and fun times. Old school rap was known for its music samples, beatboxing, drum machine noises and simple rhythms. Perhaps the most famous recording of this genre is "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang. Take your boom box out of storage, break out the corrugated cardboard and get down to some serious breakdancing.
Personal Finance
Dave Ramsey
Owners: 125
Syndicated radio host and author Dave Ramsey has gained worldwide recognition for his teachings on the topic of personal finance. Ramsey encourages people to minimize and elimination their personal debt, and he speaks out strongly against the use of credit cards. Ramsey stresses the importance of people saving up money for emergency use and, just as strongly, to not spend above their means.

While sometimes criticized as being overly simplistic, his common sense approach to financial advise has helped him build a strong, loyal audience.
National Economics
Central Bank
Owners: 231
Central banks are generally responsible for setting monetary policy for the country and setting key interest rates. Central banks also attempt to keep inflation rates under control by adjusting interest rates. In the United States the Federal Reserve manages this function. Central banks are generally an arms-length body of the national government.

The United Kingdom established one of the oldest and most successful national banks, the Bank of England, in 1694 to "act as the Government's banker and debt-manager," revolutionizing national economics and debt financing.
International Economics
IMF
Owners: 275
The IMF (International Monetary Fund) is one of the biggest and most controversial influences on the world economy. The IMF gives loans to member countries to stabilize their balance of payments. Usually, countries must have economies that are in deep crisis before the IMF will give a loan. In exchange for such loans, the IMF can impose certain conditions and restrictions on a country's economic policies. These can include currency devaluation, budget balancing cuts and new taxes, privatizing government services and utilities, and increasing exports of goods. Some see the IMF as a stabilizer of mismanaged economies, while others see their often austere conditions as leading to even more social and economic difficulties for the people living in countries receiving IMF loans, and plunging poor countries even deeper into debt. Its rival, the World Bank, is usually seen as a more proactive and positive force, encouraging development, not austerity.
Skateboards
The Z-boys
Owners: 166
The Z-Boys were a group of skateboarders (the original members were Tony Alva, Stacy Peralta, and Jay Adams) from Santa Monica in the 1970's who are credited with popularising skateboarding and essentially creating the punk/skater subculture that now exists.

The Z-Boys grew up in Dogtown, an extemely run-down low-class area in Santa Monica, California. Surfing adjacent to the dilapidated and dangerous Pacific Ocean Park pier was the initial impetus that brought the Z-Boys together.They later turned to skateboarding when the hours of quality surf in the day could no longer satisfy their desire for surf. Experimenting at first with hand built decks, they quickly created the most revolutionary technique and style in skateboarding history. They adapted new and emerging surfing methods onto the pavement, namely riding low to the ground while touching the pavement and sliding through fast, hard, and sharp turns.

They first gained national attention in 1975 at the Bahne-Cadillac Skateboard Championship. Their unique style of riding became an instant hit, and drastically shifted the world of skateboarding from a flatland freestyle, which resembled gymnastics, to the fast and aggressive form that it is today. After the competition they started skating heavily in empty pools, which were plentiful due to the 1970s California drought. Here again they changed skateboarding when Tony Alva hit the first aerial maneuver, which quickly came to dominate the sport.

Eventually their own popularity and the promise of more riches started to break them apart. By the end of 1976 they had all gone their own ways to separate teams. Soon after skateboarding started to wane and money started to dry up. The Z-Boys never reunited.
Extreme Sports
None!

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Drama Films
Citizen Kane
Owners: 203
Citizen Kane is a 1941 film directed by Orson Welles. It was nominated for nine Academy Awards and won for Best Original Screenplay. Several actors made their film debut in this film, including Joseph Cotton & Agnes Moorehead. It tells the story of Charles Kane, a ruthless newspaper magnate and his fight for power in the publishing world through the viewpoint of a reporter who was trying to find out the meaning of his dying word: "Rosebud".

It was rumored to be based on the lives of moguls William Randolph Hearst, Howard Hughes & Samuel Insull but Welles always maintained it was just based on Hearst. William Randolph Hearst was allegedly upset over the portrayal and offered RKO $800,000 to destroy all copies of the film. He also banned all of his newspapers & stations from making any mention of it.

Due to this, many in Hollywood never wanted this film to be publicly screened. As a result it was a box-office failure and forgotten for many years. After it was rediscovered in the late 1950's it has been consistently been listed amongst the greatest films ever made and selected for preservation in the US National Film Registry.
Film Reviews
Critic
Owners: 683
The Critic takes no sides. Whether he likes the film or not, he "grades" it. For some, only two grades exist: "good" and "bad". For others, a very extensive and complicated "grading system" is used. Everything from "actor performance" to "creativity", the critic evaluates. In the end: the critic determines if most of the people will watch that film. If the critic liked it, you can expect a lot of people, otherwise: go home, and cry about it.
Book Reviews
Dorothy Parker's Wit
Owners: 720
Dorothy Parker was a well-known reviewer in New York during the times of the legendary Algonquin Round Table. Her famous one line review sums up what many poor reviewers think of the books they must read: "This is not a novel to be tossed aside lightly. It should be thrown with great force."
Modern Art
Marcel Duchamp
Owners: 428
Arguably the most challenging personality of the Avant-Garde artists participating in the Armory Show in New York in 1913 was Marcel Duchamp. More than any of his contemporaries he positioned himself and his work not only at the cutting edge of the times but also, more importantly, he projected that position well into the future when he freed himself from the accepted conventions and all preconceived notions of what Art is or is not. He declared that painting itself was dead. He pioneered or enriched many of the esoteric art forms which would later find acceptance and talented practioners as the art of the 20th century progressed; various conceptual art forms being chief among them.

At the Armory Show it was most especially his Readymades which really mark the final departure of the Modern from the quaint and comfortable art of the past. It was the upended urinal which he titled "Fountain" that finally flushed away the pretense of all previous art. His Nude Descending A Staircase caused quite a stir when it was exhibited at the Armory Show and later in Chicago.

So, if Pablo Picasso can serve as the artefact that defines Abstract Art surely, undeniably, the artefact that most broadly applies to what is known as Modern Art is: Marcel Duchamp.
Punk Music
CBGB
Owners: 248
CBGB, also CBGB's, or CB's, is a legendary club in the Manhattan Bowery district of New York City. The full name is CBGB OMFUG which stands for "Country, Bluegrass, Gospel, and Blues" and "Other Music For Uplifting."

The Patti Smith Group began performing at various locations in the early 70's, settling in to CBGB's. It was at this early juncture that critics began to call the music played there "punk" rock, what they called customers who would frequent a Bowery nightclub very late at night. Blondie, The Ramones, Talking Heads, and many other bands followed in quick succession. Malcolm McLaren saw the fashions of Richard Hell (then of Television) and the sound of The Ramones and brought back both ideas for the group he had just begun managing, the Sex Pistols. The club hosted many punk and new wave bands over the years and is regarded as the birthplace and center of punk rock.
Goth Music
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Sarcasm
A Modest Proposal
Owners: 579
Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal" is a classic satirical work, featuring the literary element of sarcasm. Written in 1729, the work's full title is "A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public." The sarcasm of the essay is developed in Swift's solution to the problem of hunger: urging Irish parents and citizens to eat their children, thereby filling the food shortage and simultaneously reducing the population. Swift's sarcastic wit shines in this text, which includes statistics on the solution, proposed methods for marketing and preparing children, and additional benefits of the solution.
Comics / Funnies
Comic Strip
Owners: 437
A comic strip is a short strip or sequence of drawings that tells a story. Drawn by a cartoonist, or an artist, such strips were originally published on a recurring basis (usually daily or weekly) in newspapers or magazines. Their content can be funny, short gags, or serious like serialized soap operas. The funny ones had the most staying power, and were often called "funnies" or "funny pages." Today, many comic strips can be found online as well as in the newspapers. Some are exclusively online, hence the proliferation of comics or funnies blogs.
Computer Game Development
None!

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Spirituality
Incense
Owners: 493
Incense comes from a centuries old tradition of combining special medicinal and therapeutic substances derived from herbs, flowers and minerals that when burned, deliver an aroma which can help to soothe and calm a restless mind.
Comic Books / Graphic Novels
Will Eisner
Owners: 510
Will Eisner (1917-2005), creator of 'The Spirit', was a giant in the comic book field. In a career spanning sixty years, he pioneered many artistic and production techniques that are emulated by comic artists to this day. His 1978 book, A Contract With God, is recognized as the first graphic novel and in fact, Eisner is credited with coining the term "graphic novel". The Eisner Awards, the Oscars of the comic book industry, were named in his honor.
Linux
Tux
Owners: 614
The funny little penguin used in so many things about Linux. Wallpapers, screensavers, notebooks, lunchboxes, photoshop pictures, etc. Linux people love him. Microsoft is plotting to kill him, but Tux cannot die... unless Linux dies, and that will not happen. Not if we Linux lovers are still alive! GO TUX!
Windows
Clippy
Owners: 600
Clippy, real name: Clippit, derives his heritage from Bob, Microsoft's failed attempt to put an animated graphical interface on the Windows operating system. Annoying, patronizing and generally unhelpful this artefact will take users on a journey leading to a mental asylum. Now with shapeshifting capabilities such as Merlin the Wizard, Bobby the Robot and cartoon Einstein. Danger Will Robinson, Danger.
Apple Mac
Reality Distortion Field
Owners: 672
The Reality Distortion Field is used by Apple CEO during keynotes and other presentations to get everyone to believe everything he says. The RDF is a key to increasing Apple's stock prices immediately before and after all presentations.
Parenting
Attachment Theory
Owners: 538
Attachment theory addresses the psychological concept of attachment – that humans have an innate tendency to seek closeness to another person and to feel secure when that person is present. The theory assumes that humans are social beings and that their relationships are not based solely on using other people to satisfy their drives.

Attachment theory, with its origins in observations of and experiments with animals, has led to a new understanding of child development, and from it, a new movement, philosophy and practice known as attachment parenting.

The overarching goal of attachment parenting is to foster in children strong emotional bonds with their parents (secure attachment) so that they will be capable of secure, empathic relationships in adulthood.

According to Dr. William Sears, the American pediatrician who coined the term “attachment parenting” and who is a leading proponent of the philosophy, attachment parenting is “an uninterrupted, nurturing relationship, specifically attuned to a child’s needs as he passes from one developmental stage to the next.”
Current Affairs
Correspondent
Owners: 1017
A specialist skilled in information gathering, the Correspondent provides details of events from an on-the-spot perspective. A Correspondent may or may not also provide personal analyses or 'colour commentary,' but its main function is providing its employer with news about local happenings, often in precis form.
Coffee
Coffeehouse
Owners: 328
A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. In the United States, it does not emphasize alcoholic beverages; typically, it does not offer alcoholic beverages at all, focusing instead on coffee and perhaps tea and hot chocolate. Other food may range from baked goods to soups and sandwiches, other casual meals, and light desserts that complement their caffeine-centric fare.
Children
Life's Longing for Itself
Owners: 453
In his best-known book, The Prophet, Lebanese poet and artist Khalil Gibran wrote a famous and often-quoted piece on children. Here is The Prophets’ primer on understanding our children, and our relationships with them, from a spiritual perspective:

“And a woman who held a babe against her bosom said, 'Speak to us of Children.'

And he said:

Your children are not your children.
They are the sons and daughters of Life's longing for itself.
They come through you but not from you,
And though they are with you, yet they belong not to you.
You may give them your love but not your thoughts.
For they have their own thoughts.
You may house their bodies but not their souls,
For their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow, which you cannot visit, not even in your dreams.
You may strive to be like them, but seek not to make them like you.
For life goes not backward nor tarries with yesterday.
You are the bows from which your children as living arrows are sent forth.
The archer sees the mark upon the path of the infinite, and He bends you with His might that His arrows may go swift and far.
Let your bending in the archer's hand be for gladness;
For even as he loves the arrow that flies, so He loves also the bow that is stable."
Family
Kinship
Owners: 754
Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. Some form of organization based on parentage and marriage is present in every human society. In modern industrial communities family structures have been weakened by the dominance of the market economy and the provision of state organized social services. However, the nuclear family household is still the fundamental institution responsible for rearing children and organizing consumption. In nonindustrial contexts, kinship units normally have a much wider array of functions. They often serve as basic units of production, political representation and even as religious bodies for the worship of spiritual beings, who are themselves considered members of the kingroup.
Weblog Software
Nanopublisher
Owners: 768
The Dot Com bubble is gone and now the only game in the Internet content domain is the nanopublisher. Small, lean, low-cost but full of hype the nanopublisher brings economies of scale to digital publishing. Given the nature of the attention economy, it is a powerful artefact.
Health and Medicine
Placebo Effect
Owners: 446
If you'ver ever heard those ads that claim "nothing works better for clearing headaches quicker than Product X" and thought they were stretching the truth, you're wrong.

For all too often, *nothing* really does work quicker.

Give the patient a simple sugar pill, tell them it's a newly discovered cure for headaches, and there's a pretty good probability that, simply by believing what you have told them, their headache will be cured.

This is known as the Placebo Effect.
Sports/Athletics
Electrolytes
Owners: 395
Running, jumping, swimming, skiing, lifting, twisting, or anything else that has had you moving and sweating for at least 90 minutes—even less on a hot day—takes its toll on your body chemistry. The loss of salts (electrolytes) through prolonged sweating forces the body’s levels of sodium and potassium out of balance. These salts are necessary for the proper functioning of bioelectrical signals such as nerve impulses and muscle contractions.

While many prefer to replenish themselves with their favourite bottled sports drinks, others opt for simple and inexpensive homemade versions. Several variations exist, but the basic recipe consists of water, salt, salt substitute and sugar, all in specific proportions.
Satire
Lampoon
Owners: 838
A literary tool, often poetical, with which your opponent's every vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit. A keen or severe exposure of what is deserving of rebuke.
Socialism
Welfare Bill
Owners: 562
Health care to pensions and subsidies for the universal provision of basic services can be a useful tool to keep the workers happy. Yet at times measures must be taken to cut back public spending or get out of tricky situations when supporting an aging population seems a drain on the entrepreneur's pockets.

Careful usage of this bill can meet the moderate socialists needs and improve the market conditions in developed and developing nations.
International Politics
U.N. Resolution
Owners: 841
Founded in 1945 by China, Great Britain, the United States, and the USSR, the United Nations was conceived as an organization of "peace-loving" nations, who were combining to prevent future aggression and for other humanitarian purposes. Close cooperation among members was expected; the Security Council especially was expected to work in relative unanimity.

The UN Resolution gives you a cover for waging wars or thwarting the economies of your enemies. However, not even the world's hyperpower can rely on the UN to follow its agenda every time. Use with caution but ignore at your peril.
Liberalism
John Rawls
Owners: 788
In <i>A Theory of Justice</i>, political philosopher John Rawls asked us to imagine ourselves as the creators of a hypothetical society, which we will enter without knowing our race, gender, socioeconomic status, et cetera. He concluded that a rational person will take care to preserve basic rights and equality of opportunity for even the lowliest citizens. His later work addressed issues of liberty within a pluralistic society, and introduced the idea of <i>overlapping consensus</i> as a basis for government. Rawls is widely acknowledged as one of the most important political philosophers of the late 20th Century and a powerful advocate for modern liberalism.
Moderate / Centrist Politics
None!

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Neoconservatism
Hawk
Owners: 677
Ever watchful for the machinations of foreign threats, the hawk keeps his feathers preened, his beak sharpened, and his claws ready to strike. Nothing moves that the hawk does not see, and does not know something about. The hawk educates himself on everything, the better to guard against it, and never rests.
Religious Politics
Moral Majority
Owners: 396
The Moral Majority, founded in 1979 by Jerry Falwell, is an American organization comprised of conservative Christian political action committees. These committees concentrated their efforts on campaigns that were indicative of their desire to uphold the Christian concepts of moral law. They were against such loaded social issues as abortion and homosexuality, while supporting their view of family, and censorship.

The Moral Majority believed that they represented the masses, as indicated by the name of the organization. Although the organization dissolved in 1989, their work was carried on by groups such as the Christian Coalition, a network founded by Pat Robertson.
Right-Wing Politics
Contract With America
Owners: 551
Created by a group of conservative members of and candidates for the House of Representatives, lead by Newt Gingrich of Georgia, prior to the 1994 national election, the Contract For America was created as a promise to voters as to what they could expect should these Republicans be elected to the House. The document was primarily written by Dick Armey of Texas, the Contract contained 8 provisions:

· FIRST, require all laws that apply to the rest of the country also apply equally to the Congress;
· SECOND, select a major, independent auditing firm to conduct a comprehensive audit of Congress for waste, fraud or abuse;
· THIRD, cut the number of House committees, and cut committee staff by one-third;
· FOURTH, limit the terms of all committee chairs;
· FIFTH, ban the casting of proxy votes in committee;
· SIXTH, require committee meetings to be open to the public;
· SEVENTH, require a three-fifths majority vote to pass a tax increase;
· EIGHTH, guarantee an honest accounting of our Federal Budget by implementing zero base line budgeting.

These provisions were to be implemented via a series of stated Congressional Acts to be undertaken immediately upon the commencement of the 104th Congress. While credited by many for leading to an overwhelming victory for Republicans, the contract was not fully enacted as many provisions either did not pass, were vetoed by President Bill Clinton or were weakened in negotiation with the White House. While criticized by many as being “The Contract on America”, one undeniable impact the Contract had was truly taking local congressional elections and making them a unified national issue.
Libertarianism
Property Rights Act
Owners: 680
The classic problem in political philosophy of the legitimacy of property is essential to libertarians. Libertarians often justify individual property on the basis of self-ownership: one's right to own one's body; the results of one's own work; what one obtains from the voluntary concession of a former legitimate owner, through trade, gift or inheritance, and so forth.

The Property Rights Act is the embodiment of libertarian belief in property rights and the evil of statism. They will use this effectively to evade State interference in their daily basis and against those who would take their wealth.
Communism
The Proletariat
Owners: 189
Marx said, “Communism is the doctrine of the conditions of the liberation of the proletariat.”

What better Artefact to “empower” the industry of Communism then that of the Proletariat! Without the Proletariat there would be no need for Communism.

The proletariat is the name for the members of the working class that came into existence after the Industrial Revolution. Communist theory and doctrine defines the proletariat as the class of people who daily have to “sell” their labor, with nothing to show for it other than the fact that the upper class gets wealthy at their expense. The proletariat class, according to communist theory, exists only to provide labor for the day-to-day changes of the competitive market. The proletariat are expendable, abused, and taken advantage of. Yet they can rise above their place by joining together in cooperative work against the bourgeois upper class and overthrow it. According to communist theory, they are empowered to rise above the competitive marketplace.

The proletariat of course never did find freedom from oppression, even under the best communist system. But the ideals of the proletariat as defined by communist thought do live on in the form of improved labor relations, union power, minimum wages, and negotiated improvements to working conditions.

Power to the Proletariat and Power to the People!
Environmentalism
Frog Song
Owners: 372
The night-time symphony of frog song is a resonant and joyful symbol of environmental vitality. Frogs exist across the world in a myriad of natural physical environments. However, because their skin is thin and porous, frogs are highly sensitive to air and water pollution and diminishing frog populations provide an early indicator of environmental damage. How glorious then, to hear the silence of the night punctuated with the delightful burbling rumbling of frog song.
National Politics
The Hustings
Owners: 584
Hustings are the platform for political electioneering speeches and - often - that place from which elections are won or lost.

Perhaps the most famous hustings speech of all time was that made by Abraham Lincoln in 1860 at Henry Ward Beecher's Cooper Union church in Brooklyn, New York.

Such was the power of Lincoln's address to the crowd that it has become known as the speech that made him president.

Lincoln ended his speech with a call to arms that has rung down the generations and can still be heard today: "Neither let us be slandered from our duty by false accusations against us, nor frightened from it by menaces of destruction to the Government nor of dungeons to ourselves. Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith, let us, to the end, dare to do our duty as we understand it."
Dance Music
Electronica
Owners: 258
Becoming popular in the late 80’s, the world of Electronica music is a passion to those involved in it and greatly disliked by those who do not understand the sound. The word “Electronica” encompasses many subgenres of its kind like Techno, PsyTrance, Goa, TripHop, and many more. Created from synthesizers, drum machines, sequencers, and now-a-days computers, it often carries a BPM of 130-140 on a 4/4 measure. Producers of this sound typically sample lines from movies as well as other songs and layer them over a repetitive, but ever changing bass line. A record is typically released on vinyl, each side having two or more mixes of each track. Though dance music is still underground in the USA, it is a mainstream sound in major cities across the globe.
Animal Care
Can Opener
Owners: 236
A powerful talisman in the world of pet aficionados, the can opener infuses energy into many different types of mammalian pets at a range of up to 20 metres.
Internet Games
Richard Bartle
Owners: 432
In 1978, a group of students at Essex University took their interest in the text adventure game Colossal Cave and turned it into the first multi-player game, MUD1. Richard Bartle was the primary programmer and designer, developing the game for the next ten years as it became widely available via Compunet and the fledgling Internet of the 80s. As the creator of the seed from which all other internet games have grown, Richard has attained legendary status among internet gamers and has published many academic papers on the growth and culture of the industry.
Internet Community
Global Village
Owners: 878
The social network brings forth the digital community bound by the network protocols to produce a forum of activity where geographical barriers are broken down. The Global Village brings together tribal loyalties and the allegiances of these opinion makers can mean the difference between financial success or psychological torture.
Meme
Virus
Owners: 656
What if ideas were viruses? An idea can parasitically infect your mind and alter your behavior, causing you to want to tell your friends about the idea, thus exposing them to the idea-virus. In theory at least, the ability to understand and communicate complex memes is a survival trait, and natural selection should favor those who aren't too conservative to understand new memes. Or does it? In practice, some people are going to be all too ready to commit any new meme that comes along, even if it should turn out to be deadly nonsense, like: "Jump off a cliff and the gods will make you fly." Such memes do evolve, generated by crazy people, or through mis-replication. Notice, though, that this meme might have a lot of appeal. The idea of magical flight is so tantalizing -- maybe, if I truly believed, I just might leap off the cliff and...
Mobile Technology
Relay
Owners: 410
Sending a wireless message to a single receiver located a significant distance away is a daunting task. Simply boosting the transmission power to a high level works for broadcast signals used by radio and television stations, but those signals are intended to reach as wide an audience as possible. The more receivers, the better. This technique would defeat the purpose of private communications such as cell phone calls, pager messages, or similarly, Internet data in a home-based wireless network.

Rather than sending out these signals in a single large burst of power, the signals are tagged with descriptive information so they can be sent out at lower power, then captured and rebroadcast by signal repeaters--like a baton in a relay race--ultimately ending up with the intended receivers. The descriptive information directs signals to the appropriate repeaters and ensures that the signal messages which, for digital communications, are sent in chunks called "packets," are reassembled properly at the receiving end.
Abstract Art
Pablo Picasso
Owners: 239
Pablo Picasso is widely regarded as the Father of the Cubist movement and modern art. He, along with Georges Braque, were the original founders of Cubism.

It is important to fully realize the importance of Cubism. It isn't just "Picasso's style," but marks the real beginning of abstract art. Picasso's predecessors, such as the Impressionists, the Fauvists and Cezanne were still principally tied to nature as a model to elaborate on.

With Les Demoiselles d'Avignon Picasso reached a level of abstraction that was a radical enough break with the classical dominance of content over form, a hierarchy which is reversed in Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and the style which followed from it: Cubism.

Picasso was also the most prolific painter ever, as deemed in the Guiness Book of Records. He produced about 13,500 paintings or designs, 100,000 prints or engravings, 34,000 book illustrations, and 300 sculptures and ceramics plus drawings and tapestries.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record. The total value of his work was estimated in 1973 to be about $750 million.
Investment
Motley Fool
Owners: 351
"The Motley Fool" was established by David and Tom Gardner in 1993 as an investment newsletter. A year later, in 1994, by forming a partnership with America Online (AOL), they were able to launch their investment information service online, which soon became well-known for its early recommendations of stocks. In 1996 "The Motley Fool" was featured in a cover story for Fortune magazine, and since then the Gardner’s have published eight books, received their own nationally syndicated weekly newspaper column and radio show, and appeared frequently on television and at investor conferences around the nation. In 1997 they moved their service onto their permanent World Wide Web home at Fool.com, and in 1998 the website Fool U.K. was born. The company’s main focus is on novice investors who know very little about investing, and its mission is to educate and amuse individual investors around the world.
Venture Capitalism
Sand Hill Road
Owners: 342
Sand Hill Road is a road in Menlo Park, California, which provides easy access to Stanford University and Silicon Valley. Sand Hill Road became famous in the late 1990s for the incredible concentration of venture capital firms located on the road.

Sand Hill Road has been compared to Wall Street when discussing the dot-com boom. At the height of the tech bubble, commercial real estate on Sand Hill Road became some of the most expensive in the world, rivaling prices normally found in Lower Manhattan, or London's West End.
Stock Market
Ben Graham
Owners: 297
Benjamin Graham (1894 – 1976) was an influential economist and professional investor who is today often called "the father of value investing."

His book Security Analysis, with David Dodd, was published in 1934 and has been considered a bible for serious investors since it was written. Benjamin's other best-known book, The Intelligent Investor, has been described by Warren Buffett as the best book ever written about investing.

Graham exhorted the stock market participant to first draw a fundamental distinction between investment and speculation. He defined an investment operation as one which on a thorough analysis of the facts promises safety of principal and a satisfactory return; anything else is speculation.

Graham wrote that the owner of equity stocks should regard them first and foremost as conferring part ownership of a business. With that perspective in mind, the stock owner should not be too concerned with erratic fluctuations in stock prices, since in the short term, the stock market behaves like a voting machine, but in the long term it acts like a weighing machine (i.e. its true value will in the long run be reflected in its stock price).

Graham recommended that investors spend time and effort to analyze the financial state of companies. When one is available on the market at a price which is at a discount to its intrinsic value, a "margin of safety" exists, which makes it suitable for investment.

Graham was critical of the corporations of his day for obfuscated and irregular financial reporting that made it difficult for investors to discern the true state of the business's finances. He was an advocate of dividend payments to shareholders rather than businesses keeping all of their profits as retained earnings. He also criticized those who advised that some types of stocks were a good buy at any price, because of the prospect of sustained stock price growth, without a good analysis of the business's actual financial condition. These observations remain extremely relevant today.
Personal Debt
American Express
Owners: 299
Karl Malden famously said “don’t leave home without it” in the 1970s and 80s, and many people did just that. The American Express credit card was launched on October 1, 1958 to compete with the Diners card. Its annual fee was $1 higher, to be seen by consumers as a premium product. The cards were originally made of paper, but from 1959 they created a world-first by switching to plastic. They were instantly popular, with more than 1 million cards in use at over 85,000 establishments within five years. They began to target different types of consumers, starting with the launch of their gold card in 1966. Today they are one of the leading providers of credit cards worldwide, with their cards accepted in nearly every country.
Business Ethics
Ford Pinto
Owners: 480
The Ford Pinto's defective fuel system design led to the debate of many issues centered around the usage by Ford of a cost-benefit analysis and the ethics surrounding its decision not to replace the defective fuel systems based on this analysis. Although Ford had a newer design which would have decreased the probability of the Ford Pinto exploding, Ford chose not to use this new design, which would have cost $11 per car, even though Ford has conducted an analysis showing that the new design would cause 180 less deaths. Ford defended itself on the grounds that it used a risk-benefit analysis to determine whether the monetary costs would be greater than the cost to the society itself. With the numbers Ford used, the cost of replacing the defective fuel systems would have been $137 million, against the $49.5 million cost for injuries and damages. Because of the results of the analysis, Ford decided not to replace the defective fuel system.
Industries
None!

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Knitting
Madame De Farge
Owners: 670
The most infamous knitter of all. Delightfully Dickensian and demonstrative of the bliss of knitting - the ability to ignore one's surroundings while plying the needles. Click, click, click, click! What guillotine?
Crafts
Guildmaster
Owners: 665
Crafts guilds have been active since 1099 and continue to involve every member of the crafts industry. They include artisans, merchants, and professional workshops. Guilds have, through the centuries, provided education, vocational training, quality control, legislative trade representation and standard setting for artisans.
Computer Art
Space Paranoids
Owners: 349
Space Paranoids is the fictional game invented and stolen from Kevin Flynn, the hacker character in the film Tron played by Jeff Bridges. As Flynn is transported into the digital world of Tron he must play his game for real.

Tron is widely recognized as a revolutionary film in the advancement of computer graphics and the use of computers in art. The Lightcycles, Recognizers and Tanks were at the time the most advanced computer-generated objects seen on the big screen, and indeed the film was revolutionary. Perhaps this is why it did poorly at the box office but is one the most influential works in the field of computer animation.

The "game grid" of the Space Paranoids game first used in Tron has since been duplicated countless times. The holodeck of Star Trek TNG and the alternate 3D universe in which Homer gets trapped in the Treehouse of Horror episode of the Simpsons are just two examples of the influence of Space Paranoids in the field of computer graphics and art.
Nationalism
None!

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Peace Movement
White Dove
Owners: 504
White doves are a traditional symbol of love and peace. A dove was supposed to have been the first creature released by Noah after the flood in order to find land; it came back carrying an olive branch, telling Noah that, somewhere, there was land. A dove with an olive branch, then, has come to symbolize peace.
Democracy
Elections
Owners: 770
Elections are the central institution of democratic representative governments. Why? Because, in a democracy, the authority of the government derives solely from the consent of the governed. The principal mechanism for translating that consent into governmental authority is the holding of free and fair elections.
International Relations
The Peace of Westphalia
Owners: 375
The Peace of Westphalia is a series of treaties negotiated in 1648 in Europe that ended various wars and created or defined several independent nation-states.

The Peace of Westphalia also instituted the notion of sovereignty -- a development beyond the nation-state and city-state models established in ancient Greece and Rome. Sovereignty located that the highest level of government within each independent nation-state, where one person or body would have the exclusive right to exercise political authority over its territory and its people. With this, it eradicated the Holy Roman Empire's secular dominion over parts of the "Christian” world and its vision of establishing secular dominion over the entire (Christian) world.

The concept and practice of sovereignty, and the various treaties of the era, created a new political reality that spread through Europe and was eventually exported to the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

Many historians consider The Peace of Westphalia to be the beginning of the modern era. It institutionalized armies and diplomacy and eventually gave rise to what today is known as International Relations –- an academic and public policy field that is involved in both the study of foreign affairs within the international system and also the formulation of foreign policy.
Regional Politics
None!

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US Economy
New Deal
Owners: 402
The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs used by Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy in the Great Depression. Some economists argue that although the New Deal did not end the depression, all in all it helped to prevent the economy from decaying further by increasing the regulatory functions of the federal government in ways that helped stabilize previous trouble areas of the economy: the stock market, the banking system, and others.
Criminal Law
Hitman
Owners: 514
The Hitman is a useful person, he provides you with a persuasion not often matched by other businessmen. He often can find a way to persuade anyone into seeing your side of the story, or in business, your side of the deal.
British / UK Economy
None!

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Software Industry
None!

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Oil Industries
None!

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Consumer Electronics
Sony Walkman
Owners: 382
The Sony Walkman TPS-12 first went on sale on 1 July 1979 in Japan and its popularity spread around the world. It enabled people to listen to music anywhere and anytime, without disturbing others around them. Its high quality recording and audio made it popular with hi-fi enthusiasts and journalists alike. In the 1980’s, it led to fierce competition from other companies such as Toshiba and Panasonic, and was one of the factors in pre-recorded cassettes overtaking LP sales. Since the late 1990’s CD & digital music technologies have overtaken cassettes, however Sony has continued to make cassette-based walkmans as part of its overall personal audio range.
Music Industry
Hit Song Science
Owners: 447
So you think you've written a hit song? Guess again. Perfect hooks, killer beats, and powerhouse singing add up to nothing for many aspiring songwriters -- and for ambitious record executives, who have historically relied on good ears and gut instinct when it comes to finding talent. A new company is trying to take some of the guesswork out of the artwork, with help from science and supercomputers. Hit Song Science already is generating controversy, with some artists and record-label insiders saying it only highlights the desperation of a struggling music industry.
Film Industry
None!

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Technical Writing
It Depends
Owners: 622
If you ask a technical writer a professional question, you’re liable to get the answer you want the least: “It depends.” These people deal with exacting technical information every day. For some, their documentation can, if written improperly, result in bodily harm from incorrect usage of a product. Why, then, is it so hard to get a straight answer out of them?

If you ask a technical question related to a client’s product or service, you’re on solid ground. However, if you ask a question related to technical writing, the answer isn’t so clear cut. The primary goal of technical writing is to communicate in a clear and direct fashion, and sometimes the rules of writing take a back seat to clarity. Split that infinitive and end that sentence in a preposition, if that’s what it takes. Other times, the writer has a fixed amount of real estate in a document and must be pragmatic, so the cherished rule about two spaces after a period goes out the window. Another problem is that there are so many styles and standards to choose from: Do you want rules from Oxford, Chicago, or some other manual of style? Perhaps the documentation needs to do double duty through single sourcing, so the text ends up a bit overdone. Maybe the boss doesn’t want to pay for Adobe Photoshop, so there had better be a way to manipulate those photos with the tools you have on hand. Even aesthetics can play a part: The boss likes a particular shade of orange, the rest of the documentation is in Tahoma font, and that expensive ad simply looks better with exactly 17.5 points between the lines of text.

The rules? Get the point across clearly and within the given parameters. Discourage people from hurting themselves. Make the boss happy. The rest is negotiable.
Capital Region (Vnz)
El Libertador Simón Bolivar
Owners: 522
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco, more commonly known simply as Simón Bolívar, was a South American revolutionary leader and is one of Venezuela's most famous sons. He was born July 24, 1783 in Caracas and died December 17, 1830 in Santa Marta, Colombia.

Bolívar played a central role in the fight for independence in what are now the countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Panama and Bolivia. He is revered as a hero in these countries and throughout much of the rest of Latin America, where he is known as "El Libertador", The Liberator.

His name lives on not just in the name of the country Bolivia, but also in countless other place names and geographical features as far afield as Australia, the USA and France. In addition, this South American revolutionary has also lent his name to the official currency of his birthplace, the Venezuelan bolívar.
Maracay (Vnz)
None!

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International Law
Treaty
Owners: 198
A treaty is an agreement made between two or more nations with a view toward the public welfare. Many existing treaties insure protection from attack, set terms of trade, regulate environmental activity, and define borders. They can be amended in three ways and can be suspended if one of the parties involved does not adhere to the terms. The principle of treaty law is expressed in the "maxim pacta sunt servanda", or "pacts must be respected".
Central Region (Vnz)
Henri Pittier National Park
Owners: 302
Venezuela’s first national park, the Henri Pittier National Park, covers all of the northern part of the Venezuelan state, Aragua, which is in the country's Central Region.

Founded in 1937 as the Rancho Grande National Park, in 1953 it was renamed to honor the Swiss geographer and botanist, Henri François Pittier, who first studied plant life in the area in 1919 and who was later instrumental in the founding of the Park.
Wrestling
The Pin
Owners: 65
Professional or amateur it doesn't matter, you've got to pin your opponent if you want to make sure you get the win. A pin occurs when an opponents shoulder blades are held to the mat for a specific period of time. Get the pin, get the win.
Fiction Literature
The Protagonist
Owners: 369
The Protagonist is the primary character in a work of fiction. He’s the leading man, the main character. The entire story revolves around him and is often told from his point of view. One of the primary characteristics of the Protagonist is his ability to change. It’s this ability that gives a work of fiction its depth and helps create the tension and conflict present in the story.

For every protagonist, there is the antagonist or foil. This character presents further challenges or obstacles for the protagonist to overcome. In layman’s terms, the protagonist is usually considered the ‘good guy’ or the hero; the antagonist is the ‘bad guy’ or villain.

In ancient Greecian dramas, the protagonist was the leading actor and there could only be one protagonist in a play. However, since at least 1671 the word has been used in the plural to mean 'important actors' or 'principal characters' when John Dryden wrote "Tis charg'd upon me that I make debauch'd persons... my protagonists, or the chief persons of the drama".

A protagonist can also be defined as a supporter or champion of a particular cause or effort.
History
Clio
Owners: 546
One of the nine muses of Greek mythology, Clio inspires all those who write history. Clio often appears with a parchment scroll she uses to record the events of the world; controlling a Clio brings the owner remarkable power over history itself.
European History
Battle of Tours-Poitiers
Owners: 200
In the eigth century all of the Middle East and North Africa were ruled by the Islamic Caliphate, headed by the Umayyad Dynasty. They expanded aggressively in all directions, and invaded Spain in 711 AD. They were successful in conquering most of the spanish kingdoms, and crossed the Pyrenees in 721. At this time most of present-day France, Germany and the BeNeLux countries were united as the Kingdom of the Franks.

In 732 they entered Frankish territory in earnest. Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne, met the incursion in battle. After Emir Abd er Rahman was killed, the Muslim forces retreated and were soon after pushed back to southern Spain. They would eventually be removed from there back to Northern Africa, 760 years later.

The significance of this battle cannot be overstated. The Islamic Caliphate was very much an expansionary power at the time. With no organized military force in the realm of the Franks, Caliphate forces could in short order have ccupied Bavaria and been on the border of Poland. From there on it is hard to say what would have occured, but given the passion with which conversion was "encouraged" by punitive taxes, restrictions from jobs, preferential treatment for converts etc., in all likelihood some sort of Islamic successor state would have survived and expanded throughout Europe. Europe would have been an Islamic society.

Gibbon, in fact, wrote a famous passage of prose on the topic, stating that "A victorious line of march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire; the repetition of an equal space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland and the Highlands of Scotland; the Rhine is not more impassable than the Nile or Euphrates, and the Arabian fleet might have sailed without a naval combat into the mouth of the Thames. Perhaps the interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford, and her pulpits might demonstrate to a circumcised people the sanctity and truth of the revelation of Muhammed."

This battle is perhaps the most historically important several day period to the course of European History.
American (US) History
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Middle Eastern History
Bar Kokhba Revolt
Owners: 375
Bar Kokhba's Revolt, sometimes simply referred to as the Second Jewish Revolt, ended in the Roman expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The revolt was costly for both sides, however, and the Roman Emperor Hadrian acknowledged the fact by refusing a victorious entry into the city. Some Jewish historians have cited the violence and bloody outcome of this revolt as an argument against Zionism, claming that the Jews ought not to take or maintain possession of the Holy Land without the blessing of God, specifically the coming of the Messiah.
Inner Cities
Keys to the Cities
Owners: 386
BE IT RESOLVED that if the bearer of this "Keys to the Cities" Artefact comes to the Cities Industry, the Mayors of each of the Cities are directed to give them the Ceremony of the Keys to their City, a bottle of French wine, and a suitable welcome. The Ceremony of the Keys is believed to date back to the 1500s with Mary, Queen of Scots. The keys represent those used to open the city gates at a time when it was protected by a wall.
Natural Wonder
Mount Everest
Owners: 175
Considered by some to be the greatest Natural Wonder of the World, Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Roughly 60 million years ago, India -- then a separate continent -- began to move rapidly northward, eventually colliding with Asia. The push crushed the land on the continental shores into what is now the highest mountain range in the world -- the Himalayas, a Sanskrit word meaning "abode of snow."

The entire range of magnificent snow-covered peaks is a natural wonder in anyone's book -- but one stands above the others quite literally. Everest -- Chomolungma to the Tibetans, and Sagarmatha to the Nepalese, who live at its base -- the tallest mountain on Earth, reaching to the skies for over 29,000 feet (8,800 meters).

Shrouded in mystery due to its height, remote location and Chinese and Nepalese restrictions on access, Everest has been the dream of climbers since the British first glimpsed the peak in the 1850s.

New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay reached the pinnacle on May 29, 1953, the first recorded men to march over the frozen ridges and stand on the highest point in the world. Since that day, the mountain's appeal has not wavered. More attempts to reach its top have followed in the years after Hillary and Norgay's success -- using different routes, with or without oxygen, the first woman, first solo climb and on and on. Thousands have made the attempt -- more than 700 have succeeded. And at least 150 others have died trying.

Artefact description from: CNN Destinations and Seven Natural Wonders
Diplomacy
Ambassador
Owners: 576
The ambassador represents your interests in a foreign country. He can be very persuasive. Use him to collect important data about others.
UK
Smuggler
Owners: 925
A large portion of the inhabitants of the south-west coast of Cornwall were in some way or other connected with the practice of smuggling. The traffic with the opposite coast was carried on principally in boats or undecked vessels. The risks encountered by their crews produced a race of hardy, fearless men. Recently the demand for ardent spirits has so fallen off that there is no longer an inducement to smuggle; still it is sometimes exultingly rumoured that, the "Coast Guard having been cleverly put off the scent, a cargo has been successfully run."
USA
Star Spangled Banner
Owners: 1042
On Sept. 14, 1814, Francis Scott Key peered through clearing smoke to see an enormous flag flying proudly after a 25-hour British bombardment of Baltimore's Fort McHenry. Key was inspired to write a poem, which was later set to music. Even before "The Star-Spangled Banner" became the national anthem of the USA, it helped transform the garrison flag with the same name into a major national symbol. - - The Star Spangled Banner was made under government contract in the summer of 1813 by a professional Baltimore flagmaker, Mary Pickersgill. Assisted by her 13-year old daughter, Caroline, and by two of her nieces, Eliza and Margaret Young, Mary may also have received help from her mother, Rebecca Young, who was a flagmaker as well. - - Since coming to the Smithsonian museum in 1907, the historic flag has been a visible reminder of both the ideals represented by the American flag and the need to preserve those ideals.
Europe
Europa
Owners: 643
In Greek legend, the god Zeus went to great lengths to seduce a beauteous Phoenician woman named Europa: He transformed himself into a white bull and carried her away on his back to the isle of Crete. There he showed her his true self and made her queen. Whether this is testament to the beauty of Europa or to the strong urges and perhaps the curiously low self-esteem of Zeus (he thought she'd be more impressed by a bull than a god?) is uncertain, but in time her name defined the Greek mainland and eventually the entire subcontinent of Europe.

“The ‘wide-eyed one,’ [she] was originally the mother-goddess of Crete. Europa owned a magic spear that never missed its target and a monstrous brass warrior that protected her island while she rode the night on her servant, the lunar bull. But Europa’s guard failed to repulse the invading Greeks, who brought their own gods to Crete and rewrote Europa’s legend substantially. As they told it, she was merely a Phoenician princess, and the lunar bull was the sky-god Zeus who spied the lovely woman bathing and carried her to Crete to rape her. Abandoned there, she married well and bore three famous kings of Crete: Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthus. That the Greek tale has Europa born in Phoenicia suggests to many scholars a Near Eastern origin for Cretan culture and religion.” (Patricia Monaghan, The Book of Goddesses & Heroines)
Americas
Amerigo Vespucci
Owners: 686
America’s designation is a homage to the Italian merchant and navigator Amerigo Vespucci. He was the first man that realized that the “new world” lands were an entire new continent and not a part of Asia, as it was believed until then.

Amerigo Vespucci was born in Firenze in 1454. He studied geography, astronomy and cosmography. In 1491, working for the Medici family, he moved to Seville, where he became partner of Giannoto Barardi, a business manager for the Medicis in that Spanish city. Between 1499 and 1504, he performed various expeditions to the American continent helping to discover several aspects of this new continent. He was the first to announce that the New World is in fact a continent by itself. In 1507, the New World changed its designation into America, thanks to the German cartographer Waldseemuller. Amerigo Vespucio died shortly after, in 1512.
Asia
Silkworm
Owners: 890
The Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is the caterpillar of a moth whose cocoon is used to make silk; it is not a worm at all. This insect is also called the silkworm-moth and the mulberry silkworm. It is native to northern China. The coveted secret of silkworm cultivation began 5000 years ago in China. Sericulture (the production of raw silk by raising silkworms) spread to Korea and later to Japan and southern Asia; during the eleventh century, European traders stole several eggs and seeds of the mulberry tree and began rearing silkworms in Europe. The adult moth has been bred for silk production and cannot fly. Because of its long history and economic importance, the silkworm genome has been the object of considerable modern study. Use of the Silkworm artefact on Asia industry stocks may help you weave your way to riches.
Africa
Lake Victoria
Owners: 403
The largest lake in Africa is Lake Victoria, also known as Victoria Nyanza, Ukerewe, and Nalubaale. This lake, at 68,870 sq km, has the second largest surface area of any lake on Earth, and is the seventh largest lake by volume. Additionally, Lake Victoria is the largest tropical lake in the world. The lake is the headwaters of the largest branch of the Nile River, which was crucial to the development of the Egyptian civilization. The lake has several islands, including some large enough to have permanent occupants. The oldest known outside discovery of the lake was by Arab explorers who mapped the area in their search for various trade goods. Europeans did not visit the lake until 1858, when John Hanning Speke reached the southern shore in an expedition to find the headwaters of the Nile. He named the lake after the British monarch, Queen Victoria. His claim to have discovered the headwaters went unconfirmed until American Henry Morton Stanley confirmed this to be the case many years later.
France
Champagne Bottle
Owners: 824
France has long been best known for its champagne, some bottles of which are valued in the thousands and millions per bottle. French history shows that many invaders in their land made a point to preserve for their own pleasure as much of the best bottles of Champagne as was possible. Paul Claudel, French poet, playwright, and diplomat until he died in 1955, once said : Gentlemen, in the little moment that remains to us between the crisis and the catastrophe, we may as well drink a glass of Champagne.
Germany
Oktoberfest
Owners: 709
What started out as a simple celebration of marriage has turned into an international event, bringing millions of people from all over the world to Germany to partake in it's festival of traditional food, crafts, and dance.

The tradition begins with a parade in late September, and has every year since 1887. The parade of Proprietors is simply the families, breweries, and bands colorfully presented as they go to set up for the feast. Soon after, is Family Day, where tickets for rides are discounted and more of the events, such as "Wiesn-Hits for Kids", are created for children. The next event is a Traditional Oktoberfest Mass at the Hippodrom tent, where pastors celebrate mass with priests from neighboring countries. Gathering at the feet of Bavaria Pantheon, the bands will gather to play, where over 400 musicians interpret melodies.
Italy
Serenade
Owners: 751
Musical entertainments given in the open air at night, especially by gentlemen, in a spirit of gallantry, under the windows of ladies. It all depends on the voice of the gentleman and the mood of the lady though.
Netherlands
Licorice
Owners: 678
It is found from row houses in Amsterdam to cottages in the Dutch countryside. Sometimes it's tucked away in cupboards, though often it's kept in plain sight on the coffee table. It is sold everywhere from pharmacies to corner stores and shipped by mail everywhere else. Most Dutch like to sneak a little after dinner, and when they travel outside the country, they're always sure to bring enough to last the entire trip. Drop, the Dutch licorice candy, is the Netherlands' national addiction. Coming in more than 50 different shapes, tastes and textures, and made by at least 10 different companies, it is the one thing Dutch expatriates seem to miss most from their homeland. An overdose might have some strange effects though.
Spain
Duende
Owners: 691
Duende like art itself has faces that are both appealing and dangerous. It can be dark and hard to pin down. The great Spanish poet, Federico Garcia Lorca gave a famous lecture on La Teoria y Juego del Duende – The Theory and Function of Duende. Lorca says: - - "All through Andalusia . . . people speak constantly of duende, and recognize it with unfailing instinct when it appears. The wonderful flamenco singer El Lebrijano said: ‘When I sing with duende, no one can equal me.’ . . . Manuel Torres, a man with more culture in his veins than anybody I have known, when listening to Falla play his own ‘Nocturno del Genaralife,’ made his splendid pronouncement: ‘All that has dark sounds has duende.’ And there is no greater truth. - - "These dark sounds are the mystery, the roots thrusting into the fertile loam known to all of us, ignored by all of us, but from which we get what is real in art. . . . - - "Thus duende is a power and not a behavior, it is a struggle and not a concept. I have heard an old master guitarist say: ‘Duende is not in the throat; duende surges up from the soles of the feet.’ Which means it is not a matter of ability, but of real live form; of blood; of ancient culture; of creative action."
Hungary
Akác Méz
Owners: 204
One of the tastier exports from the nation of Hungary is Akác Méz, or Hungarian honey. This bee-made treat is a key ingredient in the heart-shaped delicacy Mézeskalacs (Hungarian Honey Cake) as well as in mézbor (Hungarian honey wine).

Beekeeping has been an industry in Hungary for centuries, developing originally to provide the wax that the churches needed for their candles. Today, there are approximately 600,000 hives of bees in Hungary, all busily producing 10,000 to 17,000 tons of honey each year. The nation exports 7000 to 15,000 tons of this honey annually. The Honey industry is so important to the nation that the Hungarian government pledged 1 billion Forints and professional lobby activities to support Hungarian honey producers in 2005. Their goal was to ensure that all honey exported to EU markets is marketed as Hungarian Honey or Carpathian Basin Honey, in appropriate retail packaging and at a more competitive price. Because of this regional focus, 8-10% of all Hungarian honey is sold within the European Union. Hungarian honey is also sold internationally, comprising 1% of all the honey sold in the world.
Poland
Lech Walesa
Owners: 231
Born in 1943, Lech Walesa came to fame in 1980 by founding Solidarność (Solidarity) the first indepenant labor union in the Soviet Bloc.

His work in adbancing the rights if the citizens of Poland began in 1970 when he was a member of an illegal strike committee at the Gdansk Shipyard. The strike was violently supressed and over 80 strikers were killed for "anti-social behavior". In 1978 he was one of the founders of the Free Trade Union of Pomerania. The government repeatedly arrested him for his "anti-government work", but the courts found him not guilty, and he returned to the shipyards in 1979. In 1980 he scaled the wall during a takeover strike at the shipyards and took conmmand of the strikers. This strike spread and numerous similar strikes occurred across the nation. To settle the strike the government agreed to allow organization, but not true free trade unions.

But the strike committe reformed itself in to the organization that became Solidarity. In 1981 the government responded by declaring martial law, and Walesa was arrested and held for 11-months. Although he was released and returned to his job as an electritian at the shipyards, he remained under virtual house arrest until 1987. But the international community took notice of his works, and he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983.

In 1987 Walesa returned to his work with Solidarity, and future strikes were planned, including a 1988 strike that resulted in the government finally agreeing to roundtable discussions to liberalise the nation's laws. By 1989 Solidarity was essentially a political party and semi-free elections resulted in Solidarity getting all of the seats not automatically allocated to the Communist Party. Walesa worked with members of the Communist Party to create a coalition government, and the Parliment elected a non-Communist Prime Minister. The path towards Democracy was clear, and in 1990 Walesa was elected the first non-Communist President of Poland. He held this position through 1995.

Walesa is credited with being the driving force behind freeing Poland from Communist rule, and with starting the chain reaction of national uprisings that resulted in the fall of the Soviet Bloc and ultimately the USSR.
Belgium
Beer
Owners: 526
Thirsty? Have a Belgian beer. Some places have over 700 different kinds of beer available so you'd better not try too many at once. A hang-over is a terrible thing.
Japan
Yakuza
Owners: 846
In a society where conformity is highly valued, and outward signs of individuality can arouse suspicion, the Yakuza, Japan’s native organized crime group, deliberately goes against the grain; or, as they would say in Japan, the Yakuza stubbornly refuses to be “hammered down,” referring to the often quoted national proverb, “The nail that sticks up must be hammered down.”
Canada
Beaver
Owners: 869
This artefact does wonders for one's nationalist pride, Seeing as Canada is the birthplace of Hockey, Basketball not to mention home of the Beaver what better national symbol? Then along came 1967 and it was decided a Maple Leaf would do much better, Oh wait can't forget to mention real beer... or at least 5%. C'est la vie... eh?
Brazil
Carnival
Owners: 707
Festivities attract thousands of people from all corners of the world. Carnaval, as spelled in Portuguese, is a 4-day celebration. It starts on Saturday, and ends on Fat Tuesday (Mardi-Gras). Dates change every year, it's 40 days before the Easter. The origin of Brazil's carnival goes back to a Portuguese pre-lent festivity called "entrudo", a chaotic event where participants threw mud, water, and food at each other in a street event that often led to riots. Rio's first masquerade carnival ball (set to polkas and waltzes) was in 1840.
Argentina
La Revolución de Mayo
Owners: 407
La Revolución de Mayo (the May Revolution) was the first attempt at independence in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, which contains present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.

On May 13, 1810, the arrival of a British frigate in Montevideo confirmed the rumors circulating in Buenos Aires: Napoleon I of France had invaded Spain, capturing and overthrowing King Ferdinand VII, who was replaced by Napoleon's older brother Joseph Bonaparte. This meant that the power of the Crown was transferred to the Regency Council in Cádiz, which was besieged by French troops. The situation was clear: with the authority of the vice regency gone, there was a power vacuum.

On May 25, 1810 the First Junta was created in Buenos Aires, removing viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power. In 1816 Argentina won its independence from the Spanish Crown.

Today, el Día de la Revolución de Mayo (May Revolution Day) on May 25 is an annual holiday in Argentina to commemorate these significant events in the history of Argentina. This and other events of the week leading up to that day are referred to as la Semana de Mayo (May Week).
Mexico
Calendario Azteca
Owners: 487
A circular shaped stone with fifty-two squares or years, which were the equivalent of one cycle or century. At the end of the cycle was held a solemn feast, Nexiuhilpiliztli (completion or binding of a perfect circle of years). The round circle reached the end of its cycle and returned to its starting point. The circle was divided into four equal parts, each containing thirteen years.

The Aztec Calendar is an elaborately decorated disk representing the sun. At the center appears the face of Tonatiuh (“the shining one,” “the beautiful child,” “the eagle that soars”) with his tongue sticking out. The tongue seems to be a knife used for sacrifices. On the sides are represented his hands, like eagle’s talons, clutching human hearts.

Because the Aztecs considered the sun and the eagle as the same, it was said that when the sun rose in the morning sky it was like the “eagle who ascends” so the Aztecs called it Cuauhtlehuanitl.

The first part belonged to the East, whose thirteen years were Reeds. This selection has thirteen squares containing a picture of a reed and a number of the year. These years were good, fertile, and abundant.

The second part belonged to the West, whose years were Houses. Each square contains a picture of a house, and the number of the year. Unhappy events occurred during these years. They symbolized evil.

The third section belonged to the North, which was symbolized by a Flint Knife. Each of these thirteen squares shows a flint knife and the number of the year. Many unhappy events occurred during these years, too. Little rain fell and there was famine.

The fourth part of the Aztec Calendar belonged to the South, and was called Rabbit. These thirteen squares contained a picture of a rabbit’s head and the number of the year. These years were not considered favorable by the Aztecs, but they were not as bad as House and Flint Knife, nor as good as Reed. The rabbit became the symbol because it leaps back and forth and does not stay in one place.
China
Cheongsam
Owners: 768
The cheongsam is a female dress with distinctive Chinese features and enjoys a growing popularity in the international world of high fashion.
The name 'cheongsam', meaning simply 'long dress', entered the English vocabulary from the dialect of China's Guangdong Province (Cantonese). In other parts of the country including Beijing, however, it is known as 'qipao', which has a history behind it. When the early Manchu rulers came to China proper, they organized certain people, mainly Manchus, into 'banners' (qi) and called them 'banner people' (qiren), which then became loosely the name of all Manchus. The Manchu women wore normally a one-piece dress which, likewise, came to be called 'qipao' or 'banner dress'. Although the 1911 Revolution toppled the rule of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty, the female dress survived the political change and, with later improvements, has become the traditional dress for Chinese women.
Middle East
Abrahamic Religion
Owners: 539
Abrahamic religion is a term used by some students of comparative religion to describe any religion derived from a Semitic tradition traceable to Abraham -- the patriarch of Judaism, the first prophet in Islam and spiritual father of all its believers, and a model of faithful obedience in Christian belief. The story of Abraham’s life is told in the Book of Genesis and in the Quran, but there is no contemporary mention of his life and he is mentioned in no source earlier than Genesis. For these reasons, it is difficult to know whether Abraham is an historical or a mythical figure. If historical, he probably lived about 4,000 years ago (between 2166 BCE and 1991 BCE).

In addition to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, a few other religions in the Semitic tradition are sometimes considered Abrahamic. What constitutes an Abrahamic religion can be controversial, as this is not a standardized classification and the terminology is often used to imply continuity between divergent faiths in a way that is offensive to some adherents.

Alternately referred to as “desert monotheisms,” and sometimes as “patriarchal desert cults” by their detractors, these religions comprise about half of the world's religious adherents and share a common birthplace and spiritual center: The Middle East.
Iran
Persian Carpet
Owners: 771
The history of Persian Carpet-a culmination of artistic magnificence - dates back to 2,500 years ago. The Iranians were among the pioneer carpet weavers of the ancient civilizations, having achieved a superlative degree of perfection through centuries of creativity and ingenuity. The skill of carpet weaving has been handed down by fathers to their sons, who built upon those skills and in turn handed them down to their offspring as a closely guarded family secret. To trace the history of Persian carpet is to follow a path of cultural growth of one of the greatest civilizations the world has ever known.
Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Owners: 173
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was the founder of the Republic of Turkey as well as its first President. During a long service as President of the Republic, he established a new nation-state, based on nationalism, populism, and secularism, implementing several pro-Western reforms.

Atatürk’s military training began with his enrollment in a military junior high school; after his graduation from the War Academy, he was assigned a lieutenant in the Ottoman Army. He served with distinction in World War I, particularly at the Battle of Gallipoli. Following his service in WWI, Atatürk returned to an occupied Istanbul and was instrumental in the War of Independence

In 1919, the last Ottoman parliament was dissolved, and in response, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was formed in Ankara, with Kemal, as he was known at the time, as the speaker of the parliament. He persuaded the he Grand National Assembly (GNA) to pass a new constitution in 1921 which transferred sovreignty from the sultan to the nation; this was later grounds for denying the Treaty of Sevres, because that treaty did not recognize the right of the country to rule itself. In 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed, annulling the Treaty of Sevres and creating the new Republic of Turkey.

Atatürk’s personal history is closely intertwined with that of Turkey’s history. The Surname Law, passed in June 1934, established the use of fixed, hereditary surnames for Turkish citizens. Concurrently, a special law was passed creating the name Atatürk, and reserving it specifically for Gazi Mustafa Kemal, or Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as he became known. Atatürk can be translated "Father of Turkish People" or "Ancestor of Turkish People."

Even his accepted birth date is tied to the history of the country. Given the imprecision of birth certificates at the time, Atatürk’s exact birth date is not known. 19 May is generally accepted as the start of the Turkish Independence War, and Atatürk adopted it as his own birth date.

At Atatürk’s funeral in 1938, one admiral was charged with carrying a velvet cushion bearing Atatürk’s Medal of Independence; it was the only decoration, among many others held, that Atatürk preferred to wear.
Greece
Seeds of Democracy
Owners: 144
Greece was origin of democracy and of western political thought. On a mountain in Athens, the first seeds of democracy were sown through council and conclave.

In 594 B.C., Solon, an Athenian lawmaker, was asked to mediate the current situation where class divisions and the concentration of power in the hands of a few led to much unrest. He created four classes, and charged each class with specific rights and duties, including serving in the Boule, a body that ran daily affairs and sent issues to the Ecclesia. All citizens could attend the Ecclesia, or Assembly, and vote. The top two classes served in higher posts in the government, and once retired became part of the Areopagus (Council of the Hill of Ares), a group that served as a counter to the Ecclesia. These reforms, coupled with constitutional reforms and a comprehensive code of law, are credited with being the foundation of modern democracy.

The Pynx, a hill in central Athens with a speaker’s platform and home to the Ecclesia, later became the regular meeting place for the senate up until the Roman times. The Romans allowed this tradition to continue and flourish, and adopted the practices in their own rulership of the known world. The site is still there today and is visited by tourists throughout the world, still appreciating the seeds of democracy that were planted.
Norway
Vikings
Owners: 281
Vikings! The word conjures up images of wild, barbaric, sea-faring men intent on setting their mark on their less war-like neighbours with fire and sword. Originating from Scandinavia and particularly Norway, they swept across Europe like a forest-fire raping, pillaging and destroying all in their path.

Famed for their navigational ability and long ships, in a few hundred years Vikings colonized the coasts and rivers of Europe and the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland. Usage of vikings can help protect your stock from invaders.
Sweden
ABBA
Owners: 425
ABBA (1972–1983) was the most successful of all Swedish pop music groups. ABBA's total worldwide sales are estimated140-500 million. They were the second most successful band of all time, following the Beatles.

ABBA was formed in1972 with Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, Agnetha Fältskog and Anni-Frid Lyngstad (nicknamed "Frida"). They became a pop music phenomenon after winning the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest with the song, "Waterloo."

The group consisted of Björn, Agnetha Benny and Frida. ABBA is an acronym formed from the first letters of each group member's name. It is usually written ABBA. The first B in the logo version of the name was reversed on the band's promotional material from 1976 onwards.

ABBA collectively decided to take a break at the beginning of 1983. They have not yet returned to the studio.
Finland
Kalevala
Owners: 369
The Kalevala is called the Finnish national epic. The first edition of the Kalevala appeared in 1835, compiled and edited by Elias Lönnrot on the basis of the epic folk poems he had collected in Finland and Karelia. This poetic song tradition, sung in an unusual, archaic trochaic tetrametre, had been part of the oral tradition among speakers of Balto-Finnic languages for over two thousand years. The Kalevala describes Finnish nature very minutely and very beautifully. Grimm says that no poem is to be compared with it in this respect, unless it be some of the epics of India. The Kalevala (the Land of Heroes) relates the ever-varying contests between the Finns and the "darksome Laplanders ", just as the Iliad relates the contests between the Greeks and the Trojans. A deeper and more esoteric meaning of the Kalevala, however, points to a contest between Light and Darkness, Good and Evil; the Finns representing the Light and the Good, and the Lapps, the Darkness and the Evil. Like the Niebelungs, the heroes of the Finns woo for brides the beauteous maidens of the North; and the similarity is rendered still more striking by their frequent inroads into the country of the Lapps, in order to possess themselves of the envied treasure of Lapland, the mysterious Sampo. The whole poem is replete with the most fascinating folk-lore about the mysteries of nature, the origin of things, the enigmas of human tears, and, true to the character of a national epic, it represents not only the poetry, but the entire wisdom and accumulated experience of a nation.
Iraq
Fedayeen
Owners: 631
The paramilitary Fedayeen Saddam (Saddam's `Men of Sacrifice') was founded by Saddam's son Uday in 1995. The Fedayeen, with a total peak strength reportedly between 18,000 and 40,000 troops, is composed of young soldiers recruited from regions loyal to Saddam. The unit reported directly to the Presidential Palace, rather than through the army command, and was responsible for patrol and anti-smuggling duties. Though at times improperly termed an "elite" unit, the Fedayeen was a politically reliable force that can be counted on to support Saddam against domestic opponents. The Fidayi Saddam included a special unit known as the death squadron, whose masked members perform certain executions, including in victims' homes. The Fidayi operate completely outside the law, above and outside political and legal structures. Their numbers still lurk ready to drive out the infidels and with some persuasion may be converted to your cause as long as you're no Yankee.
Far Eastern History
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Search Engines
Web Spiders
Owners: 712
Web search engines work by having automated scripts or programs, often called "web spiders" (aka web crawlers, web robots), move out across the World Wide Web, "spidering" it (visiting links in an automated, methodical way).

The spiders travel from link to link, making copies of the pages they visit to be downloaded and indexed by Search Engines in such a way that searchers may retrieve relevant data from the search engines through the use of queries (words, phrases, or other search strings that define a search).
Internet Standards
Committee
Owners: 613
Guardians of open protocols and enforcers of standards, the Committee can bring light and chaos to the network. Their compliance can lock in competitive advantages whilst (l)users suffer the tyranny of overspecification.
Musical Instruments
Tuning Fork
Owners: 81
The tuning fork is almost a musical instrument in it's own right. Set to the perfect pitch, hitting it against something hard makes it sing it's note. Even the deaf can feel the power of the fork through it's vibration. Tuning forks are made of elastic metal, usually steel. The pitch of the fork is determined by the length of the prongs with the most common being the “A” note. Its main use is as a standard of pitch to tune other musical instruments.
Piano and Keyboard
None!

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Guitar
Trigger
Owners: 308
Willie Nelson and his guitar have been together for more than 30 years, during which time Trigger has developed a hole in the pick guard, a shabby finish, and a warm, sweet sound.
Nigeria
None!

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Egypt
The Great Pyramids
Owners: 247
You are driving along a wide city boulevard and suddenly, there it is, rising out of the Giza plateau, high above the rows of planted palm trees: the Great Pyramid. There are three of these mighty stone structures, built over 4000 years ago. The largest one is Khufu's pyramid, rising 450 ft, and staking the claim as the tallest structure in the world for 43 centuries. The Great Pyramids are the only surviving Wonders of the ancient World, and the most recognizable man-made structures in the world. The Pyramids are not alone on this enormous plateau; tucked into a valley, sits the Sphinx; behind Khufu's Pyramid is the Sun Boat, reconstructed and placed in it's own modern building; and all around is the City of the Dead. The Great Pyramids are a symbol of the one of the greatest cultures of the ancient world. They are everywhere in modern Egypt: on money, in place names and newspaper names, and in every tourist shop in the country. The Pyramids are Egypt.
South Africa
Nelson Mandela
Owners: 240
Nelson Mandela (b. 1918) was one of the leading activists in the struggle against apartheid. He came from a small village in Mvezo, destined to inherit his father's position as a councilor to the Thembu King. After working as a lawyer and completing his studies at the University of Witzwatersrand, he became involved in the African National Congress (ANC) which was deemed illegal by the ruling government. After being acquitted of treason in 1961 following a 5 year trial, he became the leader of the ANC's armed wing. In 1962 he was arrested and sentenced to five years in jail for leading workers to strike and illegally leaving the country. In 1964 he was sentenced to life imprisonment after being found guilty of sabotage and other crimes equivalent to treason, and spent 18 of the next 27 years on Robben Island.

Mandela was released in 1990, when President F W de Klerk ordered this and lifted the ban on the ANC. He was president of South Africa from 1994 to 1999 after the ANC won power in South Africa's first fully democratic elections. Now regarded as an elder statesman, he is an advocate for several social and human rights organizations, as well as being the recipient of many foreign honors. His autobiography Long Walk to Freedom (which was mostly written while in prison), was released in 1995.
Computer Science
Turing Test
Owners: 410
When talking about the Turing Test today what is generally understood as the following: The interrogator is connected to one person and one machine via a terminal, therefore can't see her counterparts. Her task is to find out which of the two candidates is the machine, and which is the human only by asking them questions. If the machine can "fool" the interrogator, it is intelligent.

This test has been subject to different kinds of criticism and has been at the heart of many discussions in AI, philosophy and cognitive science for the past 50 years.
Cryptography
The Enigma Cipher
Owners: 310
A communications coding device invented by the Germans for use during World War II for transmitting secret messages. Daily a series of rotors would be set, enabling a new key for each day to scramble the message. A message would be typed into the machine and a series of wheels scrambled the letters into what the Nazis thought was an unreadable code.

Unfortunately for the Nazis, Alan Turing (the father of the computer) figured out how to break the code for the Allies. This allowed the Allies to read many of the Top Secret communications of the German High Command, thereby helping to end the war sooner.
Middle East Politics
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European Politics
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New York City
The Big Apple
Owners: 764
In the early years of the nineteenth century, refugees from war-torn Europe began arriving in New York in great numbers. Many were remnants of the crumbling French aristocracy, forced to seek refuge abroad from the dread Monsieur Guillotine. Arriving here without funds or friends, many of these were forced to survive, as one contemporary put it, by their wits or worse.

One of these, arriving in late 1803 or early 1804, was Mlle. Evelyn Claudine de Saint-Évremond. Daughter of a noted courtier, wit, and littérateur, and herself a favorite of Marie Antoinette, Evelyn was by all accounts remarkably attractive: beautiful, vivacious, and well-educated, and she was soon a society favorite. For reasons never disclosed, however, a planned marriage the following year to John Hamilton, son of the late Alexander Hamilton, was called off at the last minute. Soon after, with support from several highly placed admirers, she established a salon -- in fact, it appears to have been an elegantly furnished bordello -- in a substantial house that still stands at 142 Bond Street, then one of the city's most exclusive residential districts.

Evelyn's establishment quickly won, and for several decades maintained, a formidable reputation as the most entertaining and discreet of the city's many temples of love, a place not only for lovemaking, but also for elegant dinners, high-stakes gambling, and witty conversation. The girls, many of them fresh arrivals from Paris or London, were noted for their beauty and bearing. More than a few of them, apparently, were actually able to secure wealthy husbands from among the establishment's clientele.

When New Yorkers insisted on anglicizing her name to Eve, Evelyn apparently found the biblical reference highly amusing, and for her part would refer to the temptresses in her employ as my irresistible apples. The young men-about-town soon got into the habit of referring to their amorous adventures as having a taste of Eves Apples. This knowing phrase established the speaker as one of the in crowd, and at the same time made it clear he had no need to visit one of the coarser establishments that crowded nearby Mercer Street, for instance. The enigmatic reference in Philip Hone's famous diary to Ida, sweet as apple cider (October 4, 1838) has been described as an oblique reference to a visit to what had by then become a notorious but cherished civic institution.

The term Big Apple or The Apple had already passed into general use as a sobriquet for New York City by 1907, when one guidebook included the comment, Some may think the Apple is losing some of its sap. Interestingly, the phrase had also become pretty well sanitized in the process, thanks to a vigorous campaign mounted just after the turn of the century by the Apple Marketing Board, a trade group based in upstate Cortland, New York. Alarmed by sharply declining sales, the Association launched what some believe to be the earliest example of what would now be called a product positioning campaign.

So basically The Big Apple was originally coined from a brothel.
London (UK)
Big Ben
Owners: 525
The first radio broadcast of Big Ben was made by the BBC at midnight on the 31st of December 1923 to welcome in the new year. Shortly afterwards, a permanent microphone installation enabled regular broadcasts of the chimes and the bell to function effectively as a time signal. The broadcasting of the bells on the BBC World Service assumed particular importance during the Second World War, when the sounds were a source of comfort and hope to those hoping that Britain would not be overcome. Big Ben is still broadcast today on BBC Radio 4 at certain times.
San Francisco (city) (CA)
Painted Ladies
Owners: 716
Famous for the Golden Gate bridge, huge Parks, Oceans and Bays, Victorian Mansions, gaudy colored and pastel houses, Chinatown, Gold Rushes, Flower Children, Mission Murals, Gay Castro and Pyramid Shaped Skyscrapers, all making San Francisco a true painted lady.
Amsterdam (Netherlands)
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Tokyo
Shogun
Owners: 485
The Shogun is the feudal military administrator who from the 12th cent. to the 19th cent. was, as the emperor's military deputy, the actual ruler of Japan. Shogun is a contraction of the ancient and highest ranking samurai title Seii Taishogun, meaning "great generalissimo who overcomes the barbarians." Tokugawa shoguns governed for over 250 years, a period called Edo after their capital Edo (now Tokyo). The Shogun artefact may help you in your establishment of a dynastic empire in the Blogshares Stock Market.
Los Angeles (city) (CA)
Griffith Observatory
Owners: 390
Griffith Observatory is one of the more unique architectural icons of Los Angeles. It rests atop Mount Hollywood in Griffith Park, one of the most extensive urban park areas in the United States. The building is listed on the California Register of Historic Places and is Number 168 on the City of Los Angeles listing of Cultural Landmarks.

Griffith Observatory is "the people's observatory" and money for its creation was donated to the city by Colonel Griffith J. Griffith in the 1930s. Griffith was a colorful character who loved astronomy and wanted others to appreciate it, too. Visitors coming to Griffith learn to observe the sky, using free access to telescopes and browsing a series of exhibits. In addition, the Samuel Oschin Planetarium is designed to present live sky shows throughout the day.

Griffith Observatory's iconic status is preserved in many movies with scenes shot there over the years, including the famous James Dean flick, "Rebel Without a Cause." The building is also often used as a broadcast backdrop, particularly when astronomy is in the news. The Observatory was first opened in 1935, and served more than 70 million visitors until it closed in 2002 for a major renovation project. With its reopening in 2006, it will continue its mission to bring astronomy to the people and turn visitors into sky observers.
Ancient History
Colossus of Rhodes
Owners: 286
The Colossus of Rhodes was a huge statue of the god Helios, erected on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos in the 3rd century BC. It was roughly the same size as the Statue of Liberty in New York, although it stood on a lower platform. and is remembered as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Construction, which took 12 years, was completed in 282 BCE. The statue stood for only 56 years until 226 BCE, when Rhodes suffered an earthquake. During the earthquake, the statue snapped at the knees, and fell over onto the land. Ptolemy III offered to pay for the reconstruction of the statue, but an oracle made the people of Rhodes fear that they had offended Helios, so they did not rebuild. Even the broken parts were so impressive that many people made the journey to see them. Pliny the Elder remarked that the statue was so great in size, that few people could wrap their arms around the fallen thumb and that each of its fingers was larger than most statues. The remains of the Colossus lay on the ground for over 800 years.
Modern History
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20th Century
Balangiga Bells
Owners: 382
On September 28, 1901, tension and hostilities between American troops and local Filipino residents led to a surprise attack on the garrison of Company C, 9th U.S. Infantry Regiment, in Balangiga, Samar, in an event now more popularly known as the "Balangiga Massacre".  American troops took the bells as war trophies from Balangiga:  the smaller bell, dated 1896, is presently in Korea; the 1863 bell remains in the care of the F.E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne, Wyoming; and the 1889 bell shall be returned to the Parish of Balangiga to be placed in a monument to the dead of both sides of the Balangiga conflict.

The people of Balangiga and Samar Island have unilaterally expressed forgiveness for the events with the hope, "Let freedom ring once more from those bells, from the Belfry of Balangiga where they originally belong, to punctuate America’s generosity of spirit, and the gallantry of our forebears, and complete the healing."
Australia
Koala
Owners: 733
The Koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) is a thickset arboreal marsupial herbivore endemic to Australia, and the only representative of its family, Phascolarctidae. Koalas are unmistakable: they are broadly similar in appearance to a wombat (which is their closest living relative) but have a thicker, softer coat, much larger ears, and longer limbs, which are equipped with large, sharp claws to assist with climbing. Weight varies from about 14 kg for a large, southern male, to about 5 kg for a small northern female. They are generally silent, but male Koalas have a very loud advertising call (a nasal snort that human children delight in imitating) that can be heard from almost a kilometre away during the breeding season.

Because of their appealing teddy bear appearance, koalas (like the Big Red and Eastern Grey Kangaroos) have a disproportionate conservation status: they are far more secure than many other Australian bird and mammal species, and commonly coexist with humans so long as their food supplies are ample. Nevertheless, Koalas occupy a more restricted range than formerly, and do require large areas to roam in. They are fairly solitary, nomadic creatures, and travel long distances along tree corridors in search of new territory and mates. The ever-increasing human population of the continent continues to cut these corridors for agricultural and residential development, forestry and road-building, marooning Koala colonies in decreasing areas of bush.

The Koala's scientific name comes from the Greek: phaskolos meaning <i>pouch</i> and arktos meaning <i>bear</i>. The cinereus part is Latin and means <i>ash-colored</i>. Some people refer to the Koala as a Koala Bear - this is incorrect, they are unrelated.
Chocolate
Cacao Seed
Owners: 291
The cacao seed (or bean) grows in a pod from the cacoa tree. Native to Central America, it is now grown in other tropical areas, though only within ten degrees of the equator. Cacoa trees bear only a few pods in a growing season. The average annual yield per tree is about two pounds of dried beans. From this seed comes chocolate (or cocoa), one of the most popular sweets worldwide.

To transform cacao seeds to chocolate, the pods are harvested, crushed, and left to ferment for about six days. Next, the seeds are split from the pods and dried. Fine chocolate results from 7 days of drying in the sun, but most of the mass-produced chocolate products are made from cacao that is artificially dried, resulting in an inferior quality chocolate.

Historically, cacao played a role in the religions of the Maya and the Aztecs. The Aztecs associated chocolate with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility, one of the most important deities in the Aztec culture. They believed that cacao seeds came from the white-bearded god, Quetzalcoatl (ket sal koh AH tul), who stole them from paradise and brought them to Earth. The Maya honored Ek Chuah (ek CHU ah), a special god of cacao growers and merchants, with cacao beans as offerings. They paid homage to their gods by burning cocoa beans. Sometimes blood, considered the most sacred offering, was dripped over cacao pods and placed on altars. Chocolate drinks played an important part in Mayan betrothal and marriage ceremonies.

In addition, chocolate was an important luxury good throughout Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and cacao seeds were often used as currency.
Drugs & Tobacco
The Dealer
Owners: 344
Whether it's Saturday night at 3am or mid-afternoon on a weekday, there is only one phone call you have to make - The Dealer. He's almost always able to come by on the drop of a dime and hopefully sells for a fair price. The bigger the city, the more power The Dealer can have, turning a nickel and dime operation into a multi-million dollar campaign. His team can be your best allies or your worst nightmare and they are quite a force to be reckoned with.
Cannabis
420
Owners: 200
420 (pronounced Four-Twenty), is the international call symbol for marijuana. While the true source of the term is unknown, popular culture claims it came from a group of 12 kids in California who got together every day at 4:20 in the afternoon to smoke. The term quickly spread, and it is now synonymous with the marijuana and cannabis subculture.

Every year on April 20th (4/20), users world-wide save up their weed for a celebratory toke. Quite often, users will not smoke until 4:20 PM, adding to the specialness of the day.

Quite often, people also use 420 to discreetly signify to other users that they, themselves, smoke marijuana. For example, in classified newspapers, If one wants a roomate who also smokes, they would put 420 Prefered.
Travel Writing
Lonely Planet
Owners: 301
Found in the backpacks of budget travellers worldwide, the Lonely Planet series of travel guides reputedly accounts for one quarter of all English-language guide book sales (ca. 2004). In addition to offering approximately 650 book titles, the Australia-based company also produces travel shows for television and has established a solid presence on the Web with its comprehensive travel advice and information site.

Lonely Planet’s first title, Across Asia on the Cheap, was published in 1973. This book and those that followed it catered to young people travelling to and from Asia on the so-called “hippie trail.” The hallmark of these globe-spanning trips was that they were to be made as cheaply as possible while encountering interesting experiences designed to help “find oneself.” While the tone of the books has become more professional over the years, Lonely Planet has earned a reputation for making travel less expensive and less intimidating, while introducing international travellers to genuine local character.
Travel Guides
Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
Owners: 302
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is the only book you'll ever need no matter where you travel. From Surrey, England to Eroticon 6, the H2G2 has all the information you require. Want to know just what effects a Pangalactic Gargleblaster might have on your particular species? Need to escape from an improbable situation? Or have you've lost your towel ... again (always know where your towel is!). Maybe the Guide can suggest a solution. Then again, you might just be greeted with the ultimate advice ever dispensed: Don't Panic!
Conservationism
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Animal Rights
PETA
Owners: 139
PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) is the worlds largest animal rights organization. PETA focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time: on factory farms, in laboratories, in the clothing trade, and in the entertainment industry. We also work on a variety of other issues, including the cruel killing of beavers, birds and other "pests," and the abuse of backyard dogs.

PETA works through public education, cruelty investigations, research, animal rescue, legislation, special events, celebrity involvement, and protest campaigns. (information taken from the PETA website - http://www.peta.org)
Society
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Animation
Gertie The Dinosaur
Owners: 446
Gertie was first shown in February, 1914, at so-called "chalk talks". This was a popular form of entertainment, in which the artist himself would stand in front of an audience and create drawings for their amusement. Seeing a drawing apparently come to life had an electrifying effect on 1914 New Yorkers. At least one viewer, Paul Terry, was so impressed, he embarked on a lifelong career in animation — and that's how Terrytoons came to be.

In November of that year, Gertie the Dinosaur was released to theaters, and the whole country had the opportunity to be amazed at McCay's inventiveness and craftsmanship. McCay made a few more animated films, including a 1918 documentary on the sinking of the Lusitania. McCay proved early on that animation was an art. By the time he was done with it in the 1920's, animation had become an industry.
Antiques
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Architecture
Vitruvius
Owners: 402
The Roman architect Vitruvius wrote De Architectura, a treatise on architecture dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus. Probably written between 27 and 23 BC, it is the only contemporary source on classical architecture to have survived. It covers a wide variety of subjects which Vitruvius saw as touching on architecture. This included many aspects which would not seem obvious to modern eyes, ranging from mathematics and astronomy, to meteorology and medicine. In the Roman conception, architecture needed to take into account everything touching on the physical and intellectual life of man and his surroundings.
Bodyart
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Harley-Davidson
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Comic Art
Roy Liechtenstein
Owners: 621
Roy Liechtenstein is the Pop Artist from the 1960's famous for his paintings of comic book strip panels. Liechtenstein is considered one of the most well-regarded and earliest postmodernists for his translating into a "high-brow" artform something which is considered "low-brow" in nature. He may have moved on from comics as an artistic subject but his usage of primary colours and clean, uncluttered design remained a constant throughout his artistic career.
Graphic Design
Hexadecimal
Owners: 611
Coined in the early 1960s to replace earlier "sexadecimal," which was too racy and amusing for IBM, hexadecimal is a numbering system which uses a base of 16 instead of ten. Hexadecimal numbers are used to indicate color on web pages and in the creation of graphics. Hexadecimal is also used in two other ways in computer programming: to print out the value of a byte, and to print out the value of a sequence of bytes. The Hexadecimal artefact will put the "byte" on a blogstock and "hex" it!
Humanities
Scholar
Owners: 375
The Scholar's goal is knowledge whether useful or merely for the sake of "knowing." The Scholar's usual habitat is a book filled corner, a library, a salon, a hermitage or in a never thought of place. We are surrounded by scholars who all pursue the ultimate truth.
Audio Books
Narrator
Owners: 197
Besides the ability to "read" a book while driving, traveling, or being otherwise engaged, the greatest benefit of audio books is the ability to hear words aloud. This is particularly true with poetry, where the flow of words is so important. The narrator can make or break the quality of an audio listening experience.

Because narrators sometimes do the voices of many characters, they are often trained in the classic theatre. Many narrators can switch between accents with exceptional grace, making the listening experience a true audio performance.

When selecting an actor or narrator, producers consider the qualities of the characters in the book, such as the gender and age of the main character. The setting of the book and associated accents are also taken into consideration. The narrator must be able to convey the intent of the author’s words in an audible manner.

The primary components of narration are voice, speech, and language. The voice must have strength, stamina, and clarity. The speech must be clear and easily understood. The language must be fluent.
Cultural Studies
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Rhetoric
Silver Tongue
Owners: 360
When you speak, people listen. You know the language inside out, and when you're not exercizing your powers of persuasion out loud, your blog is speaking for you. If you had to pick a career, it would be speech-writing, or speech-making. Cicero and Quintilian are your teachers, and they would have been proud.
Typography
Typeface
Owners: 50
Roman, Script, Ornamental, Gaelic, or any of the other thousands of typefaces give the written word (and number) a unique appearance. Add serifs, or go sans serif and the possibilities continue to multiply. Add modern fonts to the mix and without question the look and feel of characters make reading fun.
Visual Arts
Fata Morgana
Owners: 604
A complex mirage display that involves multiple images, alternately expanded and compressed vertically, often giving the impression of buildings, cliffs, etc. where no such objects exist. Named after a famous enchantress, known for her ability to shift shape. The images are heavenly but a reality check would be appropriate.
Accounting
PricewaterhouseCoopers
Owners: 167
PricewaterhouseCoopers is the biggest professional services firm in the world, and is known as one of the Big Four auditors. It was formed in 1998 by the merger of Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand (both were established in the nineteenth century), and undertakes human resources & consulting activities in addition to auditing, taxation & accounting services. Like its contemporaries, its business structure is a worldwide collection of member firms which operate autonomously and whose senior partners sit on a global board. It presently employs over 130,000 people in 148 countries and counts companies such as Shell, Ford, Bank of America, Unilever, and The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (to tabulate votes for the Academy Awards each year).
Aerospace and Defense
Lockheed Martin
Owners: 333
Lockheed Martin is a name synonymous with United States Defense Department contracts. With approximately 130,000 employees worldwide and 2004 sales of $35.5 billion, Lockheed Martin is the largest defense contractor in the world.

Almost all of Lockheed Martin's business (approximately 95%) comes from the United States federal government and other foreign governments and militaries. The United States government alone is responsible for 80% of Lockheed's business.

Lockheed Martin is involved with various areas of the aerospace and defense industry including manufacturing of tactical aircraft, airlifts, spacecraft, tanks, missles and fire control and naval systems. Lockheed Martin is also heavily involved with aeronautical research and development.

In 2001, Lockheed Martin won the contract to build the Joint Strike Fighter with its X-35 design, beating out the Boeing X-32. This is the most important fighter aircraft procurement project since the F-16 Fighting Falcon, with an initial order of 3,000 worth approximately $244 billion at present.

The JSF is a multi-role attack and fighter aircraft designed to replace the aging F-16 Fighting Falcon, F/A-18 Hornet, A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-111 Aardvark, Sea Harrier, Harrier GR7/GR9, and AV-8B Harrier jets. It will complement the USAF's high-end F/A-22 Raptor air superiority fighter and the USN's F/A-18E/F Super Hornet as well as Europe's Eurofighter.
Biotech / Pharmaceuticals Industries
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Business Law
Uniform Commercial Code
Owners: 104
First published in 1952, the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) is one of a number of uniform acts created to make the law of commercial transcations and sales uniform across the United States. Of all the uniform codes, the UCC is the longest and most complex. A version of the UCC has been enacted in all 50 states however as modifications have been made by several states the law of sales and commercial transactions is still not totally "uniform."
E-Commerce
Digital Shopper
Owners: 493
The Digital Shopper knows where you live, your credit card details, your purchase history, your demographics, your browsing habits and more. Used for good it will find you tasty bargains and gently prod you on the true path of consumerism. Used for evil it will leak sensitive financial information, allow you to steal the identity of others or acquire large customer databases ready for pumping pornography, sex aids, insurance and knock down prescription drugs on unsuspecting customers.
Electronics / Electrical Industries
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Employment
Wage
Owners: 323
The word "wage" derives from the Old French word "wagier" or "gagier" meaning to pledge or promise (money) -- the same word from which wager (the money placed in a bet) also derives.

Early forms of wages included salt (from which the word salary is derived).

Wages are the fulfillment of the promise or pledge made by an employer to an employee in an employment contract.

Depending on the structure and traditions of different economies around the world, wage rates are either primarily market-driven (the USA) or influenced by other factors such as tradition, social structure and seniority, as in Japan.
Energy and the Environment
Renewable Energy
Owners: 96
Renewable Energy is considered by many to be the trend of the future. It is considered a means to protect our economies and the earth we live on. The depleting rising of oil prices and the global warming that oil causes, have been a major source of concern. It has been widely accepted that renewable energy has to be the new face of energy if we are to protect the planet. Some of the prominent sources of renewable energy are solar and wind as well as hydroelectricity (from water) and bio-gas (from decomposition of natural fuels). Renewable energy will change the future of our world!
Banks / Financial Services
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Healthcare Industry
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Information Technology Industry
Optimizer
Owners: 656
The IT Optimizer uses proven techniques, often conducted in a "think tank" exploration session to encourage creativity and innovative thinking. Be careful not to stay in the brainstorming phase though.
Labor
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Companies
Corporation
Owners: 585
A corporation is a business established through ownership shares (termed corporate stock). A corporation is considered a distinct legal person, that can be sued, forced to pay taxes, etc., just like a human person. Unlike proprietorship and partnership businesses, a corporation business exists separately from its owners. As such, the owners have what lawyer-types term limited liability. Owners cannot be held personally responsible for corporate debts. The owners can only lose the value of their ownership shares, but no more.
Microsoft
Blue Screen of Death
Owners: 420
Microsoft's ultimate weapon can strike terror into the hearts of all who defy them. Often referred to as the BSOD, it strikes when you least expect it and will bring down even the most critical services.
Apple
The Mac
Owners: 350
The Macintosh, commonly called the Mac for short, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured and marketed by Apple Computer, running the Macintosh operating system ("Mac OS"). Named after the McIntosh apple, the original Macintosh was released on January 24, 1984; it was the first popular personal computer to use the now-standard graphical user interface (“GUI”), with windows on a desktop and mouse control instead of the then-standard command line interface. Apple continued to sell its Apple II family as well as Macs until 1992–93. Since then, all Apple computers have been of the Macintosh family.

A significant difference between Macintosh computers and competitors' models (notably Microsoft Windows operating system), is that Apple oversees both the hardware and the OS; this is unique in the industry. Whereas the Windows OS is manufactured by Microsoft and the hardware by dozens of other parties, Apple facilitates all aspects of its hardware, and creates its own OS. The Unix based operating system gives multiuser networking as standard but means that a much smaller range of third party software is available, though suitable applications (such as Microsoft Office) are available in most areas. It has also contributed to the current absence of the malware and spyware that plagues most Microsoft Windows users.
Telecommunications Industry
Transceiver
Owners: 301
Short for transmitter-receiver, “transceiver” is a generic term for any device that can both send and receive communication, whether it is in a human or a machine language. The term, which originated in the mid-20th century, is used commonly in computer networking, radio, telephony and electronics.

The transceiver is the core of two-way communications technology, managing all aspects of signal transmission and reception. It must follow correct protocols to ensure that signals are properly coded and modulated for transmission, and demodulated and decoded when received. Parts of this process may be handled by a codec (coder-decoder) or a modem (modulator-demodulator), either of which can be implemented in either software or hardware/firmware.

Privacy and security are important issues in signal communication. Transceivers must be properly programmed to ensure that private communications cannot be received accidentally by the wrong receiver, and that secure communications are properly encrypted and decrypted.
Earth Sciences
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History of Science
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Philosophy of Science
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Science in Society
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Social Sciences
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Addictions
Denial
Owners: 270
"Denial is not a river in Egypt." Anonymous

No, indeed. Denial is a psychological defense mechanism, a concept arising from psychoanalytic theory and first researched seriously by Anna Freud.

Denial is a means of coping with reality. Though denial is primarily considered to be maladaptive, in some situations it is considered to be functional. Essentially, denial is a way of either rejecting some uncomfortable or painful truth, or of failing to recognize or acknowledge the consequences or implications of a thought, behavior, or situation.

Maladaptive denial is a factor in the behavior of patients with various diseases, but in the treatment of addictions and in twelve-step programs it is particularly well articulated. In addictions, the abandonment or reversal of denial forms the basis of the first, fourth, fifth, eighth and tenth steps. The ability to deny or minimize is an essential part of what enables an addict to continue his or her behavior in the face of evidence that, to an outsider, appears overwhelming.
Women's Health
Gynecologist
Owners: 440
The Gynecologist deals with diseases and routine physical care of the reproductive system of women. Fertility and longevity in yourself (if you're female) and your female employees ensure a long-lasting dynasty. Essential for the harem keeper or power suit female tycoon.
Mental Health Ailments, Illnesses, and Disease
DSM-IV
Owners: 222
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and internationally. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is a commonly-used alternative. The DSM tends to be the more specific of the two. Both assume medical concepts and terms, and state that there are categorical disorders that can be diagnosed by set lists of criteria. It is controversial and some mental health professionals and others question the utility of this classification system.

The DSM has gone though five revisions (II, III, III-R, IV, IV-TR) since it was first published. The next version will be the DSM V, due in approximately 2011.
Men's Health
Little Blue Pill
Owners: 227
Never has a class of medications taken the male populace by such storm. Men who avoided doctors as carefully as they did the tax collector suddenly needed a health checkup and a prescription. The little blue pill was only the first of many drugs now on the market to enhance male health and wellbeing.
Pharmacy
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Sports Medicine
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Weight Loss / Weight Management
Diet Pill
Owners: 402
Regarded as one of the biggest successes of the dieting industry, the diet pill comes in all shapes and sizes, featuring such ingredients as ma-huang, Xenical, Phentermine, caffeine, aspirin, and many others. Take one, and your appetite may be reduced, the fat you eat not absorbed, or your metabolism speeded up. Watch out though, some come with mild to serious side effects.
Alternative Medicine
None!

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Fitness and Exercise
Deluxe Portable Gym
Owners: 342
The Deluxe Portable Gym includes:

30" take-apart lifting bar!
Two 6' fitness cables (R4 and R6), rotator handles and door attachment!
Jogging (proprioception) belt!
Carrying case!
Award winning HBO instructional video!
Instructional manual by fitness expert Some Chirpy Bloke, CSCS, CPT, NASM, former strength coach of some sports team!
Disabilities
Assistive Technology
Owners: 135
For as long as humans have been self-aware, they have likely understood the concept of disability. And since those early moments, humans have consistently developed ways to overcome such impediments. Assistive technology allows people with disabilities to access and utilize other technologies and essential functionality. These include the text telephone system, wheelchair ramps, and hundreds of software programs designed to make computers accessible to everyone.
Environmental Health
None!

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Ice Hockey
Hat Trick
Owners: 413
In ice hockey, a hat trick is when a player scores three goals in a game. While the term was first associated with cricket, it sprung up in ice hockey during the 1940s when Sammy Taft, a Toronto hatter, gave free hats to Maple Leafs players who scored three goals in a game. Some call him genius, others simply call him mad.

While three goals in a game is the minimum requirement, there are many variations on the hat trick. A natural hat trick is scoring three goals in succession, ideally in the same period. Other hat tricks have become associated with various players, many of which involve meeting other criteria such as the Gordie Howe hat trick: Scoring a goal, getting an assist, and winning a fight, as well as the Mario Lemieux hat trick: Sc

The ultimate hat trick is scoring five goals, one in each of the five possible game situations: Powerplay, shorthanded, even strength, penalty shot and empty net. Mario and Claude Lemieux are the only players to achieve an ultimate hat trick in the history of the NHL.
Equestrian
None!

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Cheerleading
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Martial Arts
Black Belt
Owners: 241
The Black Belt signifies perseverance, dedication, confidence, self-control, and achievement.
Folklore
Weekly World News
Owners: 209
This black and white tabloid first appeared in 1979, and had the same type of content as its sister weeklies, the Enquirer and the Star. Within a few years, the Weekly World News moved away from celebrity news and began to devote its resources to urban legends and "News of the Bizarre." Batboy grabbed his moment of glory and Bigfoot consorted with Elvis and Marilyn Monroe in its pages. Today, the Weekly World News is your one-stop source for news of Bigfoot, Chupacabra, The Jersey Devil, Vampires, Aliens, and a host of other characters from modern folklore.
Future Society
Big Brother
Owners: 394
Big Brother is the nominal leader of Oceania in Nineteen Eighty-Four, George Orwell's dystopic novel. The name is now used to mean surveillance in general, usually by a government. Big Brother" is a dictator in a totalitarian state, taken to its utmost logical consequence. In the society that Orwell describes, everybody is under complete surveillance by the authorities. The people are constantly reminded of this by the phrase "Big Brother is watching you", which is the core "truth" of the propaganda system in this state.

The physical description of "Big Brother" is reminiscent of Joseph Stalin or Lord Kitchener. In the novel, it is not clear if he actually exists as a person, or is an image crafted by the state. However, since Inner Party torturer O'Brien at one point tells Winston Smith that Big Brother can never die, the implication is probably that Big Brother is merely the Party personified. In a book supposedly written by the rebel Goldstein (but later revealed to have a more complex origin) it is stated that "nobody has ever seen Big Brother. He is a face on the hoardings, a voice on the telescreen… Big Brother is the guise in which the Party chooses to exhibit itself to the world. His function is to act as a focusing point for love, fear, and reverence, emotions which are more easily felt towards an individual than towards an organisation." In Party propaganda, however, Big Brother is presented as a real person, who was one of the founders of the Party along with Emmanuel Goldstein. His real name is never mentioned and it is not publicly known.

Since the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four, the phrase "Big Brother" has entered general usage, to describe any overly-inquisitive or overly-controlling authority figure or attempts by government to increase surveillance. The reality TV program Big Brother takes its name from Nineteen Eighty-Four and a similarly named figure is big mama — the informal name for the internet censor on web boards in the People's Republic of China.
Military
Roman Legion
Owners: 474
The Roman legion was the basic military unit of ancient Rome. It consisted of about 5,000 to 6,000 infantry soldiers and several hundred auxiliary cavalrymen and ranged troops. Legions were named and numbered; about 50 have been identified. Usually there were 28 Legions plus their Auxiliaries, with more raised as needed or as able. Due to the enormous military successes of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire the legion has long been regarded as the prime ancient model for military efficiency and ability.
Paranormal
Skeptic
Owners: 296
The skeptic: it's the one thing all paranormal activities have in common, from ghosts to UFO's to Bigfoot to crop circles. No matter how good you think your evidence is, the true skeptic will not believe. The skeptic wants to see for himself, have the ghost appear in front of him and speak with him; have the alien abduct him; have Bigfoot sit down and chat with him. EVP's are just noise; photos can be doctored; and everything is a hoax. According to the skeptic, anyone who believes this stuff is a loony - until the skeptic actually comes face to face with grandma's ghost in the attic. Then the skeptic becomes a believer.
Philanthropy
Altruist
Owners: 257
Someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being. Don't forget this someone is part of the human species as well though.
Sexuality
Agony Aunt
Owners: 679
The Agony Aunt knows everything there is to know about sex and sexuality. She can tell you why the scent of vanilla turns you on, give you guidance on how to be a better lover, or explain the difference between devotion and obsession.
Urban Legends
Pop Rocks and Coke
Owners: 245
Possibly one of the greatest urban legends of all time is the myth that eating Pop Rocks and drinking Coke will kill you. Most stories claim that the result will be gas build up in the stomach that is so fast that the stomach will explode. While it's not clear where the story truly began, it spread quickly and at one point may have been responsible for the removal of Pop Rocks from American markets. The story grew and even had one version in which "Mikey" the kid from the Life Cereal commercials, was rumored to have died from the "lethal" combination.
Taranto (Province)
None!

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Webrings
CGI Script
Owners: 551
The one early feature of webrings was the next link, that people could use to go from site to site that was affiliated with a specific topic. Ring-master.net credits Denis Howe at Imperial College, London, UK with creating the first webring on December 22, 1994. They write: <i>He created a project which he called EUROPa, (Expanding Unidirectional Ring of Pages). A year later, in June of 1995, another young man by the name of Sage Weil stumbled on the EUROPa ring and felt that he could improve on the concept. He decided he could write a CGI (Common Gateway Interface) program that would automate the process of adding sites to the ring. Later, Jerry Hierro suggested a centralized CGI program, and thus the WebRing system was born. The first WebRing was called ESLoop.</i>
Fascism
Lateran Treaties
Owners: 241
The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. The treaties were negotiated between Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, on behalf of the Vatican, and Benito Mussolini, the Fascist leader, as Prime Minister of Italy.

There are three treaties: a treaty recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City; a concordat defining the civil and religious relations between the government and the church within Italy (summarised in the motto: "free church in free State"); and a financial convention providing the Holy See with compensation for its losses in 1870. Through the concordat, the Pope agreed to submit candidates for bishop and archbishop to the Italian government, to require bishops to swear allegiance to the Italian state before taking offices, and to forbid the clergy from taking part in politics. Italy agreed to submit its rules on marriage and divorce to make them conformable to the rules of the Roman Catholic Church, and to exempt clergy from military conscription. The treaties granted the Roman Catholic Church the status of the established church in Italy. They also gave the Roman Catholic Church substantial control over the Italian educational system.
Anarchism
Circle-A
Owners: 164
Traditional symbol of the anarchist movement, the Circle-A, a capital letter A enclosed by a circle (an O), stands for "Anarchy is Order," a phrase coined by one of its founders, French philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. The symbol has been co-opted and adapted by several other groups, including the Freemasons, of which Proudhon was a member, and several punk rock groups of the 1970s. The anarchist revolutionary in the comic "V for Vendetta" also paints his own stylized version of the symbol throughout London, substituting a "V" for the "A".
Indian Classical Music
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Utilitarianism
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Mercantilism
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Feminism
Suffragette
Owners: 556
The title of suffragette was given to members of the women's suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and United States, particularly in the years prior to World War I. It is a name often associated with the followers of Emmeline Pankhurst and the Women's Social and Political Union. The term tends to connote acts of defiance, protest, self-sacrifice and sometimes violence.
Monarchy
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Conservatism
The Iron Lady
Owners: 558
Of all the 20th century leaders of the British Conservative Party, Margaret Thatcher most embodied the true spirit of Conservatism. Because of her spirited opposition of Communism, the Soviets knick-named her the Iron Lady. But it was the Conservative leader who had the last laugh as, allying herself with the Ronald Reagan, the British and American leaders brought about the fall of the Iron Curtain and the break-up of the Soviet empire.
Political Systems
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Civic Participation
Rally
Owners: 435
When the people want to get together and speak about the state of things, they hold a rally. Attended by all interested parties, the ideal rally is both an exchange of ideas and a building up of social energy.
LGBT Politics
The Stonewall Riots
Owners: 369
The gay rights movement hit a major turning point in 1969 when the patrons of the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, NYC, resisted arrest. Prior to that event, police conducted routine raids on the bar, in line with an earlier practice of entrapping and arresting gay men on indecency charges—a practice that had started to be discouraged in 1966. At the same time, New York had been forced by the court to revoke its policy of removing a bar’s liquor license for knowingly serving a group of three or more homosexuals. Gay bars were thus legal.

The first of the Stonewall Riots followed a raid sometime after 1:20 a.m. on June 28. For previous raids, the police provided the bar’s management with advance warning and conducted raids early, allowing the bar to resume business for the nighttime peak. Not so this time. This was a surprise raid, carried out almost entirely by non-uniformed officers, on the night following the funeral of singer and cultural icon Judy Garland. The raid allegedly targeted cross-dressers, transgendered individuals, and those without ID.

Accounts vary as to what sparked the violence that followed the raid that night. Once the fighting started, the crowd overtook the police who then retreated and retaliated, especially against those men whose behavior they considered effeminate. Nearby residents and patrons of other bars joined the crowd. Police sent in a riot-control squad but they were not successful in dispersing the rock-throwing mob. In total, over 2000 people fought against more than 400 officers, resulting in 13 arrests and numerous injuries. A second, less violent, riot occurred the following night. A third riot four days later resulted in extensive property damage. As a result of the Stonewall Riots, the gay rights movement gained significant visibility and momentum in exposing entrenched systemic discrimination.
Green Politics
Boycott
Owners: 422
The boycott is the application of consumer pressure on environmental issues, a useful tactic employed in the burgeoning field of Green Politics.

Sometimes the measures bring long term viability to world markets by conserving the environment and sometimes the boycott can serve as a useful tool in crippling industrial foes. Even when resolved amicably the costs of improving environmental standards can be a burden.
Political Parties
Caucus
Owners: 483
Defined as "a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement", the Caucus is the one thing most United States political parties and groups have in common. The Caucus is used by the parties to plan strategies, elect officials and lay out policies. Without the caucus, most parties would not be able to operate as a single entity. Some notable Caucuses include the Congressional Black Caucus and the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, which focus on the large role their respective ethnic groups play in politics.
Political Philosophy
The Nolan Chart
Owners: 82
John Nolan was a founder of the modern Libertarian Party in the United States. To help explain to the public how libertarianism could not be pegged at a given location on the single pole political spectrum commonly used at the time, of right vs left, he devised a two dimensional cartesian chart that is now called the Nolan Chart. The two axes of the chart measure a degree of economic freedom on one, and of social freedom on the other, so that political philosophies, as well as the opinions of individuals, can more accurately be charted in comparison to one another. Nolan also devised a 10 question quiz, known as The Worlds Shortest Political Quiz, that encapsulates most domestic, economic, and foreign policy issues within them (but by no means all or in great detail). Answers to the questions are multiple choice, with points for each question, and, added up for each axis, result in a composite that places an individual responded, or the agenda of a political party, in a more accurate landscape. This chart and quiz often result in respondents finding themselves in quite unexpected company in the political universe.
Scientific Theory
Hypothesis
Owners: 174
The foundation of the scientific method, every scientific theory requires a hypothesis, a prediction that is able to be tested. If there is enough evidence and data to support the hypothesis, it becomes a generally accepted theory by the scientific community. However, this is not set in stone. Future experiments will provide more data to either support or refute the theory. Should the theory ever become refuted, new hypotheses are generated to try and create a theory that best explains the data.
Paris (France)
The Eiffel Tower
Owners: 432
The Eiffel Tower was built for the International Exhibition of Paris of 1889 commemorating the centenary of the French Revolution. The Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII of England, opened the tower. Of the 700 proposals submitted in a design competition, Gustave Eiffel's was unanimously chosen.

However it was not accepted by all at first, and a petition of 300 names - including those of Maupassant, Emile Zola, Charles Garnier and Dumas the Younger - protested its construction.
At 300 metres (320.75m including antenna), and 7000 tons, it was the world's tallest building until 1930. Other statistics include:

• 2.5 million rivets.
• 300 steel workers, and 2 years (1887-1889) to construct it.
• Sway of at most 12 cm in high winds.
• Height varies up to 15 cm depending on temperature.
• 15,000 iron pieces (excluding rivets).
• 40 tons of paint.
• 1652 steps to the top.

It was almost torn down in 1909, but was saved because of its antenna - used for telegraphy at that time. Beginning in 1910 it became part of the International Time Service. French radio (since 1918), and French television (since 1957) have also made use of its stature.
During its lifetime, the Eiffel Tower has also witnessed a few strange scenes, including being scaled by a mountaineer in 1954, and parachuted off of in 1984 by two Englishmen. In 1923 a journalist rode a bicycle down from the first level. Some accounts say he rode down the stairs, other accounts suggest the exterior of one of the tower's four legs which slope outward.
However, if its birth was difficult, it is now completely accepted and must be listed as one of the symbols of Paris itself.
Space Exploration
Hubble Space Telescope
Owners: 504
The Hubble Space Telescope was designed in the 1970's and launched into orbit in 1990. It orbits at a height of 375 miles above the Earth and makes a complete orbit about every 97 minutes. Since its launch, it has been repaired and upgraded through several Space Shuttle "service calls" and is now a state of the art, model year 2001 space telescope.

It was the first piece of space equipment of any kind designed to be completely serviceable by space-walking astronauts. It has a "modular" design which allows astronauts to take apart, repair, and change virtually any part of the telescope. Each time a new piece of scientific equipment is added, it increases Hubble's scientific power by a power of 10 or greater.

Every day, Hubble archives 3 to 5 gigabytes of data and delivers between 10 and 15 gigabytes to astronomers all over the world. As of March 2000 Hubble has:

# Taken more than 330,000 separate observations.
# Observed more than 25,000 astronomical targets.
# Created a data archive of over 7.3 terabytes.
# Provided data for more than 2,663 scientific papers.
# Traveled about 1.489 billion miles—nearly the distance from Earth to Uranus.
Java (computer language)
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Flash
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HTML
Browser Wars
Owners: 219
Using the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, web browsers are the primary way of retrieving HTML from a web server and turning it into an interactive page. The first public version of a web browser was the WorldWideWeb released in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee. Over the years, many different software companies started to release their own version of the web browser, some that supported multiple languages. Netscape Navigator was the leading browser, until Microsoft started integrating Internet Explorer with their operating system. As Netscape’s down fall began, they open sourced their technology which began the start of Mozilla and the more commonly known Firefox.

Though it started in 1995, the browser war still continues to this day. There will never be a standard as the languages used to produce web pages are ever changing and each end user prefers to surf the web in their own way. Today’s web browsers not only read HTML, but XML, CSS, DHTML and will support future languages that are being developed.
Perl
Shebang
Owners: 313
The shebang, or hash-bang, tells Unix systems where to look for the perl interpreter and pass the rest of the file to that program for execution. Every perl program must be passed through the Perl interpreter, hence the shebang must always be present. This perl interpreter is normally installed in /usr/bin or /usr/local/bin.
ASP
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Unix
Bell Labs
Owners: 98
Established in 1925 by Mr. Walter Gifford, Bell Labs was charged with coming up with new technologies in a wide range of fields. Bell Labs employees have won 6 Nobel Prizes for their work, in 1937, 1956, 1977, 1978, 1997 and 1998.

Some of the most notable discoveries by Bell Labs have been Facsimile transmission, long-distance television transmission, radio astronomy, C programming language, the Unix operating system, and the wireless local area network.
PC
8088
Owners: 148
The Intel 8088 microprocessor, the heart of the original IBM PC, was a variant of the 8086 introduced in 1979. It had an 8-bit external data bus that made it compatible with the less expensive 8-bit supporting chips then available on the market, allowing for mass production of an economical personal computer.
Drug Policy
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Socializing
Speed Date
Owners: 462
A group of singles, usually around 30 in total, gathers at a predetermined cafe or some chosen classy restaurant. They are then paired off in 15 tables and given a certain amount of time (about 3-10 mins) to get to know the other party. Heaven or Hell? Too bad you've only got to spend few minutes with that marvelous person? Or glad you can get away before the urge to jump out of the window gets too strong? It can get either way.
India
Caste
Owners: 582
Castes systems in India and caste like groups--those quintessential groups with which almost all Indians are associated--are ranked. Within most villages or towns, everyone knows the relative rankings of each locally represented caste, and people's behavior toward one another is constantly shaped by this knowledge. Between the extremes of the very high and very low castes, however, there is sometimes disagreement on the exact relative ranking of castes clustered in the middle.
Pakistan
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Modelling (Hobby)
Glue
Owners: 111
While many modelling kits can be put together by snapping parts onto each other, the central item every serious modelling hobbiest must have is glue. Whether it is a super glue, wood glue, rubber cement, or another adhesive, no hobby modelling kit is complete without the right glue to hold it all together.
Shopping
Shopping Cart
Owners: 312
The Shopping Cart is the tool of choice for any serious shopper. Carrying items in your arms is simply not going to do, especially when they are bargains to be had and you need to move quickly though the store. Dropping you pork roast in the canned foods section because you were on your way to the clothing department is not acceptable. Get a cart!

Picking the right cart is key. Choose one with a complete handle. Sometimes, rough treatment in the parking lot will damage the handle and make it uncomfortable to push around. If its raining or snowing outside, get a cart that is already inside so you don't get your items all wet and messy. Make sure that the wheels turn easily and are not bent. There' nothing worse that fighting the cart in the store as it tries to play bumper carts with the other patrons. Lastly, make sure you don't get one with a sqeaky wheel. Nobody wants to hear the "eeeeeek eeeeek eeeeek" as you go wandering down the aisles.

For the safety of the other patrons and to keep the store's costs down, please return your cart to the cart corral when you are finished.
Consumerism
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Anti-Globalization
Flash Riot
Owners: 349
Whilst anti-globalisation campaigners are not universally violent or prone to rioting, the movement has been characterised by the famous riots at intra-governmental meetings. Their warnings of the perils of global corporations and the excesses of free trade, can be a protectionists dream come true if used correctly.

Manipulating the movement through rioters can help put pressure on politicians to protect and interfere in parts of the economy whilst discrediting their agenda in the public mind. A good capitalist knows the value of a good Flash Riot.
Religious Conservatism
The Literal Truth
Owners: 85
The cornerstone of religious conservatism, of any religion, tends to hinge upon a fundamentally literal reading of their holy texts rather than interpreting the words subjectively and allowing for errors that would obviously be made by writers lacking knowledge of science or actual history. Religious conservatism then seeks to apply this literalist view of the moral codes of a religion as the basis for socially conservative political agendas.
Atheism
Madalyn Murray O'Hair
Owners: 370
Madalyn Murray O'Hair was the one of the most outspoken proponents of atheism in US history. As a supreme advocate of separation of church and state, she was the "Murray" in the landmark court case of Murray vs. Curlett that led to the banning of prayer in public schools. She founded the American Atheists and Time magazine named her the "Most Hated Woman In America". She wrote articles, gave public speeches, and lectured at Universities as an advocate for atheism and First Amendment rights.

In 1995 she was murdered along with her son and granddaughter by an employee at American Atheists. Her son had been forced to withdraw $600,000 of the organizations funds before the three of them were murdered and the bodies were mutilated and hidden on a remote location. O'Hair's body was identified by the serial number on her artificial hip.

Madalyn Murray O'Hair had written once that she didn't want any "dirty Christers" touching her body after she died. She wanted her body "flung into the water where fish could feed on it". Just the same, her remains are interred in an unmarked grave along with those of her son and grand daughter.
Asian Politics
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U.S.A. Politics
The Candidate
Owners: 719
American politics revolve around The Candidate. What are The Candidate's policies? What is The Candidate's voting record? What are The Candidate's finances? What does The Candidate say? Who are The Candidate's family members? Is The Candidate intelligent? Is The Candidate religious? Is The Candidate in good health? Who are The Candidate's financial backers and political friends? It's all about The Candidate, whether the position to be filled is that of the Presidency of the United States or a Council Member of the smallest municipality.
Plays
The Persians
Owners: 250
Written by Aeschylus, The Persians is the oldest surviving play, meaning that it can still produced today because a script of the play still exists. A Greek tragedy, the play was produced in 472 BC as a group of four plays for a festival in Athens. Of the four, only The Persians has survived.

Set in eight years before it was written, the play is set in Susa then the capital of Persia and now the Khuzestan province of Iran, during the Persian War. The play begins with the royal family waiting for news of the Battle of Salamis and if the Xerses, a ruler during the time of the Achaemenid empire, has survived the conflict.
Musicals (Stage)
Gilbert & Sullivan
Owners: 203
Over 125 years ago composer Arthur Sullivan and librettist William Gilbert joined together to create a sensation in Victorian England with their wit, charm, and well-crafted, lively tunes. Despite the fact that their works were called “comic operas” in their day, this phenomenal team redefined the musical theatre experience and created what later became the modern musical. Gilbert and Sullivan took aim at the Victorian notions of class distinction with such wit and respectability that, rather than take offense, the very classes being lampooned embraced their works.

Much of the success of Gilbert and Sullivan may be attributed to Richard D'Oyly Carte, the London producer and theater owner who recognized their unique talents and promoted their work. The three formed a partnership that would produce such classics as H.M.S Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, and The Mikado. Many of the productions were directed by Gilbert and were renowned for the attention to detail.

In their later works plots and characters were intertwined with the words and music creating the integrated musical which would become the standard into the next century for such teams as Rodgers and Hammerstein and Webber & Rice. Their works continue to be produced throughout the English speaking world, a testament to their timelessness as audiences still find them relevant to this day. Both Gilbert and Sullivan were knighted for their contributions to the arts
Ecstasy
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Cigarettes
Camel Cash
Owners: 149
Found on packs of Camels everywhere, Camel Cash can be used to purchase such useful items as a Camel inflatable raft, Camel pants, or the much-sought Camel pool table. Start savin'!
Illicit Drugs
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LSD
Dr. Timothy Leary
Owners: 68
Dr. Timothy Leary was an American psychologist widely regarded as the father of the psychedelic movement. Over the course of his life it is believed he 'dropped acid' over 5,000 times.

While a professor at Harvard University Leary was involved in experiments which involved administering LSD to students and faculty members to determine what positive effects could be realized from the use of psychotropic medications. The majority of the test subjects felt the experience was positive, and felt LSD expanded their mental acuity and creativity. Leary felt that the use of LSD by a trained psychologist as part of treatment could also help reform criminals and treat disorders such as alcoholism. Harvard was not comfortable with the growing attention garnered by Leary's research and Leary was terminated. The official reason was failure to meet his teaching obligations and inappropriate distribution of psychotropics to students outside of a clinical setting, but there are many who feel it was due to the controversy surrounding LSD trials.

After leaving Harvard Leary continued his research, and personal use of LSD. He began to believe there were spiritual aspects to LSD usage and was one of the co-authors of "The Psychedelic Experience", a book based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Leary also began to tour universities explaining the benefits of psychotropic medication, and attempted to demonstrate to the audience what could be expected from an LSD "trip. It was during this period that Leary was invited to the Human Be-In in San Francisco, where he told the attendees to "Tune In. Turn On. Drop out." This phrase became a mantra for the psychedelic movement.

Leary remained a fixture in the American counter-culture until his death in 1996 from prostate cancer.
Mushrooms (Psychedelic)
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Cancer
Survivorship
Owners: 225
Dignity.  Pride.  Honor.  Courage.  These are the characteristics that one often equates with survivors.  It takes this and much more to deal with the challenges faced daily by a cancer survivor. 

Because of advances in the early detection and treatment of cancer, individuals are living many years after diagnosis.  Survivorship is a broad term that refers to how people who have been diagnosed with cancer as well as their friends, family members and caregivers, live with cancer on a daily basis. Whether an individual is successful in eliminating the hold the disease has on their body, cancer is always a part of his or her life.  Living with it, living through treatments, dealing with the unknowns and the statistics - it all changes the cancer patients and those that surround and support them. 

Cancer is the survivor's journey and each one finds their own path.  There is no 'correct' path.  There is no 'right way' of surviving.  Each does this thing called survivorship their own way.

Live out loud.
AIDS and HIV
It's the virus, stupid.
Owners: 192
Despite massive evidence that HIV, left untreated, can lead to AIDS, denialists believe in a conspiracy-theory approach to refuting this evidence: it's a lifestyle issue, it's the drug companies making (more) money, it's a deliberate poisoning of homosexuals and Africans by the CIA, it's god's punishment of the immoral. Ignoring logic and science, stupidly.

In a humorous emulation of President Clinton, David Ho wore a simple badge stating "It's the virus, stupid". Much to the dismay of AIDS denialists the world over, HIV activists started wearing the same badges.

You can use this artefact's PRD function to decimate your opponents shares, much as AIDS has done to many communities the world over or you can use it to boost your own shares, much as the combination therapies now available have done for the health of those of us living with HIV/AIDS.

However you use it, remember to keep yourself safe by having safe sex and using new injecting equipment every hit.
Hebrew
Ben Yehuda
Owners: 105
In the late 19th Century, Jews were spread across the globe in many different countries, speaking many different languages and dialects depending on their region. Most Jews could read Hebrew since it was the language that all religious prayers and texts were written in; however, it was not a secular spoken language by the majority of Jews. Eliezer Ben Yehuda was exposed to the ideas of Zionism through his university studies of Hebrew, as well as Zionist and Jewish newspapers written in Hebrew for mass distribution. When he moved to Palestine, as many other Jewish immigrants were doing throughout the 1900s, he observed that there was no common language for these diverse Jews to communicate with. He decided to make it his goal to unite the Jewish people with a common language, and is largely responsible for the adoption of Hebrew as the official language of the State of Israel and Jews worldwide.
Yiddish
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Orthodox Judaism
Halakha
Owners: 293
Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. Like the religious laws in many other cultures, Judaism classically drew no distinction in its laws between religious and non-religious life. Hence, Halakha guides not only religious practices and beliefs, but numerous aspects of day-to-day life.

Historically, Halakha served many Jewish communities as an enforceable avenue of civil and religious law. In the modern era, Jewish citizens may be bound to Halakhah only by their voluntary consent. In Israel, though, certain areas of Israeli family and personal status law are governed by rabbinic interpretations of Halakha. Reflecting the diversity of Jewish communities, somewhat different approaches to Halakha are found among Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, and Sefardi Jews. It is the strict adherence to these laws that distinguishes Orthodox Jews from the more liberal Reform, Conservative and Reconstructionist streams of Judaism who have declared the Halakah as non-binding to various degrees.
Reform Judaism
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Conservative Judaism
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Reconstructionist
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Humanist / Humanism
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Ultra-Orthodox / Haredi
The Haredim
Owners: 230
Haredim is a general term used to describe ultra-Orthodox Jews. The Haredi population in Israel has become increasingly diverse. Haredim as a distinct cultural and political force arose within Jewish communities in Europe in reaction to the westernization and secularization that accompanied what historian Jacob Katz termed "coming out of the ghetto." In Europe as well as in Palestine, Haredim formed their own religious and cultural institutions, including separate schools, as well as a roof organization, Agudath Israel, which is presently one of the two main political parties representing Haredim in Israel. Agudath Israel was opposed to Zionism, and it remained aloof from the institutional structure erected by Zionism in Palestine.
Conservadox
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Traditional Judaism
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Chicago (IL)
Tommy Gun
Owners: 590
The perfect weapon for gangland murders. Being compact and easily hidden, and possessing tremendous firepower, it could easily kill one or more targets without requiring the gunman to get close enough to be exposed to return fire - which usually wasn’t a problem because anyone near the intended victim was either also killed, or diving for cover. Even heavy doors and automobile bodies could not shield a victim from a Tommy Gun firing armor piercing ammunition. It was these fearsome qualities that inspired the nicknames bestowed on it. Chopper, Gat, Chicago Typewriter and Tommy Gun all became popular terms used by criminals and the public at large. Carry a Tommy Gun artefact and the Chicago blogstocks are well within your reach.
Munich
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Berlin (State) (Germany)
Fernsehturm
Owners: 296
At 368m, Berlin's Fernsehturm (television tower) is the tallest building in Germany and the fourth tallest in Europe. Built in then Communist East Berlin between 1965 and 1969, the Fernsehturm was a formidable feat of the most modern engineering, intended to demonstrate the superiority of the Communist East over the Capitalist West. Tour guides like to claim that Berliners refer to their television tower affectionately as "Telespargel" (tele-asparagus) but this is largely apocryphal. Though the East German regime sought to introduce this nickname, in truth it never really caught on. The Fernsehturm has outlived the country in which it was built, and today it towers over the Alexanderplatz in the centre of a unified Berlin and is visible from most parts of the city.
Boca Raton (FL)
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Tel Aviv-Jaffa (city)
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Jerusalem (city)
Lion of Judah
Owners: 278
The central image on the Emblem of Jerusalem is the Lion of Judah, who stands in front of a drawing of the bricks of the Western Wall and bordered on the right, left, and bottom with olive branches. Lions are often used to represent royalty, nobility, and chivalry; but much of this symbolism is based on this ancient image. The Lion of Judah, a symbol with religious significance for both Judaism and Christianity, harkens back to the tribe of Judah, a founding tribe of the ancient nation of Israel. As the central image of Jerusalem's emblem, the Lion of Judah represents two of the religions that influenced the heritage of the capital of the nation of Israel.
Cairo
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Beijing (municipality)
Tiananmen Square
Owners: 403
Tiananmen Square is a very large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named for the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. It is seen by many as the symbolic heart of the Chinese Nation. Outside of China, the square is best known for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

The 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests were a series of student-led pro-democracy demonstrations in the People's Republic of China, which occurred between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. The protests ended in violence when the 27th Army of the People's Liberation Army used force to restore order in the capital city.
San Antonio (TX)
The Alamo
Owners: 286
The Alamo is the name of a former mission and fortress compound, now a museum, in San Antonio, Texas, United States. The compound, which originally comprised a church and surrounding buildings, was built by the Spanish Empire in the 18th century for the education of local Native Americans after their conversion to Christianity. After its later abandonment as a mission, it was used as a fortress in the 19th century and was the scene of several military actions. On February 24, 1836, during the Texan War for Independence, some 5,000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Santa Ana besieged less than 200 Texans and their supporters in this mission church. Thirteen days later, the Mexicans stormed the Alamo from all sides, penetrated the fortress and killed all 187 defenders, including famed frontiersmen James Bowie and David Crockett. The Battle of the Alamo was one of the pivotal battles between the forces of the Republic of Texas and Mexico during the Texas Revolution. You can't visit San Antonio without visiting the Alamo. Remember the Alamo!
Philadelphia (PA)
Liberty Bell
Owners: 447
Along with the Statue of Liberty, the Liberty Bell is perhaps the most prominent symbol of American liberty, and probably the most prominent symbol associated with early American history and the battle for American independence and freedom.

Its most famous ringing, on July 8, 1776, summoned citizens for the reading of the Declaration of Independence by the Second Continental Congress. It previously had been rung to announce the opening of the First Continental Congress in 1774 and the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775. The bell was not officially called the Liberty Bell until 1837, when it became a symbol of the abolitionist movement because of its cast inscription from Leviticus 25:10: "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof."

The bell received its first crack in March 1753, the first time it was rung. It was originally cast in 1752 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, for use in the Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall). The bell had been ordered the previous year by the Pennsylvania Assembly, and the inscription from Leviticus was possibly intended to mark the 50th anniversary of William Penn's Charter of Privileges of 1701. After its initial cracking, the bell was recast by John Pass and John Stow of Philadelphia, whose surnames also appear inscribed on the bell. When the tone of the recast bell proved unsatisfactory, Pass and Stow recast the bell again, and this third bell was hung in the steeple of the State House in June 1753. The bell was used to summon members of the Assembly to meetings. It remained in the tower through the start of the American Revolutionary War, when the Second Continental Congress used the building for its deliberations in 1775-76.

In October 1777, however, as the Revolutionary War intensified and the British attempted to seize Philadelphia, the Liberty Bell was moved north, to the Pennsylvania village of Northamptontown (now known as Allentown). In Allentown, the bell was hidden under the floor of Old Zion Reformed Church, where it remained until the British evacuated Philadelphia in 1778, when it was again returned to Philadelphia.

Today, in the basement of this center city Allentown church, the only official replica of the bell is on display, surrounded by the flags of the original thirteen colonies. The location is open to tourists.

The bell was repaired in February 1846. The method of repair, known as stop drilling, required drilling along the hairline crack so that the sides of the fracture would not reverberate. When the bell was rung that month in honor of George Washington's birthday, the crack extended from the top of the repaired crack to the crown of the bell, rendering the bell unusable.

From the 1880s through the early decades of the 20th century, the Liberty Bell traveled to numerous cities and was displayed at expositions and world's fairs. For many years, the bell was housed in the stairwell of Independence Hall where visitors could view it while touring the historic building. On January 1, 1976, the bell was transported from Independence Hall to a glass pavilion located one block north, in anticipation of increased visitation during the bicentennial year of American independence. In October 2003, the bell was moved a short distance to the southwest to a new pavilion, the Liberty Bell Center.
Miami (FL)
Crockett and Tubbs
Owners: 103
Sonny Crockett and Rico Tubbs were the starring characters on the 80's police TV show Miamai Vice. The show was revolutionary with the way it used music and striking visuals each week. Over the life of the series, 1984-1989, over twenty five well known pop and rock artists of the time had their music showcased on episodes with some of the artists even appearing on the show. Even the series theme song, consisting of distinctive synthesized instrumental music, left a lasting, memorable image. What could almost be called a signature scene of the show was an episode that had Crockett and Tubbs cruising a night time Miami in a Ferrari to Phil Collins' hit song "In the Air Tonight".

The show was visually stunning for a number of reasons. One was the Art Deco architecture that the South Beach area of Miami is now famous for. The show was also well known for its use of high end cars, boats and fashion clothing. In fact the clothing that Crockett and Tubbs wore, based off of the hottest European trends, came to represent the fashion of the times. The boats used, originally a Chris Craft Stinger and then a Wellcraft Scarab, were both $100k+ boats with top speeds approaching if not exceeding 100 mph. The original "Ferrari" used was actually a replica, but Enzo Ferrari was upset enough to file a lawsuit against the aftermarket car maker. After they blew up the fake Ferrari in the third season Ferrarri actually gave the show two new real ones as replacements.
Karaism
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Dynamism
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Traditional Chinese Medicine
The Five Elements
Owners: 94
The Five Elements are metal, wood, water, fire, and earth, and are central to the practices in traditional Chinese Medicine. These elements, known collectively as the Wu Xing (Five Elements), are used to describe relationships and interactions of natural processes, including health. In the Cycles of Balance, each element has a role in balancing out other elements.
Drug Addiction
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Alcoholism
Alcoholics Anonymous®
Owners: 200
Alcoholics Anonymous® (commonly known as AA), was founded in 1935 by Bill W. (William Griffith Wilson) and Dr. Bob (Dr. Robert Holbrook Smith). Smith and Wilson were both alcoholics and both native Vermonters. Bill W. worked through his disease with the help of a support group in Vermont. When he met Dr. Bob in Ohio, he helped him to sober up by bringing him to the same group back in Vermont. Bill W. and Dr. Bob began a project of studying alcoholism as a disease and eventually created what came to be known as the "Big Book", which contained the now well-known 12 Steps to recovery. AA does not maintain records of members, but membership is estimated at over 2,000,000 worldwide. There are no dues. The only requirement of membership is a desire to stop drinking.
Caribbean Nations
Caribbean Sea
Owners: 44
Covering approximately 1,063,00 square miles (2,754,000 square km) the Caribbean Sea, located in the Atlantic Ocean, is one of the largest seas in the world. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and southwest, to the north by the Greater Antilles, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by South America.
Oceania
Hawaiki
Owners: 400
Various indigeous peoples from all over Oceania trace their origins to the mythical island of Hawaiki. Polynesian peoples are said to have set out from Hawaiki in open, canoe-like craft and populated much of Oceania. In Maori mythology, Hawaiki is the place where the supreme God, Io, created the world and the first people. Attempts to place Hawaiki have led to wildly differing theories, including Tahiti, Hawaii, Samoa and even Java in Indonesia. Modern DNA testing, however, suggests that the Polynesian peoples likely originated from islands in East Asia, possibly even Taiwan.
Russia
The Tsar
Owners: 110
The word Tsar (or Czar) is derived for Caesar and it literally means ruler or emperor who had absolute authority over his or her people and land. This was the title given to the Russian ruler from from about 1547 until 1721.

The origins of Czarism are generally considered to be purely military and Despotic. The czar, although a paternalistic figure for the people of Russia, had absolute supreme power and no one could question him. There was no tradition of consultation, the czars ruled according to their will and wish. They exercised unlimited Executive, Judicial and Legislative power. All powers of policy and decision making lay with the Czar. The Czars' ministered which were hired and fired by him would only occasionally be consulted and then even individually. Under the Czarist rule people had no say in the government.
Morocco
Imperial Cities
Owners: 219
Fès (Fez), Marrakech, Meknes and Rabat are known as the Imperial Cities of Morocco, each having been the country’s capital at some time during its history.

Rabat, the present capital of Morocco, was founded in the 12th century. It is a town of trees and flowers, and many monumental gateways, including the Gate of the Ambassadors and the Oudaias Kasbah Gate. The nearby Mamora forest and the many beaches are popular tourist attractions, particularly during the summer. Tour Hassan is a grandiose minaret in Rabat, part of a vast, uncompleted 12th-century mosque. Battlements surround the old town and part of the new city, dating from the mid-12th century.

Meknes is protected by 25km (16 miles) of battlements, and flanked by towers and bastions. The city reflects the power and the constructive genius of King Moulay Ismail, a contemporary of Louis XIV, who ruled the country for 55 years. The Michlifen and Djebel Habri are two ski resorts above Meknes. The city boasts a wonderful souk (market) and the old town is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Fez is the most ancient and impressive of the imperial cities. Built in the eighth century, it has more history and mystery than anywhere else in Morocco. Officially encompassing two cities – El Bali and Jadid – Fès is famous for the Nejjarine Square and Fountain, the Er Rsif and Andalous (Al-Andalus) mosques, the Royal Palace, the Kasbah and Karaouine (Al-Qarawiyin) University, which is older than Oxford University. The old part of the city – Fès El Bali – still retains the magical, bustling atmosphere of an ancient time and it is centered around the two famous mosques of Al-Qarawiyin and Al-Andalus. The medina (market) in Fès El Bali is one of the largest in the world and is also on UNESCO’s World Heritage list. As in all of Morocco, the market business is conducted in a leisurely, although deadly earnest way, with the accompaniment of endless glasses of sweet mint tea.

Founded in 1062, Marrakech was once the capital of an empire that stretched from Toledo to Senegal. Called the ‘Pink City’ because of the color of the local earth used in its construction, it is a city of labyrinthine alleyways, secluded palaces, museums, mosques and markets. The city’s gardens are still supplied with water from 11th-century underground irrigation canals. The Djemaa el-Fna (Place of the Dead), the city square, comes alive after nightfall; thronged with dancers, fortune-tellers, musicians, acrobats, storytellers and snake charmers, it is an exciting and occasionally bewildering place – an exotic spectacle that is striking and endlessly surprising. Koutoubia, the 12th-century mosque, is as tall as the towers of Nôtre Dame and dominates the Marrakech skyline.
Algeria
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Zimbabwe
Matobo National Park
Owners: 39
Established in 1926 (as Rhodes Matopos National Park), Matobo National Park is the oldest in Zimbabwe. The Matobo Hills (n and around the park) were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003. The area is well known for the number of "balancing rocks." The rocks are perfectly balanced without other supports. They are created when ancient granite intrusions are exposed to weathering, as softer rocks surrounding them erode away.
Malaysia
Jalur Gemilang
Owners: 576
Translated into "Stripes of Glory", the Malaysian flag or Jalur Gemilang consists of 14 horizontal red and white stripes of equal width; a dark blue canton occupying the upper left quarter of the flag; and within the canton, a crescent, and a 14-pointed star. The Malaysian flag was officially named Jalur Gemilang on the 40th anniversary of the country's independence, Aug 31, 1997. It symbolized the forward thrust Malaysia was making in this nation's desire to be recognized as a developed country by the year 2020.
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Victoria Harbour
Owners: 355
The Victoria Harbour is famous around the world for its stunning panoramic night view and skyline, particularly in the direction towards Hong Kong Island where the skyline of skyscrapers is superimposed over the ridges behind. The best place to view the Harbour is at the Victoria Tower on the Victoria Peak, or from the piazza at the Culture Centre or the promenade of Tsim Sha Tsui on the Kowloon side. Rides on the Star Ferry to view the harbour are also widely popular.

As the natural epicentre of the territory, the harbour has played host to many major public shows, including the annual fireworks displays on the 2nd night of the Lunar New Year. These shows are popular for tourists and locals alike, with the show usually telecast on local television. To add to the popularity of the harbour as a sightseeing location, the government introduced a show dubbed A Symphony of Lights, using use audio, lights and pyrotechnics to introduce the city to its viewers every evening.

Also recently opened, was the Avenue of Stars, built along the promenade outside the New World Centre in Tsim Sha Tsui. Modeled on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it honours the most illustrious people the Hong Kong film industry has produced over the past decades.

By the end of November every year, the outer walls of buildings in the central business districts on both side of the harbours are dressed with Christmas-related decorations, and replaced with Lunar New Year-related ones by January.
Cambodia
The Angkor Wat
Owners: 222
One of the most beautiful temples in the Siem Reap surroundings. It's regarded as the supreme masterpiece of Khmer architecture. This huge Khmer style temple was built by Suryavarman II between 1113 and 1150. Many part of this temple were destroyed by the regime in the early late 70's and early 80's. Nowadays it is a big tourist attraction especially after the movie Tomb Raider and many foreign countries are helping to restore the temple in it's original beauty.
Cyprus
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Israel
David Ben-Gurion
Owners: 79
David Ben-Gurion was a key figure in the establishment of the nation of Israel. Ben-Gurion was a leader in the Zionist movement and a key figure behind, and first signer of, the Israeli Declaration of Independence. When the Declaration was met with an invasion by several neighboring nations Ben-Gurion founded the Israeli Defense Force by uniting various militias scattered around the young nation. After the war Ben-Gurion was elected the first Prime Minister of Israel, a post he held for 12 of the next 14 years. David Ben-Gurion died in 1973.
Philippines
Filipiniana
Owners: 450
Filipiniana are novelty items, nature materials, or craft collections authored and created by Filipinos that reference the Philippine people, their history, art, and cultural heritage.

A visit to the Philippines is not complete without Filipiniana purchase of the following collections: figurines, hand-made greetings cards, nature accessories, graphics and paintings, scents, wall decor, wooden furnitures, metal crafts, t-shirts, desk accessories, woodcarvings, bags, kits, and a bunch of giveaway souvenirs of Philippine products.

New addition to Filipiniana collections are herbal medicines and locally made skin care and beauty products.
Taiwan
The Nine Tribes
Owners: 430
The original settlers of Taiwan are called the Nine Tribes. Also known as Taiwan’s aborigines, they are believed to have come from the Malay archipelago in different waves about 6,000 years ago.

The nine tribes of the "mountain people" live in less accessible mountains, remote eastern Taiwan, and the offshore Orchid Island, where their culture and languages are relatively well preserved.

Some of the distinctive historical traits of these nine remaining aboriginal groups in Taiwan inclue tattooing (except among the Yami and Bunun), pantheism, shamanism, and head-hunting (except among the Yami).
Thailand
Tom Yam Kung
Owners: 449
He/she who visited Thailand knows this famous soup. It's hot and spicy especially for the foreigner. It is prawn soup with lemon grass and lot's of other ingredients:

20 prawns(shrimp), medium size
4-5 sups water
3 shallots, finely chopped
2 stalks lemon grass, lightly pounded, cut into 1 inch long segments
2 table spoons fish sauce
2 slices fresh or dried galangal
20 small mushroom, halved or whole
6 kaffir lime leaves
3 table spoons lime juice
2-3 chillies, cut small coriander leaves and spring onion cut five
(courtesy of the Thai Cookbook)

He/She who tasted it will never forget beautiful Thailand. The land of smile!
Tourism
Travel Agent
Owners: 286
So you want to see Fiji? Tijuana? Spain? Call up the travel agent. Need to book a flight for a business meeting? Call up your travel agent. Need someone to blame when the cruise line serves only non-vegetarian meals? Blame your travel agent.
Vietnam
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Panama
Panama Canal
Owners: 203
The Panama Canal bisects the continents of North and South America, cutting through the isthmus of Panama, and connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in Central America. The canal, whose building was one of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, has a huge impact on shipping, as it removes the need for ships to travel the long and treacherous route via the Drake Passage and Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America.
Nicaragua
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Bulgaria
Martenitsa
Owners: 216
On the 1st of March Bulgaria celebrates Martenica. Not an official holiday, it is a traditional celebration and one of Bulgaria's most unique.

On this day, people exchange white and red woolen bracelets, dolls, or other small red and white articles, called Martenitsa, to wear on their clothes or wrists. According to Bulgarian folk-tradition, they do this to please or appease Baba Marta -- an angry old lady who changes her mood very rapidly -- so that she will not make winter last.

With the giving of Martenitsi, the start of the spring is celebrated. The Martenica, a symbol of wishes for a good harvest and good health, is worn until the wearer sees a sign of spring -- a stork, a swallow or a blossoming tree. S/he then takes it of and ties it to a fruit tree for good luck and health for the coming year.

The proper greeting on Martenitsa is: “Chestito Baba Marta” which means “Happy Grandma Marta.”
Croatia
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Czech Republic
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Denmark
Hans Christian Andersen
Owners: 432
Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875), the world-famous Danish author, whose work has been translated into almost 150 languages, was born in Odense - then Denmark´s second largest town, today the third largest. The first 14 years of his life were spent in this town, which provided him with subject matter for several of his fairy-tales, as well as for parts of novels, memoirs and plays. At age 14 he moved to Copenhagen.

Hans Christian Andersen was a product of two towns, two social environments, two worlds and two ages. Both as a man and as a writer he thus continually developed and changed, but was also in constant dialogue with himself and even at times at war with himself. Thus his social rise provides the direct and indirect motif in many of his tales, novels and plays, both as a productive source in his search for a new and more comprehensive identity and as a source of perpetual and unresolved traumas.

The extensive interest for Hans Christian Andersen, not only within Denmark but also internationally, encompasses both the man and the writer: His fairy-tales (210 in total), autobiographies (3), travel journals (5), novels (6) etc., his personal connections with the arts, music and theatre of the time, and not least Andersen as a point of departure today regarding children´s reading and drawing, illustrators, puppet films, cartoons, movies, stage productions, ballets, operas etc. Also significant is the use of Hans Christian Andersen in the tourist industry.

Dear Hans Christian Andersen ...

You were there, in my childhood back in Denmark. And you were here, when I arrived in New York in 1940. And wherever you are now, I fancy you are up there in some heavenly Elysium, with Mozart and your friend Mendels sohn playing Bach and you maybe telling your stories in the unique, sublime literery fashion in which you wrote them. Wherever you are, know that we refer to you with reverence and pride, as your pen has engraved your name in the stars forever.

Affectionately,
Victor Borge
Another Dane
Republic of Ireland
Pocket Leprechaun
Owners: 543
Having your own pocket leprechaun will make you an instant hit! Think of the possibilities, he's small he's sneaky, he can be yours. When he's not intoxicated and recovering from his home-brew poteen that is.
Lithuania
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Portugal
Explorer
Owners: 800
Sea monsters? No way! Nothing frightens this man. Courage is his middle name. Send him to sail the seven seas and to bring you some treasures.
Psychology
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Child Psychology
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Mental Health Counseling
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Ann Arbor (MI)
Charles Baird Carillon
Owners: 410
The Charles Baird Carillon is mounted on the top of the Burton Memorial Tower on the campus of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. It is claimed to be tied for the fourth heaviest carillon in the world and weighs a total of 43 tons. The 55 bells in the carillion cover a range of 5 octaves from the heaviest bell (which chimes the hour), weighing 12 tons, to the lightest, weighing 16.5 pounds. The Burton Memorial Tower was dedicated on Dec. 4, 1936, and the carillion has been chiming daily since that time. The carillonists choose new pieces to play each day in various musical genres which have included classical compositions, "The Victors", songs by the Beatles, Christmas carols, and brand new compositions of music students.

The University of Michigan also boasts the Ann and Robert H. Lurie Carillon on its North Campus which was completed in 1996 and contains 60 bells.
Neuropsychology
Alexander Luria
Owners: 255
Considered by many to have played a major role in defining neuropsychology as it is practiced today, Soviet neuropsychologist, Alexander Luria forumlated two major goals of neuropsychology: isolating lesions in the brain and analyzing brain function and psychological activity through behavioral observation. He is also the co-author of the Luria-Nebraska test battery, one of the common test batteries that some neurophyschologists like to give their patients.

These tests allow individuals to be compared to their peers in activities involving the area of the brain that was damaged because of injury or illness, and help to assess brain and nervous system damage and setting goals towards improvement as well as evaluating a patient's capacity to return to work.

Many people who have survived severe brain trauma via car wreck, stroke and athletics are evaluated by a neuropsychologist at least once during their hospital stay.
Math
Slide Rule
Owners: 226
The slide rule is a portable, mechanical, analog computer usually consisting of three interlocking calibrated strips and a sliding cursor used to record intermediate results. It was once widely used for rapid, approximate scientific and engineering calculations.

Slide rules became obsolete with the advent of the electronic calculator and modern digital computers yet many models are still considered priceless items.
Anthropology
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Archaeology
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Cognitive Science
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Criminology
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Linguistics
Noam Chomsky
Owners: 87
Though perhaps better know for his radical politics MIT's Noam Chomsky's primary intellectual foundation is in linguistics. Often regarded as the father of modern linguistics, Chomsky revolutionized the field with his theory of universal grammar, the idea that a grammar common to all languages, though expressed differently in each, is a property of the human mind. While Chomsky's political works have thrust him into the public spotlight, his over half century of quietly studying language has defined the modern study linguistics and significantly shaped the related fields of psychology, philosophy, and computer programming.
Scientific Methodology
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Peace Studies
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Sexology
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Sociology
Focus Group
Owners: 357
Focus groups are proving an increasingly popular research method not just in academic social research, but also in the parallel worlds of commercial market research and public policy formation. Theoretically-informed focus group methodologies promise new patterns of insight on the complexities and ambiguities of social behaviour, where former methods and theories are themselves derived from certainties and assumptions which can no longer be 'taken-for-granted' or deemed reliable. Critics however claim that focus group methods are unreliable, are prone to selective interpretation, and are likely to misrepresent public sentiment.
Urban and Regional Planning
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Biotechnology
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Engineering
Doc Edgerton
Owners: 280
Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton was a professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology whose work with an obscure laboratory instrument (the stroboscope or strobe) allowed him to pioneer strobe photography.

Winner of both a bronze medal by the Royal Photographic Society and the National Medal of Science, Edgerton engineered photographic equipment and techniques for photographer Gjon Mili and undersea explorer Jacques Cousteau. Without Doc Edgerton’s engineering, the photographic/videographic works of these two men would not have been possible.

Edgerton invented the Rapatronic camera; his strobe engineering resulted in devices that can be found in most cameras produced today; he was instrumental in the development of side-scan sonar technology, used to scan the sea floor for wrecks.

Edgerton was an engineer, an admired professor of engineering, and a photographer whose still photographs of fast-moving objects adorn art museums worldwide.
Chemical Engineering
Haber-Bosch Process
Owners: 98
In 1909, the brilliant German chemist Fritz Haber demonstrated his high-pressure method for synthesizing ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen to representatives of Badische Anilin- und Soda Fabrik. BASF immediately bought the patent rights for this revolutionary process and turned it over to engineer Karl Bosch for the daunting task of developing a full-scale production design.

Until that point, such high pressures had never been used in bulk chemical production. Bosch’s team developed a low-cost method for producing the chemical components (nitrogen and hydrogen) and a steel reactor that could withstand the physical and chemical stresses of production. With low-cost ammonia readily available, Germany could create an ample supply of both fertilizer and munitions, thus circumventing the British naval blockade of nitrates from South America and prolonging World War I.

Commercially, the Haber-Bosch process is also directly responsible for much of the advancement in chemical technology in the 20th century as it laid the foundation for modern methods of chemical production, particularly in the petroleum and plastics industries.
Civil Engineering
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Computational Engineering
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Cybernetics
The Ktesibios Water Clock
Owners: 115
In the third century BCE, a mechanic named Ktesibios built what many consider one of the first machines used to study what would eventually become known as Cybernetics. The self-regulated process used a steady-flow of water moving at a known flow-rate to measure time, and had a feedback-control that was essential to maintain consistent results. While modern usage of the term Cybernetics often brings to mind electronics, AI, and lots of wires and monitors, the field began fairly simply many thousand years ago as Ktesibios, and many others, pondered some of the basic properties of self-regulating devices. The basic principals found in Ktesibios' water clock have been favorably compared to modern toilet functionality, and certainly launched many others to study the tenats of Cybernetics over the centuries.
Cryogenics
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Electrical Engineering
Fast Fourier Transform
Owners: 270
The Fast Fourier Transform, or FFT, is a vital part of signal processing technology. It translates the strength of an electrical signal from a function of time to a function of frequency, making it easier to manipulate the desired frequencies in a signal.

The FFT was adopted by the engineering and scientific community almost immediately following the publication of a paper by James Cooley and John Tukey in 1965. This paper described a method for translating the laborious calculations of the discrete Fourier transform into an algorithm that would be much more efficient in terms of time and computational power, especially for large quantities of data.

In addition to its uses in applications such as radar signal processing, X-ray crystallography, medical imaging and seismology, the FFT has become a key component in the design of state-of-the-art computer technology, particularly for communications components. Notably, the development of the wireless local area network was made possible by the ability to embed a Fourier processor on a computer chip.
Electronics
Circuit
Owners: 444
Printed circuits, integrated circuits, digital circuits, series and parallel circuits, telecommunication circuits -– in electronics, it’s the circuit that makes it happen by interconnecting electrical elements. Use the power of the Circuit to interconnect the elements of your game play and make it all happen for you at BlogShares.
Food Science
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Invention and Innovation
The Prototype
Owners: 524
The Prototype: It might by ugly, but at least it works. It doesn’t work perfectly, but at least it’s a step in the right direction. It’s buggy, but at least the most important functions have been built in.

A patent might appear sound, but without a working model, it’s just theory. The prototype puts theory into practice in a tangible, working device, even if it isn’t pretty and it’s far from perfect. The prototype often starts out as a collection of “proof of concept” experiments melded together into a functional system. The buttons might be in the wrong place and the labels might be missing, the wiring might look like a pile of spaghetti, but at least the thing works.

The prototype plays a vital role in any product-based company. Its success or failure can completely reroute budgeting and marketing plans. For a small company, it can convince venture capitalists to invest. For a large company, it is the difference between launching a new product line and relegating research to the archives.

After the prototype is approved, it is refined further to fit engineering, marketing and manufacturing requirements, often undergoing a nearly complete change of functionality and appearance from the original design and marketing specifications.
Manufacturing Industry
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Mechanical Engineering
Otis Safety Brake
Owners: 78
While there are many issues to be solved in designing buildings (framing materials, air conditioning, how to keep buildings from being greenhouses, wind/rain forces), none of these problems would present themselves if we didn’t have a way to move people from one floor to another. If the only way to get to a higher floor is the stairs, buildings are limited in height. The elevator solved this problem, and the Otis safety brake for elevators made it a practical solution.

Elisha Graves Otis, born in Vermont in 1881, did not invent the elevator (initially known as the "ascending room”). But he did see a problem with the first elevators – if the rope snapped, you were in for a speedy and catastrophic descent. An inveterate tinkerer, Otis came up with the safety brake, a mechanism that would lock the elevator car in place on the tracks by use of a spring that was triggered by cable failure. The brake was patented as ‘Improvement in Hoisting Apparatus Elevator Brake Patent Number(s) 31,128’.

In 1854, Otis made a dramatic public display of his new safety device at the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York. In front of a large audience, Otis had himself hoisted up in an elevator cradled in an open-sided shaft. Halfway up, he had an assistant cut the hoisting cable with an axe. The elevator fell only for a few seconds, and then came to a halt. Contemporary accounts say that Otis then doffed his top hat, bowed, and said, "All safe, ladies and gentlemen, all safe."

The first elevator for public use was a steam-driven type installed by Otis Brothers in the five-story New York department store E.W Haughtwhat & Company. The nine-story Equitable Life Assurance Society Building was the first building to have passenger elevators specifically designed by the architect for office building use. Built in 1870, it was the tallest building in New York City at the time at 130 feet high. The building was destroyed by fire in 1912.

Interestingly, once buildings were no longer limited by the size of the site and you could build up not just out, the real estate valuation of floors was inverted. Rather than wanting to occupy the ground floor, where you were visible and accessible to passersby, tenants found the top floors of buildings, with their light and air, away from traffic, the most desirable.

These days, elevator technology is being pushed to new heights in buildings like the Burj Dubai, which will hold world titles in at least four engineering categories when it is completed in 2008. The 160-plus-story tower will be nearly double the height of the Empire State Building at more than 2,290 feet (700 meters). Otis will provide 54 elevators; the highest-rise elevator will reach 1,640 feet (500 meters). The fastest elevator, a double-deck, will travel at the rate of 1,969 feet per minute (10 meters per second). Passengers will be transported up and down at almost 22 miles per hour; the trip will take about 55 seconds.
Metallurgy
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Military Science
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Nanotechnology
K. Eric Drexler
Owners: 222
While Richard P. Feynman is widely heralded as the father of nanotechnology, K. Eric Drexler is most credited with advancing the field to where it stands today. Drexler was already a well accomplished student at MIT before discovering Feynman's 1959 lecture "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom.

In 1986 he published the first book to lay out the potentials of molecular nanotechnology, entitled "Engines of Creation". The release coincided with the foundation of the . His PhD from MIT was the first doctoral degree in Molecular Nanotechnology. Drexler's graduate thesis was released as a book, "Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing and Computation, which received the AAP award for Best Computer Science Book of 1992.
Nuclear Power
Uranium
Owners: 189
The main fissile material in nuclear reactions, Uranium is a radioactive element identified by the symbol U and is a member of the group actinides (or actinoids) on the periodic table of elements. Uranium has the atomic number of 92 and is a heavy, dense metal.

Uranium itself naturally occurs in the earth's crust, but the various form of nuclear power may require higher levels of enrichment, which means increasing the amount of U-235 in the ore. The more common the kind of nuclear power, the lower the levels of enrichment required. Advanced research reactors need the highest level of enrichment called "weapons grade," which is enriched over 85%.

After being mined and enriched if needed, the uranium is turned into flat pellets approximately a centimeter in diameter. The pellets are stacked to form fuel rods, which are then bundled together and used in the fission process. The resulting fission can either be controlled as in the use of nuclear power plants, or uncontrolled as occurs with nuclear weapons.
Optics
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Petroleum Engineering
Edwin L. Drake
Owners: 199
The Year: 1859
The Man: Edwin L. Drake

Way back in 1858, the Seneca Oil Company leased Some Pennsylvania land and then sent Edwin L. Drake into the area to find some way to increase oil production. First, Drake tried drilling through the earth, then drilling through rock. Progress was slow as the soft ground kept collapsing. Drake solved this by driving a pipe into the bedrock and using a drill bit from inside the piping to excavate the earth. His ingenuity paid off in a big way. Edwin Drake struck black gold on August 27th, 1859. The depth: 69 feet. Had he drilled just a few feet in any other direction he would have had to drill a further 100 feet before hitting the oil reservoir. A pump was added and soon was producing nearly 20 barrels per day. This was double the rate produced by all other sources available at that time.
Pyrotechnics
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Robotics
Machine Vision
Owners: 188
While the ability to capture a digital image is commonly available using inexpensive technologies, the implementation of machine vision in a robot is considerably less straightforward. Machine vision enables a robot to capture an image, interpret it to the extent required, make a decision based on that interpretation, then act on that decision—usually faster than the blink of a human eye. It requires not only camera technology but computer science, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and systems design engineering.

Because machines do not interpret images the same way humans do, often a highly sensitive black-and-white camera is preferred over the current digital color imaging technology for machine vision applications.

Machine vision is often used in industrial applications where high throughput is required, higher than a human being could reasonably manage and often under inhospitable conditions. Typical examples include quality control inspection in high speed processing and manufacturing lines (often using a strobe light), and real-time image processing in security systems and other camera applications.

In the food industry, machine vision is commonly used to ensure the integrity of food items and their packaging during processing. Food items are checked for size, blemishes or discoloration, while highly processed foods are checked for inconsistencies. Packaging is inspected for fill levels, seam flaws and faulty labelling. Problem items discovered during this high-speed inspection are removed from the processing lines in a variety of ways, including mechanical force (pushing an item off the line), diversion (switching the line briefly to dump an item elsewhere) and blowing (using a puff of air to whisk a small item off the line).
Sanitary Engineering
Watershed
Owners: 84
A basic fact of physics is that water flows downhill. A basic fact of geology is that much of this water flows underground. A watershed is an area of land in which groundwater is collected from rain and snow, and flows toward a major body of water.

Sanitary engineers must have an intimate knowledge of our relationship with the water in our environment: how it is used for human, agricultural and commercial purposes, how we acquire it from wells, rivers and lakes, and where it goes. If mismanaged, the watershed can become an insidious and difficult-to-detect source of illness by carrying toxins such as motor oil, heavy metals such as lead or arsenic, or deadly pathogens such as E. coli O157H, into our drinking and irrigation water.
Safety Engineering
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Space Images
Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF)
Owners: 305
In March 2004 astronomers of the Space Telescope Science Institute released the deepest portrait of the visible universe every recorded. The exposure was created by Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) from September 2003 to January 2004 and required over 1,000,000 seconds of exposure due to the faint light. The HUDF image contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies some of which astronomers believe were created 800 million years after the big bang. The universe today is about 13.6 billion years old.

Astronomers believe the major evolution of galaxies occurred within 1 billion years of the big bang. The images provide the first view of galaxies when they were basically in their toddler years. The photons of light captured by the telescope’s ACS camera began traversing the universe before Earth even existed.

In addition to the more common elliptical and spiral galaxies of today, the image includes galaxies in a wide variety of shapes, colors, and designs which are indicative of the chaotic nature of the early stages of the universe. Some galaxies even appeared to be interacting as order and structure was beginning to emerge.

Hubble also provided images in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum from its Near Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Astronomers believe these images may show galaxies as they were only 400 million years after the big bang. The expanding of the universe has stretched their light so that they are only visible in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum.

These images provided by Hubble will be the most detailed available to astronomers until the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) currently scheduled for 2013. JWST is the replacement for Hubble and will primarily provide images in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum in addition to some capability in the visible range.
NASA
Countdown
Owners: 338
T minus 3 hours and counting. The launch clock resumes from its scheduled hold at the 3 hour mark, now subtracting time inexorably toward the final hold planned at the T minus 20 minute mark. Booster tanks have been filled with hydrogen and oxygen fuel. All safety checks have been successfully completed, all computer systems synchronized between Houston ground control and the rocket standing bright in the Florida morning sun. The astronauts arrive and are helped into their places aboard the vessel; the crew module hatch is closed and latched for flight. The launch clock choreographs millions of collective efforts and advanced instruments as it ticks off each second of preparation, each moment of growing expectation. Skies are clear at T minus 20 minutes, all systems are go from here. Every eye turns to the launch pad in eager anticipation. Your Countdown artefact is ready to blast you to the stars and beyond.

Ten…nine…eight…seven…six…five…four…three…two…one……
Space Tourism
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Space Colonization
L5 Society
Owners: 162
Founded in 1975 by Carolyn and Keith Henson to promote the space colony ideas of U.S. physicist and space pioneer, Dr. Gerard K. O’Neill, the L5 Society was organized after Dr. O’Neill’s paper, “The Colonization of Space,” appeared in the September 1974 issue of Physics Today, the flagship publication of The American Institute of Physics.

L5 refers to the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points proposed as locations for a huge rotating space habitat envisioned by Dr. O'Neill. Lagangian points are positions in interplanetary space where the combined gravitational pull of two large objects (such as the Earth and the Moon) can keep a smaller object (such as a space station) rotating in a fixed position relative to the two large objects.

In 1986, with a membership of about 10,000 people, the L5 Society merged with the larger National Space Institute, founded by German-born NASA engineer Dr. Wernher von Braun. The new entity, called the National Space Society (NSS), exists today as an international nonprofit 501(c)(3), educational, and scientific organization.

A space-advocacy organization, the NSS envisions “people living and working in thriving communities beyond the Earth” and it promotes “change in social, technical, economic, and political conditions to advance the day when people will live and work in space"(from the NSS Vision Statement).
Energy
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Energy Conservation
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Fossil Fuel
The Keeling Curve
Owners: 266
One of the most recognizable images in modern science, the Keeling Curve (named for climate scientist Charles David Keeling, who charted it) is a graph of the continual rise of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere over a forty-seven-year period covering most of the second half of the 20th century and the first few years of the 21st century.

While it reflects the annual cycle of carbon growth and decline following the vegetation cycle, the Keeling Curve more dramatically describes the growing accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to the burning of fossil fuels. The measurements reflected in the Keeling Curve make it one of the foundational sets of data for the study of global climate change.

The importance and context of Keeling's work and the Keeling Curve were described this way by the director of Scripps Institution of Oceanography -- the organization that funded Keeling's work -- after Keeling's death in 2005:

"Charles David Keeling’s measurements of the global accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere set the stage for today’s profound concerns about climate change. They are the single most important environmental data set taken in the 20th century. David Keeling was living proof that a scientist could, by sticking close to his bench, change the world."
Fusion (Nuclear)
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Geothermal
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Hydrogen Power / Fuel Cells
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Atlántico (Department)
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Model Railways
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Zionism
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Lesbian
Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon
Owners: 354
On February 12, 2004, Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon made history when they became the first same-sex couple to be legally married in the United States.

Recognized as founders of the lesbian rights movement, they had been together 51 years at the time of their San Francisco wedding. Martin was 83; Lyon, 79.

Their activism has spanned five decades, ranging from co-founding America’s first lesbian organization in 1955, to successfully changing, in coalition with others, California’s sex laws in the 1960s, to writing two highly influential books in the 1970s and playing a key role in the American Psychiatric Associations’s 1973 decision to remove homosexuality from its diagnostic manual, to serving as delegates to the 1995 White House Conference on Aging, to being featured in a 2002 documentary, No Secret Anymore: The Times of Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon.

“Martin and Lyon occupy a particularly important position as founding mothers of the modern glbtq movement, having participated in the movement's evolution from the timid first steps of the homophile organizations to the heady days of the gay and lesbian liberation to the achievement of more mainstream political clout.” (Tina Gianoulis, glbtq.com)
Political Humor
Will Rogers
Owners: 824
Will Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was a famous American entertainer and political humorist. His views on the nature of politics always provide fuel for his witicisms. Famous sayings include "There's no trick to being a humorist when you have the whole government working for you" and "I don't belong to any organized party. I'm a Democrat". Rodgers was a man of many interests, including aviation. He undertook an polar flight in 1935, but crashed in Point Barrow, Alaska, killing himself and friend Wiley Post.
Lithuanian
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Graffiti
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Climbing
Figure 8 Knot
Owners: 151
The Figure 8 knot is the first and most important knot a beginning climber or mountaineer learns. This knot attaches the climber and his or her harness to the climbing rope, and also attaches the climber's belayer to the far end of the rope. In a pinch, a doubled Figure 8 can also be used to quickly tie a climber off to a fixed anchor or a belay station.
Cycling
Tour de France
Owners: 340
The Tour de France is widely regarded as the world's most prestigious bicycle race. It was conceived as a publicity stunt by French sports newspaper L'Auto after the owners lost a trademark lawsuit and were forced to change the paper's name. The first race took place in 1903 and covered a distance of about 2,400 kilometres (1,400 miles) split into 6 stages. 21 of the original 60 racers eventually struggled across the line on fixed-gear bicycles which weighed in excess of 30 pounds, the winner receiving the princely sum of 3,000 francs. The Tour has been an annual event since then, except for during those years when it was rudely interrupted by the small matter of two world wars.

The first mountain stage was introduced in 1905 and by 1910 horrified participants were having to tackle the Pyrenees. In 1919 the organisers came up with the idea of putting the leading cyclist in a yellow jersey so that spectators along the route could tell who was winning the race. The longest ever Tour covered a distance of 5,564km split into 24 stages, but nowadays the race has settled into a format of 20 stages covering between 3,000 and 4,000 km. In 2004, Lance Armstrong of the United States became the first rider to win six tours, and also the first to win six in succession - all this after recovering from life-threatening cancer. Other notable Tour winners include: Eddy Merckx of Belgium, Greg LeMond of the United States, and Miguel Indurain of Spain.
Mountain Biking
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Hungarian
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Rabbits
Watership Down
Owners: 244
"Watership Down" is the title of Richard Adams's first and most successful novel. The story follows a warren of Berkshire rabbits fleeing the destruction of their home by a land developer, and their subsequent adventures as they search for a safe haven. They find sanctuary in a warren on the down for which the book is titled. The greatness of "Watership Down" rests on the sense of realism that Adams brings to his story of wild rabbits.
Angry
Road Rage
Owners: 325
Road recklessness. Auto Anarchy. Vehicular Violence. Road rage is a term used to describe angry, hostile reactions directed toward other drivers. It is characterized by everything from aggressive tailgating and gesturing to truly violent acts, such as using an automobile as a weapon or assaulting, even killing another driver.

In 2006, medical professionals indicated that road rage may be a related to Intermittent Explosive Disorder, or IED. IED is caused by an imbalance in brain chemicals and affects up to one in twenty people — more men than women. However, as of the fall of 2006, there is no medical evidence to support this claim.
Grumpy
The Scowl
Owners: 157
From the oldest adult to the youngest child, no one gets by without periodic bouts of grumpiness. Whether from too little sleep or too much, high stress or low self-esteem, almost every grumpy person exhibits the classic scowl. Not quite a frown, not quite a sign of anger, the grumpy scowl is a sign to leave the person alone for the time being. No matter what you try, that scowl will be the first sign that the grump isn't giving in any time soon.
Romance Stories
Three Musketeers
Owners: 305
The Three Musketeers was first published in serial form in the magazine Le Siècle between March and July 1844. Dumas claimed it was based on manuscripts he had discovered in the Bibliothèque Nationale. It was proved Dumas based his work on the book Mémoires de Monsieur d'Artagnan, capitaine lieutenant de la première compagnie des Mousquetaires du Roi (Memories of Mister D'Artagnan, Lieutenant Captain of the first company of the King's Musketeers) by Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras (Cologne, 1700). The book was borrowed from the Marseilles public library, and the card-index remains to this day. (Dumas kept the book when he went back to Paris.)
It covers the adventures of D'Artagnan and his friends in 1625, as they are involved in intrigues involving the weak King Louis XIII of France, his powerful and cunning advisor Cardinal Richelieu, the beautiful Queen Anne of Austria, her English lover, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and the siege of the rebellious Huguenot city of La Rochelle.
Crime Thriller Literature
Maltese Falcon
Owners: 127
The Maltese Falcon is quite possibly the most famous of the "hard-boiled" detective novels, largely thanks to Humphrey Bogart's memorable portrayal of the P.I. Sam Spade in the film adaptation, and written by the genre's founder, Dashiell Hammett. In both the book and the film (which follows the book closely), the Falcon is a valuable statuette, lusted after by several ruthless groups who catch detective Spade in the crossfire.

Alfred Hitchcock described the Falcon as the ultimate "MacGuffin," an object very important to the characters but really of no consequence to the audience, i.e. something which serves no purpose but to further the plot.
Science Fiction Literature
Analog
Owners: 446
Analog is often considered the publication where science fiction grew up. The pages of Analog have been home to many of science fiction's foremost writers and stories. Isaac Asimov, Robert A. Heinlein, Poul Anderson, Spider Robinson, Lois McMaster Bujold, and Frank Herbert are just a few of the prominent names which have often appeared, and Analog has a long tradition of discovering and cultivating new talent. The Analog artefact may give traders a fiction of things-to-come based on things-on-hand.
Vodka
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Cellular
Ringtones
Owners: 346
Cellular technology offers a wide range of capabilities -- text messaging, videos, built-in cameras. But one thing is certain: cell phones are nothing without their ringtones. From Crazy Frog, Skater Bear, and Pinky Pig to Classical, Hip Hop, and Movie Themes, ringtones bring personality to cellular technology. Even phones that support only polytonal ringtones give owners the opportunity to individualize their cell phones.
Photoblogs
Image Compression Algorithm
Owners: 917
The world of photoblogs would not be possible without the availability of image compression algorithms such as JPEG and GIF. This artefact represents the innovation of a unique patent in this field which applied judicially can extort license fees from its photoblog users.

Careful not to bite more than you can chew or else other patent holders may come out of the woodwork to claim a share in the pie; standards, prior art and ubiquity be damned.
Catholic
Spanish Inquisition
Owners: 597
NOBODY expects the Spanish Inquisition! Amongst their weaponry are such diverse elements as: fear, surprise, ruthless efficiency, an almost fanatical devotion to the Pope, and nice red uniforms...
Put your target into the Comfy Chair and have your way with the industry.
Montreal
Fortified City
Owners: 271
When it was first founded,Montréal was defended by fortified structures. As early as 1688, the colonial administration urged its inhabitants to build a large number of small forts,houses, fortified mills and redoubts—outworks or fieldworks without flanking defences.The first stockade,made of wood,was erected between 1687 and 1689. Louis XIV gave his consent to build a stone fortification in 1712, and construction began in 1716.

The new stone ramparts, built between 1717 and 1738, were a symbol of authority and a guarantee of security, which both had a positive impact on the economy of Montréal. In 1744, as war loomed, improvements were made. The ramparts were designed according to the rules of fortification, the construction art that takes the topography of the site into account. Since Montréal is situated on relatively flat land, it was easy to apply the principle of flanking, which requires that all parts of the fortified wall be in the defenders’ full view.This strategy was intended to protect the city from the greatest threat to its security: a standard siege from a large military troop pulling small artillery.

The 18th-century fortified city formed a dense urban mosaic, dotted with large buildings—many belonging to religious communities—landscaped with great walled gardens, and nearly 400 houses were built during this time of expansion. The fortifications were gradually dismantled between 1804 and 1817 following the adoption of The Act to Demolish the Old Walls and Fortifications Surrounding the City of Montréal in 1801.
Tunisia
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Winter Sports
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Sailing
America's Cup
Owners: 230
In 1848, Queen Victoria authorized the creation of a "One Hundred Guinea Cup" of solid silver (134oz), 27" tall for a yacht race "open to all nations." In 1851 one American boat challenged 16 English ships. The Royal Yacht "Squadron" of Cowes, England was the host. The New York Yacht Club entry was the schooner "America." W.H. Brown, the designer, was so confident of his design that he refused payment if "America" did not win. The oft-quoted remark by the Queen was sparked by a great lead and victory around the Isle of Wight over the 16 other yachts. She asked, "Who is first?" "America" has won, she was told. "Who was second," asked the Queen? The reply still echoes - "Your Majesty, there is no second."

In 30 defenses since then, the interplay of national pride, giant egos, wide-ranging brilliant designs, and now modern technology, have kept the cup very much alive. The 132 years of successful defense by the New York Yacht Club remains the longest record in sports history. Sir Thomas Lipton tried for 31 years to win The Cup, commencing in 1899. From schooners, to J-boats, to 12 meters to the current IOAC designs, men's brains, wits, skills and money have been locked in sea-swept combat.

[Information courtesy http://www.americascupnews.com/history.htm]
Yachting
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Swimming
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National News
Associated Press
Owners: 250
Beginning in the spring of 1846, what eventually became the start of the Associated Press was the pony express delivery of news of the Mexican War to a telegraph in Richmond, Virginia. By the end of summer, most major newspapers across the country were communicating by telegraph to form the Harbor News Association.

By the early 1900’s, the AP began using telewire to transmit their stories across the country. In 1933, they began using teletype instead of Morse code, allowing them to transmit stories up to 66 words per minute.

In these times, the AP are pushing constant video streams across the internet as well as relaying text, video, and audio stories around the world.
Local News
Hometown Station
Owners: 325
The Hometown Station is the local or closest regional television to the area you live. The Hometown Station normally airs a primarily locally based news broadcast held morning, mid-day, evening and night. The station covers the news with a local angle, focusing on topics like crime, politics, weather, traffic, restaurant ratings, crime/fraud watch and youth, college and pro sports. They are the place to go for local election results, high school football and footage of the city council debating the latest issues.

Sometimes the news on the Hometown Station barely qualifies as journalism and is more lighthearted than a national news broadcast. The Hometown Station fashions themselves as part of the community fabric, sponsoring community events, charity drives and champions local causes while not touching any issues with political implications.
Celebrity Gossip
Paparazzi
Owners: 598
The hordes of photographers at every movie studio, palatial residence and trendy cafe in the world may be a drag on the celebrity lifestyle - but without them, how would we know what our favorite stars had for lunch on Tuesday?
Indie and Alternative Music
NME
Owners: 486
“New Musical Express” (better known as the NME) is a weekly music magazine in the UK. Its focus is on guitar-based music and indie rock bands, and it is often credited as the starting point for many successful British bands. It was also responsible for the first UK Singles Chart.
Finnish
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Country Music
Grand Ole Opry
Owners: 237
The Grand Ole Opry is a weekly Saturday night country music radio program that is broadcast live on WSM Radio in Nashville, Tennessee. It is also televised and promotes live performances both in Nashville and on the road.

The oldest continuing radio program in the United States, the Grand Ole Opry has been broadcast on WSM since November 28, 1925. It started out as the WSM Barn Dance in the new fifth floor radio station studio of the National Life & Accident Insurance Company. The featured performer on the first show was Uncle Jimmy Thompson, a fiddler who was eighty years of age. The announcer was producer George D. Hay, who was known on the air as "The Solemn Old Judge." He was only thirty and was not a judge, but was an enterprising pioneer who launched the Barn Dance as a spin-off of his National Barn Dance program at WLS Radio in Chicago, Illinois.

The name Grand Ole Opry came about on December 8, 1928. The Barn Dance followed the Music Appreciation Hour, which consisted of classical music and selections from grand opera. When the program signed off that night and it was time for the WSM Barn Dance to sign on, Judge Hay stepped up to the microphone and said, "For the past hour, we have been listening to music taken largely from Grand Opera. From now on we will present the 'Grand Ole Opry.'" The name stuck and has been used for the program since then.
Fishing
Lepenski Vir
Owners: 168
On a high terrace in a narrow plateau on the banks of the Danube, across the river from the trapezoidal Treskavek mountain in what today is eastern Serbia, lies the remains of an ancient settlement composed of a number of related villages.

Archaeological digs, started in 1965, have revealed that Lepenski Vir was continually inhabited for more than two millenia, starting about 7000 BCE. Its earliest inhabitants, descendants of an early European hunter gatherer population, numbered fewer than one hundred. Theirs was a fishing community, one of many common to the Danube valley region during the early period of habitation.

From fishing settlement, to complex semi-nomadic foraging settlement, to the eventual center of an extended, settled farming community, Lepenski Vir provides a remarkable archaeological record of a human population's transition from Mesolithic hunter-gatherers to Neolithic farmers and culture creators.

The layout of the settlement from an early level reveals a well-planned village with houses arranged in a geometric pattern and built with identical floor plans that repeat the trapezoidal shape of the mountain that dominated the landscape. These features are responsible for an architecture distinctly Lepenski Virian.

The wooden houses, floored with sandstone, contained a central hearth. Often the remains of a fish-roasting spit were found in the houses, as were altars and sacred objects such as figural sandstone sculptures and miniature stone axes.

Unique among the many artifacts of this settlement are its piscine (fish-like) sculptures. Some sculptures are highly geometric; others are strikingly representational, with human heads and faces that have fish-like mouths. On some, various other human features appear -- breasts, arms, beards, hands.

Some of these human-fish sculptures are huge and as such are considered to be the first examples of monumental sacral art on the European mainland. Other smaller ones were found in shrines in the houses, suggesting a religious life with river and/or fish deities central to it.

Frequently carved into these sculptures is the image of the large whirpool that existed in the Danube in front of the site. In 1971 excavations ended when the entire site was relocated to higher ground to escape being flooded and lost as a result of the creation of an artificial lake in the Iron Gates Gorge.
Sculpture
Auguste Rodin
Owners: 86
French sculptor, Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) is often considered the godfather of modern sculpture.

His works in bronze and marble combined themes and technique of classic decorative sculpture with a modern strive to achieve realism and sensitivity through his often highly symbolic works of art. His most famous works are 'The Thinker', 'The Kiss' and his monumental bronze portal 'The Gates of Hell.'
Youth Ministry / Youth Worship
Lock In
Owners: 287
A lock in is the classic youth event where everyone is locked in for the night eating masses of pizza, tons of candy and cokes, with a variety of movies, games, and devotions. A lock in will draw tons of kids and make your youth ministry grow.
C#
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VB.NET
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Seattle (WA)
Rain
Owners: 580
While most people associate Seattle with grunge bands, espresso stands on every street corner, or a certain software colossus, Seattle has been long known for its rainfall. In reality, Seattle's annual rainfall is less than that of New York, Chicago or Houston. However, the lingering canopy of clouds and the slow, drippiness of the rain makes it feel like it's more. Especially in winter.

It is said that the average Seattle child can differentiate between rain, drizzle, and a rain shower before he or she knows how to read.
Boston (MA)
Tea Party
Owners: 565
The Boston Tea Party was one of the most effective pieces of political theater ever staged. John Adams, no fan of mob action, wrote of the dumping of the tea: "There is a dignity, a majesty, a sublimity, in this last effort of the patriots that I greatly admire." The Boston Tea Party was a protest of British tax policies. It came in the midst of a boycott of English tea during which the East India Company, which owned the tea, had seen its profits plummet in the wake of a boycott of tea in the colonies. The Tea Party artefact can be used to exert positive or negative pressure on the Market, earning you friends or enemies, depending on how it is used.
German Shepherds
Rin Tin Tin
Owners: 22
Rescued from a World War I battlefield by American Soldier Lee Duncan, Rin Tin Tin became famous for his work in silent films. He appeared in 27 Hollywood films and is considered to be responsible for increasing the popularity of German Shepherds as family pets.

In 1929, Rin Tin Tin received the most votes for the Best Actor Academy Award, however the Academy determined the award should be presented to a human and Rin Tin Tin did not receive his Oscar.
Northern Ireland
Bomb Scare
Owners: 348
The bomb scare will shut down business for a day or two, snarl up traffic for miles around and cause a wee man from a Bobcat to sweat buckets.

Usually a tin of Quality Street with an alarm clock and a few wires hanging out, occasionally it will contain something with a little more ba-ba-boum. Very effective when placed on the train tracks to Newry.
Computer Hardware
The Mouse
Owners: 386
The first mouse was developed in 1963 by Douglas Engelbert at the Stanford Research Institute. Originally called “bug” by his team, the device quickly gained the name mouse due to early models having the cord attached to the rear part of the device. The earliest mouse had two gear rotating wheels touching the working surface, but later inventions such as the ball & optical mice became extremely popular with business & home users alike leading to it becoming a standard component of any computer system. A mouse can have between one and three buttons, two buttons being standard for a PC and one button mice being shipped with Apple computers until 2005. As well as being a must-have accessory for the modern computer user, it has accessories of it’s own, such as a mouse pad & wrist rests.
Bacon
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Sudamerican
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Taipei
Snake Alley
Owners: 235
One of the biggest attractions for tourists in Taipei has to be the night markets, and arguably the most famous one of all is Huaxi Street, most commonly known as Snake Alley.

It is the oldest, and without doubt the most exotic of the popular night markets in Taipei. Here you can find snakes of all kinds being displayed, prepared, and sold for medicinal purposes and as gourmet delicacies.

Snake Alley offers lots of entertainment. Snake performers handle cobras and other poisonous snakes right on the sidewalks. Street musicians and other food vendors add to the excitement and high energy level. Snake-skin items are sold next to more traditional tourist items.

Take advantage of guided tours offered by Taiwan’s tourism bureau on your next trip to Taipei, or use the Snake Alley artefact here at BlogShares.

Wait, what was that sound? Buzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz.
Gadgets and Gizmos
Swiss Army Knife
Owners: 649
The swiss army knife is the ultimate gadget. No matter the job required, the right tool is available. This powerful gadget will transform to fit the situation. This weapon can be used for both good and evil. Use it with care.
Star Trek
Gene Roddenberry
Owners: 366
Star Trek collectively refers to six science fiction television series, ten motion pictures, and hundreds of novels, video games, and other works of fiction all set within the same fictional universe created by Gene Roddenberry in the early to mid 1960s. It depicts an optimistic future in which humankind has overcome sickness and poverty and warfare on earth; the central characters explore the galaxy, finding new worlds and meeting new civilizations, while helping to spread peace and understanding. Star Trek is one of the most popular names in twentieth century science fiction entertainment.
Elementary Education
Elementary School Teacher
Owners: 367
Science tells us that a child is most impressionable in elementary school, thus if you have the teacher in your control you can imprint anything you want on the poor, unsuspecting kids. Use wisely though, if parents get wind of fowl play they can raise a real stink.
Yoga
Tadasana Mountain
Owners: 223
Yoga is an ancient Indian practice that dates back to 2500 BCE, possibly even earlier. It is a scientific system designed to bring the practitioners health, happiness, and a greater sense of Self. In Yoga, the body and mind are linked to create a state of internal peacefulness and integration. At the practical level, and included in the contemporary definitions of Yoga, are the actual physiological/mental techniques themselves. These techniques concentrate on posture and alignment, as well as creating a higher consciousness. Yoga utilizes stretching postures, breathing, and meditation techniques to calm the emotional state and the mind, and tone the body. The Tadasana Mountain pose is one of the first poses taught to a student in Yoga.
Labradors
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Switzerland
Direct Democracy
Owners: 261
The land-locked alpine country of Switzerland features a system of government which makes it unique in the world: direct democracy. This system is not currently used on a national level in any other country, though it is employed on a local and state level in several other countries and was first experimented with in the ancient Athenian repblic from around 508BC.

Under Swiss direct democracy, any law passed by parliament may be challenged by any citizen, provided he or she can collect 50,000 signatures for a petition against the law in question. Whenever such a petition is presented, a national vote must be scheduled, in which all registered voters may decide, by simple majority, whether the law should be accepted of rejected.

In addition, the Swiss system of direct democracy provides for any citizen to seek an amendement to the constitution. This requires 100,000 signatures and is known as a "popular initiative." Popular initiatives are also decided in a national vote. In such cases, a double majority is required: the amendment must achieve a simple majority of popular votes, as well as a simple majority in over half of the states, or cantons. Over the past 120 years, there have been more than 240 such popular initatives put to the vote in Switzerland.
Venezuela
Angel Falls
Owners: 292
Rising majestically out of the wilderness of Venezuela’s Gran Sabana region, the tepuis (table-top mountains) are considered by the indigenous Pemon people to be the homes of gods or spirits. One of these mountains, called Auyan-Tepui (Devil Mountain) by the Pemon, is the home of Angel Falls, the world highest waterfall at 979 m (3,212 ft), making it over 19 times higher than Niagara Falls. The longest uninterrupted drop is 807 m (2,648 ft) down the sheer face of the tepui.

Known to the Pemon as Parekupa-meru, Angel Falls was unknown in the western world until a flight mishap by American pilot Jimmie Angel in 1937, who bogged down his plane after landing on Auyan-Tepui. Angel was driven by the urge to confirm sighting of the “mile-high” waterfall he’d believed he had seen in 1933 during a flight to find gold ore. It took his three-person party 11 days to climb down the mountain and make their way to the mission in Kamarata. Even now, a trip to the falls is a non-trivial undertaking and visitors have no guarantee of being able to see the falls through the fog.

Angel was not the first to “discover” the falls. Credit for that is given to Venezuelan explorer Ernesto Sanchez La Cruz who in visited it in 1910.
Cookies
Toll House Inn
Owners: 205
The Toll House Inn, located on the outskirts of Whitman, Massachusetts, was the birthplace of the classic Chocolate Chip Cookie. The cookie was a happy accident of one Ruth Graves Wakefield, owner of the Inn. In 1937, Wakefield was baking chocolate cookies but ran out of regular bakers' chocolate. She is said to have substituted broken pieces of semi-sweet chocolate, believing they would melt in the batter when the cookies were baked. However, the chocolate pieces did not totally melt, and instead remained nuggets of chocolate within the cookies. The cookies are often referred to as Toll House Cookies, the name used by the Nestle company for the recipe printed on the back of every bag of chocolate chips they sell. The Toll House Inn itself was destroyed by fire in 1984.
Atlanta (GA)
Gone With The Wind
Owners: 365
Atlanta is a city where old meets new. Over 150 years ago, the land belonged to Creek and Cherokee Indians, and many of those names populate the city today. And, of course, everyone remembers Sherman's march to the sea, even if it is from "Gone with the Wind", leaving 400 of the original structures in the city. Today, it is a metropolitan city with the nation's busiest airport, every street is named "Peachtree something", and it's hard to find a true Atlanta native living in the city.
Funny Pictures
Dogs Playing Poker
Owners: 436
Along with Elvis painted on black velvet, "Dogs Playing Poker" has become the quintessential kitsch item in American art. And unlike "Velvet Elvis" the viewer is likely to actually laugh at the content of the picture instead of just how tacky it is.

The original painitngs were done by C. M. Coolidge in 1903 as part of an advertising campaign. The series showed dogs acting like humans, with 9 of the 16 paintings featuring dogs playing poker and smoking cigars. Since this time there have been numerous copies, as well as other pieces of art inspired by the concept. The pictures are now found in dens and pool rooms around the world. The originals have become valuable pices of Americana, with two selling for almost $600,000 in 2005.
Massage Therapy
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Extreme Metal
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Milan (Italy)
Il Duomo
Owners: 292
Not only did the incredible Il Duomo di Milano cathedral take more than 500 years to build, it is also the largest Gothic cathedral in the world and boasts Europe's largest sundial. Started in 1386 and finished in 1887, the marble building dominates Milan's central square. The prosperity of Lombardy's capital can be read in the cathedral's size as well as in its immensely detailed and florid workmanship.

Looking at a map of Milan, you can see that Milan's city streets follow a spider web pattern with the Duomo being the center point. All roads either run towards or around the great cathedral. When searching for an address, it is always helpful to know where the Duomo is in relation to the street, the lower street addresses are always at the end closest to the Duomo.

Features include Perego's Madonnina, which rests on top of the highest spire of the cathedral and has done so since 1744; the neoclassical central bronze doors designed in 1906 by Lodovico Pogliaghi, and the duomo's most holy relic - a nail from Christ's cross, housed inside a large crucifix which hangs suspended above the chancel. Once a year, on the Feast of the Cross, it is the focus for an extraordinary ceremony.
Rome (Italy)
The Colosseum
Owners: 209
One of the most recognizable icons of the Roman Empire, the Colosseum was built in the center of Rome between 72 and 80 A.D. Construction was begun under the Emperor Vespasian and completed under the rule of Titus. It was used for traditional gladiatorial games and other public spectacles for approximately 500 years. The amphitheater derives its
name from a "colossal" bronze statue of Nero that was built nearby on land Emperor Nero had seized for his personal use. Emperor Vespasian built it there as a way of returning the land to the people of Rome.

In 1349, an earthquake caused much of the south side of the structure to collapse, damage that was never repaired. But despite the interior being in too poor a condition to host any type of spectacle, the Colosseum remains one of the most popular tourist attractions within the city and its name has become synonymous with any large amphitheater or stadium.

In July of 2007, the Colosseum was voted as one of the "new" Seven Wonders of the World.
Pavia
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Copyright
DMCA
Owners: 545
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and its progeny are the prison put to fool your mind by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). DMCA is the ultimate slap in the face of free speech and the death of fair use. In the hands of the unscrupulous BlogShares tycoon it can be used to launch a series of Cease and Desist letters to prevent your competition from emulating your ideas, sharing your media (think of the artists!) or exposing the ridiculous security flaws in your software. Well done, young apprentice, your journey to the Dark Side is complete..
Watercolor
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Photography Art
Lomography
Owners: 639
Lomography is, at first glance, a bit like good old photography, but it is actually something else, something completely different. It requires uncompromising and relentless snapshots of everyday insanity by lomographers using their Lomos. These are taken from the hip, over their heads, through legs, from the floor, upside down, facing backwards, etc... The images might turn out to be great but you never know.
Kayaking
Paddle
Owners: 190
The paddle is a device used to propel the kayak through the water. It is usually made of fiberglass, carbon fiber, or wood. While most kayakers use the standard two bladed paddle, there are some that use a single one bladed paddle, similar to what you would paddle a canoe with. This class of kayaking is considered "C1", and the kayaker sits on his knees...again, similar to canoeing. A paddle is essential to kayaking. Without it, you would not get very far.

Disclaimer: If you don't know what a paddle is, don't buy a kayak.
Telecommunications
Synchronous Telegraph
Owners: 312
Claude and Ignace Chappe spent the winter of 1790-1791 experimenting with telegraph designs, and in the spring of 1791 they were ready for a demonstration of the telegraph they had constructed. The pedulum system is known in telecommunications circles as the Synchronous Telegraph.

Although the initial design notes have been lost, it is likely that two modified pedulum clocks were used. The first was placed on a terrace in Brûlon, and the other at the window of a private house in Parcé. The distance between the two pendulums was approximately 16 km (10 miles).

Ignace described the experiment: "The first telegraphic correspondence that we performed was done with two pendulum clocks, that were kept in perfect synchrony; the face of the clocks was divided into ten parts, each part designating a different numeral [French: un chiffre de la numération ordinaire]. When the pointer of one clock passed over the number one wanted to indicate, a sound was made, announcing to the correspondent that the number which also his pointer indicated at the moment that the sound was heard, was significant. By representing the words in a dictionary with successive numbers one could thus transmit any thought. ..."

Reference: The Early History of Data Networks, Gerard J. Holzmann, Björn Pehrson
Virtual Reality
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Free Software
Free Beer
Owners: 373
When Richard Stallman founded the Free Software Foundation, he found he had to explain the free part of the software so he coined the phrase "it's free as in speech, not free as in beer".
Disc Jockey / DJing
Vinyl Record
Owners: 161
Though the general public has stopped buying records as a main source of music, a true DJ has a collection of records piled to the ceiling. While the more professional “day time” DJ has been using CDs and computers to keep the music flowing, the professional “night time” DJ will have a set of turn tables and a crate of records at bay while he attempts to master his craft.

Vinyl records were the norm for recording music beginning in the early 1900's, but was slowly phased out when the Compact Disc came around in the 80's. They are now made out of polyvinyl chloride and have a variety of speeds and sizes.
Waiter/Waitress
The Tip
Owners: 313
Tipping customs differ worldwide from country to country. In some countries, tipping is not done in restaurants except in the case of outstanding service, while in countries where tipping is the norm, the size of the tip as a percentage of the bill varies. In some countries, restaurant workers other than the wait staff receive the tip and some restaurants have policies of sharing received tips between most or all of the restaurant staff. Tips or gratuities are also offered to service providers in many different fields.

The majority of tips, both in terms of dollar amount and in terms of annual number of tips per year, go to a single service provider: the restaurant waiter or waitress. Studies of tipping are nearly always primarily based on tipping of wait staff in restaurants for this reason. Waiters and waitresses rely heavily on income from tips, since their jobs usually factor them in to the salary. Often the restaurant wages themselves are at or near minimum wage, sometimes even falling below minimum wage without tips factored in. In many cases, the tip income a wait person receives during a shift is the determining factor in whether he or she can pay the bills that month or not.

Studies show that while there is a positive relationship between quality of service and size of tip, it constitutes a small percentage of the total amount of the tip. Also, customers who are likely to be one time customers do not tip significantly less than repeat customers do. While most people identify quality of service received as the best explanation for their tipping, tips are more likely to be based on societal and cultural customs than quality of service. The size of a tip is also positively correlated with actions by the wait person which are not service related but serve to increase the quality of interpersonal contact (and possibly perceived friendliness). Examples include: introducing oneself to the customer, squatting beside the table while taking the order and touching the customer's hand or shoulder when returning their change.

While some people believe that the word tips in English is an acronym which stands for "to insure prompt service" (or something similar), this is not the case. The Oxford English Dictionary cites a reference of the verb tip in this meaning as early as 1610 and a reference to the noun tips as early as the mid 1700s; the first reference for the word acronym is not until the mid 1900s.
Lifestyle
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Madrid (city, Spain)
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Kochi
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Cuautla
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Internet Radio
SHOUTcast
Owners: 286
SHOUTcast is free audio broadcasting software. It allows anybody to broadcast music and voice from their PC to Internet listeners around the world. SHOUTcast uses MPEG Layer 3 (otherwise known as MP3) to broadcast. It can be used for live, or archived audio broadcasts. SHOUTcast was created by nullsoft, creators of the well-known Winamp media player.
Singapore
Merlion
Owners: 635
Singapura, from the Sanskrit, means 'Lion City'. Founded as a modern port in 1819 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, this South-East Asian city-state's symbol is the Merlion - a beast with the upper body of a lion and the lower body of a fish, thus marrying economic courage with mercantile prowess. Apart from China, Singapore is the only UN-represented state with a majority Chinese population; yet, its main language of education, administration and commerce is English.
Ferrets
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Celtic Languages
The Hallstatt Culture
Owners: 120
While the origin of the Celtic languages is still very much open to debate among scholars, due mainly to the lack of writing samples from very early civilizations, one of the key ancestors of Celtic languages was likely the Hallstatt Culture.

Existing in the Bronze and Iron Ages, the Hallstatt Culture was located in France, Switzerland, Bavaria, Bohemia, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, and elsewhere in Europe. Along with the Urnfield Culture and La Tène Culture, the Hallstatt Culture likely laid the foundation for more modern Celtic languages that eventually developed into the more well known Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Breton, Manx, and Irish.
Chinese
The Han
Owners: 600
The Han are the largest ethnic group in China. The name comes from The Han Dynasty is credit with unifying what is now considered China. The process began with the defeat of the Qin Dynasty in 206 B.C.. The Han lead an overthrow of the Qin due to what was perceived as a tyrannical and legalistic society. The unification of most of modern day China was completed during the reign of Wu Ti, from 141 to 87 B.C. Today, although the various Chinese dialects are truly better defined as different languages, they are still referred to as Han languages to differentiate from the numerous foreign languages spoken in various parts of the nation.
Wind Power
Small Wind Turbine
Owners: 117
Like its larger cousin, the small wind turbine is used to produce electrical power, but for a small single family, farm, or business. Small wind turbines usually have a power ranking of less than 100 kW, though they can have a higher power production capability. The small wind turbine is the perfect green solution to providing modern day conveniences to rural communities and remote areas where hooking up to the grid are impractical, or cost prohibitive.
Working
Rat Race
Owners: 445
If one works, one is "in the rat race". "Rat Race" is a term used for an endless, self-defeating or pointless pursuit. It conjures up the image of the futile efforts of a lab rat trying to escape whilst running around a maze or in a wheel. Many people see work as an seemingly endless persuit with little reward or purpose, and hence always try to escape the Rat Race. Put the teeming masses to work for you in your own endless pursuit.
Objectivism
Atlas Shrugged
Owners: 354
Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Russian-born writer and philosopher Ayn Rand, first published in 1957 in the USA, and Rand's last work of fiction before concentrating her writings exclusively on philosophy. Along with The Fountainhead, it is one of her two most famous novels, it is considered her tour de force, and many Objectivists hold it to be the greatest novel of all time. Its theme (as stated by Rand) is "the importance of the individual's reasoning mind in human life."
Memoir / Autobiographical
Malcolm X
Owners: 397
Although written by Alex Haley (based on extensive interviews with his subject) The Autobiography of Malcolm X has become on of the most famous - and contentious - autobiographies of all time. In 1999, Time Magazine called it one of the ten most important works of non-fiction in the 20th century. Toward the end of his autobiography, Malcom X states: "I know that societies often have killed the people who have helped to change those societies. And if I can die having brought any light, having exposed any meaningful truth that will help to destroy the racist cancer that is malignant in the body of America - then, all of the credit is due to Allah. Only the mistakes have been mine."
AOP
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Fiscal Conservatism
Supply Side Economics
Owners: 221
Supply Side Economics states that the economy grows best when taxes are low because business has more money to spend, thus having higher production, the need for more employees, and more money churning through the economy. Supply side economics is often attacked as nothing more than a tax break to the rich as the tax reductions often favor those at the higher end of the economic strata.
Theology
Commentary
Owners: 607
Commentaries are books written by scholars that theologians read and learn from as well as dialogue with. Acquiring commentaries will increase theology.
Libraries
Andrew Carnegie
Owners: 514
Andrew Carnegie was born in Scotland but known primarily as an American industrialist. He first began his building of libraries with a library built in the town of his birth, Dunfermline, Scotland in 1881. He continued by building libraries for his employees in Pennsylvania and then embarked on his philanthropic library scheme. Carnegie was a canny Scotsman and required communities to contribute monies for upkeep of the library buildings, pay utilities and supplement the collections. The Carnegie libraries were established in large and small communities scattered across the globe in the United States, Canada, UK, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, West Indies, Australia and Tasmania, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Fiji. A Carnegie Library became the first library in BlogShares' home town of Santa Cruz, California.
Human Rights
Amnesty International
Owners: 439
Amnesty International (AI) is a global organization of people who campaign for the universal recognition of human rights.

It was founded in 1961 by Peter Beneson and Eric Baker, and within a year had chapters throughout northern Europe, north America, and Australia. Today, AI has subscribers in over 150 countries and territories around the world, totaling almost 2 million people.

At first, AI focused on the release of political prisoners, especially those who worked non-violently. But their efforts soon expanded to include abolishing all human rights abuses, including genital mutilation, torture, and political executions.
Marathon
Pheidippides
Owners: 248
The marathon race commemorates the run of the soldier Pheidippides from a battlefield near Marathon, Greece, to Athens
in 490 B.C., bringing news of a Greek victory over the Persians. Pheidippides collapsed and died at the end of his historic run, thereby setting a precedent for dramatic conclusions to the marathon.

While marathons were originally 24.7 miles long, the marathon distance was changed to 26 miles to cover the ground from Windsor Castle to White City stadium, with 385 yards added on so the race could finish in front of King Edward VII's royal box. After 16 years of extremely heated discussion, this 26.2 mile distance was established at the 1924 Olympics in Paris as the official marathon distance.
Altermondialism
ATTAC
Owners: 148
The Association pour la Taxation des Transactions pour l'Aide aux Citoyens (ATTAC) supports globalisation that is both sustainable and socially just. ATTAC supports fair trade - as opposed to "free" trade" - as well as social security and universal health care. Will use you this artefact to ATTAC or attack?
Urdu
Ghazal
Owners: 170
The ghazal came to India with the advent and extension of the Muslim influence from the 12th century onwards. The Moghuls brought along with them Iranian culture and civilization, including Iranian poetry and literature. When Persian gave way to Urdu as the language of poetry and culture in India, the ghazal, the fruit of Indo-Iranian culture, found its opportunity to grow and develop. Although the ghazal is said to have begun with Amir Khusro (1253-1325) in Northern India, Deccan in the South was its real home in the early stages. It was nursed and trained in the courts of Golconda and Bijapur under the patronage of Muslim rulers. Mohd. Quli Qutab Shah, Wajhi, Hashmi, Nusrati and Wali may be counted among its pioneers. Of these, Wali Deccany (1667-1707) may be called the Chaucer of Urdu poetry. Wali's visit to Delhi made in 1700 acquires a historic significance. This visit was instrumental in synthesizing the poetic streams of the South and the North. Wali's poetry awakened the minds of the Persian-loving North to the beauty and richness of Urdu language, and introduced them to the true flavor of ghazal, thus encouraging its rapid growth and popularity.
Unitarian Universalism
Flaming Chalice
Owners: 241
A flaming chalice is the most widely used symbol of Unitarian Universalism and the official logo of the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA). The chalice symbol is often shown surrounded by two linked rings. The two linked rings was used to symbolize the joining of Unitarianism and Universalism. Because UU's rarely agree on anything, no one meaning or interpretation is official. In one interpretation, the chalice is a symbol of religion freed from the impositions of doctrine by a hierarchy and open to participation by all; the flame is interpreted as a memorial to those throughout history who sacrificed their lives for the cause of religious liberty. In another interpretation, the flaming chalice resembles a cross, symbolic of the Christian roots of Unitarian Universalism. Regardless of what people feel it may or may not represent, the flaming chalice stands open to receive new truths that pass the tests of reason, justice, and compassion.
Binational couples
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Indonesia
Wayang
Owners: 466
Wayang is the Indonesian term for puppet, and the term refers to any and all of the numerous varieties of puppetry found in the archipelago. "Wayang", the Javanese word for puppet, also connotes "spirit." Performances are typically accompanied by gamelan music.

Even before Hinduism came to Indonesia, the original inhabitants of Indonesia already had puppet plays, heavily bound up with their traditional beliefs about the spirits of their ancestors. According to their animist beliefs, ancestors' spirits could affect the lives of the living, either as protectors or to do harm. The adherents of these beliefs performed rituals and ceremonies in the form of puppet plays to ask their ancestors for assistance.

The figures in these puppet plays were wayang golek (stick puppets with a head assembly connected by a straight stick to a trunk which allowed the head to swivel and with arms attached to a separate staff, allowing hand motions). They were carved, painted and dressed figures, manipulated via threads or strings.

Hinduism and Islam have changed traditional Wayang, but in the non-Islamic parts of Indonesia, one can still find wayang golek performances, though the stories are based in Hinduism and not in indigenous Indonesian culture. In modern Indonesia, the Wayang remain a beloved entertainment, second only to televised football (soccer) matches.
Gardening / Horticulture
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Progressive
Jane Addams
Owners: 680
Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 - May 21, 1935) was an American social worker and reformer.

Born in Cedarville, Illinois, she was educated in the U.S. and Europe. In 1889 she co-founded (with Ellen Gates Starr) Hull House in Chicago, which was one of the first settlement houses in the United States. Influenced by Toynbee Hall in the East End of London (founded by Samuel Barnett in 1884), settlement houses like Hull House were a type of welfare house for the neighborhood poor and a center for social reform. She was a member of the American Anti-Imperialist League, and a founder of both the American Civil Liberties Union and the NAACP.

In 1911 Addams also helped found the National Foundation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers, and she was its first president. She was also a leader in women's suffrage and pacifist movements. She received the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize (shared with American educator Nicholas Murray Butler).

The Hull House could boast a group of about 2,000 people a week. It had facilities including: a night school for adults, kindergarten classes, clubs for older children, a public kitchen, an art gallery, a coffeehouse, a gymnasium, a girls club, a swimming pool, a book bindery, a music school, a drama group, a library, and labor related divisions.
Chemistry
Periodic Table
Owners: 241
In 1869, a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev came up with a way of organizing the elements that were known at the time. He set them out in order of atomic weight, and then grouped them into rows and columns based on their chemical and physical properties.

Mendeleev had no idea what atoms were made of or why they behaved as they did. Nevertheless, he was able to put together the periodic table almost as we know it today--except that some elements were missing, because they were unknown in 1869.

Based on the gaps in his table, Mendeleev even succeeded in predicting the existence and properties of several new elements.

The basic rule of the Period Table is that elements in any column, or group, of the table are similar to their column-mates. For example, the first column on the left, underneath hydrogen (H) are called the alkali metals; they're all soft metals that react violently with water to make hydrogen gas.

The Periodic Table has been an invaluable tool in the development of Chemistry.
Danish
Ballad
Owners: 263
The fairy-tale-like ballads of magic and the novel-like ballads of chivalry constituting the major part of the ballads that have been handed down to us, often have a considerable literary value through their sharply defined and genuinely tragic conflicts or their boisterous humour, and through the emotive refrains with which they are all provided. In an international context the Danish ballad tradition is remarkable for its relatively homogeneous character, its very early redactions and finally because Denmark is the country that can boast of the oldest printed editions of the ballads (Anders Sørensen Vedel's Hundredvisebog (Book of a Hundred Ballads) 1591, Mette Gjøe's Tragica 1657 and Peder Syv's edition of 1695. These printed editions have kept the ballads alive in an oral - and later written - tradition until far into the 19th century. When the ballads were rediscovered by the Romantics they exerted an enormous influence on the poetical language throughout the 19th century and inspired a host of imitations and re-creations. And from that time the ballads were an essential element in the Danish literary identity.
Zurich
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Judo
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Tai Kwan Do
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Tai Chi
Chen Wanting
Owners: 142
Chen Wanting of Chenjiagou village Wen County is accredited as the founder of T’ai Chi Ch’uan’s fundamental document known as the Song of the Canon of Pugilism. Chen’s work included the compilation of Qi Jiguang's(1528-1587) techniques of 16 popular martial schools of the time. Chen's document outlined a clear exposition of the working principles of Chen style Taijiquan. Chen described a large variety of subtle and varied energetic exercises to promote spirited health and powerful boxing skills. After Five generations the Chen family style was passed on by Chen Chanxing (1771-1853) who taught Yang Luchan (1779-1872) of the Yongnian County, Hebi province. Yang Luchan became highly skilled and developed a new school of T’ai Chi Ch’uan commonly known as Yang style, The Yang School flourished. Later the Zhaoboa style of the Chen school developed by Chen Qing-ping was modified into the Wu School. Later the Sun Lu Tang started the Sun school.
Indonesian
Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan
Owners: 452
Indonesia has a language called Bahasa Indonesia. Bahasa means language, so the language name is "Bahasa Indonesia", not just "Bahasa". Bahasa Indonesia has roots from Malay and any language distributed on so many islands in Indonesia.

In 1928 young people declared "Sumpah Pemuda" on Youth Congress II on October 28th, 1928. Sumpah Pemuda means an oath from youth people struggling for independence from Dutch-Indies colonizations. This oath has three points: One Homeland: Indonesia, One Nation: Indonesia, and One Language: Bahasa Indonesia.

After independence was declared by Soekarno and Hatta Bahasa Indonesia was applied as nation language on the preamble Undang Undang Dasar 1945. The first revision is known as Ejaan Van Ophuysen. Bahasa Indonesian has a guidebook called "Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan" which was released in 1972 and is still used today.

This Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan (EYD) regulates the characters used (Latin), phonetics, vocabularies, structures, grammar, acronyms, idioms and any other rules for assimilating new words into Indonesian.

The main dictionaries used are Kamus Umum Bahasa Indonesia (KUBI) and Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI).

The third revision for Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan is an ongoing project in Lembaga Bahasa (a government body).
Karate
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Oddly Enough
Man Bites Dog
Owners: 599
We are naturally curious about the unusual. The more unusual, the more interesting. Perhaps this is a product of our evolution where surprises - events that stand out in sharp contrast to the ordinary - are often threatening. We need to notice the wolf among the sheep because while the sheep are not threatening, the wolf may be.

Things and events that are unusual stand-out against a background formed of the ordinary and the usual. They attract our attention.

Anomaly is thus an attractor, perhaps the attractor, for consciousness. The greater the anomaly the greater the attraction. Thus the greatest anomaly in the world having the highest contrast with the ordinary will be the most effective attractor of our consciousness.
Tabloid News
Junk Food News
Owners: 491
Junk food news refers to news stories that sensationalize, personalize or homogenize relatively inconsequential trivia in the mass media.

The term "junk food news" suggests an unflattering similarity between the quality of some “news” stories and junk food (poor quality food stuffs). The term was first used in print by Carl Jenson in the March 1983 edition of Penthouse.

Typically, "junk food news" can be said to fall into one or more of these categories:

· Brand name news (Stories about brand-name products, such as "New Coke")
· Sexual titillation (Celebrity pregnancies, unusual sexual affairs and crimes)
· 'Yo-yo news' (statistics that change daily, such as stock market numbers and movie box office totals)
· Showbusiness news (box office opening news)
· Latest craze news (Brief fads such as Furby, Pokémon, Segway)
· Celebrity news (Celebrity gossip)
· Anniversary news (Anniversary of a major event or celebrity death)
· Sports news (sports rumours and gossip)
· Political junk news
New Zealand
Kiwi
Owners: 524
The "kiwi" is a flightless bird native to New Zealand. (New Zealanders also like to call themselves "Kiwis".)

The kiwi (bird) is unusual in at least two respects. First, it is the only bird in the world that has its nostrils at the end of its beak. Second, the female kiwi has the largest egg, in proportion to its body size, of any bird in the world (except possibly for the hummingbird). Kiwis are about the same size as chickens, but their eggs are almost as big as those of ostriches!

The "kiwi" is not to be confused with "kiwifruit" - the brown furry fruit with the green flesh. Kiwifruit come originally from China, and in fact were originally called "Chinese gooseberries". Sometime in the 1960s, kiwifruit farmers in New Zealand decided to market the fruit overseas, but decided to give them another name, to avoid confusion. To help identify the fruit with New Zealand, the name "kiwifruit" was chosen.

Some people refer to kiwifruit as "kiwis", but this is incorrect. New Zealanders also find this very irritating! A "kiwi" is a bird (or a human New Zealander); the fruit should always be called "kiwifruit" (or "Chinese gooseberries").
Ghana
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Anime
Hayao Miyazaki
Owners: 297
Hayao Miyazaki (b.1941) is the creator of many popular anime feature films, as well as some manga. He was largely unknown in the West outside of animation circles until Miramax released his award-winning film Princess Mononoke in 1999. Miyazaki's Spirited Away is the highest-grossing film of all time in Japan and Princess Mononoke held the same title for a short period as well. Miyazaki's success has invited comparisons with American animator Walt Disney. However, Miyazaki does not see himself as a person building an animation empire, but as an animator lucky enough to have been allowed to make films with his own personal touch. Some consider him the Don Bluth of Japan.
Manga
Osamu Tezuka
Owners: 299
Dr. Osamu Tezuka (1928 - 1989) was the Japanese manga artist and animator whose prolific output and pioneering techniques earned him the names "the father of manga" and "the god of manga." He is best known as the creator of Astro Boy, which came to the US in the form of an animated TV show in 1963. He created hundreds of manga after Astro Boy: in fact, his complete ouevre includes over 700 mangas in about 170,000 pages. His influence cannot be overestimated. It is well-known that many of the yet-to-flourish young manga artists once lived in the apartment where Tezuka lived. In 1994 the city of Takarazuka, where Tezuka grew up, opened a museum in his memory and in 1997, stamps were issued in his honor.
Marvel
Jack "King" Kirby
Owners: 348
Jack "King" Kirby, the great American comic book and comic strip artist, writer and editor was born in New York City on 28 August, 1917. In 1961, Kirby teamed up with Stan Lee and created the 'Fantastic Four' for the Marvel Comics Group. Kirby, Lee and Marvel rose to the top of the industry and many claim they completely revamped the comic book world. After a disagreement with Lee, Kirby left Marvel in 1970 to return to National Comics as a writer/editor/artist, where he created nearly a dozen titles, but none were as successful as his Marvel work. Throughout his career, Jack Kirby was distinguished by his energetic and forceful compositions, and by the respect accorded to him by both mainstream and independent cartoonists.
Dark Horse
Concrete
Owners: 119
The foundation of Dark Horse Comics’ success was built on Concrete. Paul Chadwick’s tales of a man whose brain was transplanted into a stone body by aliens was met with critical acclaim, earning Concrete an unprecedented 26 awards and nominations during just the first two years of its run.

Originally appearing in the company’s first publication, the anthology Dark Horse Comics Presents, the Concrete character quickly gained in popularity and became a regular cover feature for much of the first few years of that title. Within a few months of appearing in Dark Horse Comics Presents #1 in 1986, Concrete was spun out into a title of his own.

The success of Concrete for the fledgling company helped to pave the way for other popular titles, notably Frank Miller’s Sin City.
DC Comics
Kryptonite
Owners: 326
The glowing green substance that robs the most powerful man in the world of his powers, Kryptonite is the most valuable substance in the world of DC Comics for very obvious reasons.
Iceland
Geyser
Owners: 257
A geyser is a type of hot spring which erupts periodically to form a column of hot water and steam that can rise up to several hundred feet. The word geyser is derived form the Icelandic word Geysir meaning 'to gush' as well as being the name of the most famous Geyser in Iceland.

This natural geothermic phenomenon is quite rare in nature because of the combination of factors that are required for its existence. For geysers to form there must be an abundant supply of water, an intense source of heat, and a unique plumbing system. Apart from being rare they are also very sensitive to human carelessness, in fact the Geysir in Iceland stopped erupting after people used to throw litter in it to watch it raise. Fortunately in 2000 after an earthquake, the Geysir started erupting again restoring Iceland natural landmark.
Romance
Rose and Candle
Owners: 264
The rose and candle symbolize the essence of romance, namely the sensual elegance of time spent with the one most dear. Romance takes many forms, from expensive dinners followed by a Shakespearian play, to TV dinners followed by a favorite movie. No two couples hold the same opinion of the ultimate romantic event, but the rose and candle are symbols every couple understands implicitly. Together, the rose and candle symbolize the light and love that hold romantics together.
Haiku
Matsuo Basho
Owners: 267
Matsuo Basho was the pen name of a Japanese poet widely credited with raising the haiku poetry form to its highest level. Basho took haiku from a more comic verse, written for light relief, to a serious form imbued with the spirit of Zen Buddhism. He wrote his last haiku on his deathbed in 1694: Travelling, sick / My dreams roam / On a withered moor.
Capitalism
Wall St.
Owners: 129
Wall Street is the heart of the Financial District of New York City. The home of New York Stock Exchange, Wall Street fully represents financial capitalism, the most developed form of capitalism.
Swedish
Pippi Långstrump
Owners: 141
Pippi Långstrump (Pippi Longstocking) is one of the most beloved Swedish children's book characters. Created by Astrid Lindgren, Pippi is still today one of the most well-known children's book characters around the world. Known for her rebellious ways and fierce independence she often went out on adventures with her two friends, Annika and Tommy. Pippi lives alone in a house called Villa Villekulla. Her father, Efraim, a sea-faring captain, bought the Villa for Pippi. She owns a monkey named Herr Nilsson and a horse. Both animals live in the Villa with her. Pippi is very strong. She can pick up her horse and hold it above her head with one hand!
Illustration
Arthur Rackham
Owners: 189
Arthur Rackham is perhaps best known not by name but for his fantastical illustrations of editions of such works as “Alice in Wonderland,” “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” and “Fairy Tales,” by the Brothers Grimm. Rackham was born in England in 1867. His family did move to Australia briefly in 1884, due to Arthur’s poor health, and one of his earliest watercolors was painted while he was there. He enrolled at the Lambeth School of Art when he returned to London, and worked as a clerk to help pay the tuition; Rackham eventually left his position in order to pursue a career as an illustrator.

His first magazine illustrations were black and white, and fairly unremarkable, giving no hint of his later unique style. One of his first major works was “Fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm” in 1900, but most biographers agree that his illustrations in “Rip Van Winkle” (1905) and “Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens” (1906) established him as a major force in his new career. Rackham made skillful use of the new three-color photomechanical line block process, which was replacing wood engraving in the early twentieth century. He also kept his sense of wonder and Victorian sensibilities throughout his career. Sinuous lines, muted water colors, animated trees and animals, hidden images in the background, charming fairies and ugly but not overly frightening ogres and trolls continue to enchant and delight even today.

While Rackham is well known for illustrating children’s books, he also illustrated books for grownups, such as Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen and works by Edgar Allen Poe. Rackham died at home in 1939; his final work, an edition of Wind in the Willows, was published posthumously in 1940.
Peru
Machu Picchu
Owners: 228
In "The Heights of Machu Picchu", Chilean poet Pablo Neruda wrote:

"Machu Picchu is a trip to the serenity of the soul, to eternal fusion with the cosmos, there we feel our own fragility. It is one of the greatest marvels of South America. A resting place of butterflies at the epicenter of the great circle of life. One more miracle."

Sometimes called "The Lost City of the Incas", the fortress city of Machu Picchu is simply breathtaking. Machu Picchu, which means Old Peak in the Quechua language of the Incans, is set between two peaks about 50 miles NW of Cuzco, Peru. This pre-Columbian ruin is 5 square miles of terraced stonework linked by 3,000 steps.

It is believed that Machu Picchu was built between 1460 and 1470 AD by Incan ruler Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. The city has an altitude of 8,000 feet, and is high above the Urubamba River canyon cloud forest. The city contains approximately 200 buildings, including residences, temples, storage structures and other public buildings. It has polygonal masonry, characteristic of the late Inca period.

At the height of the Incan empire, about 1,200 people lived in and around Machu Picchu. It was mysteriously abandoned just before the Spanish conquest, and remained hidden until its rediscovery. Forgotten for centuries, it was virtually intact when discovered by Yale archeologist and historian Hiram Bingham in 1911.
Fantasy Literature
The Hero
Owners: 325
The Hero is the central character of a fantasy novel, he (or she) is the individual that the reader is drawn to, circumstances and events are viewed from within his moral compass. Typically young and often portrayed as an underdog, The Hero is someone who fights on for the good of others despite personal risk and regardless of the odds on success.

The attraction of the Hero is in our own ability to identify and empathise with the emotional struggles they go through. For a time we can leave our own surroundings and allow the world of the hero to become our own, struggling against monumental problems, overcoming extreme odds, and holding hope as a flaming brand before us. The defining fantasy work was written in the hand of J.R.R. Tolkien when he published <i>The Lord of the Rings</i> in 1953, painting such memorable characters as Frodo and Sam who truly shine as The Heroes we are all called to be.
Book Clubs
Reading Group Guides
Owners: 106
Once the exclusive province of students, Reading Group Guides are now essential tools for book clubs. Designed to provide enlightenment and to facilitate conversation, a reading group guide generally contains a summary of the book, background on the author, a list of discussion questions, and other supplemental material. With a reading group guide in hand, you can be sure of a lively discussion when your group meets!
Hedonism
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Accessibility
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Usability
Section 508
Owners: 135
508 Compliance (Section 508 is an Amendment to the US Rehabilitation Act of 1973) is a term used to describe a set of standards that allow disabled people proper usability of computer software. The policy outlines how to allow impaired people access to media and graphical aspects of software that they previously were not able to see or hear. As an example, web pages should have certain features that can be read by screen readers or Braille display tools that help impaired users access the site. Videos or multimedia should have captions or transcripts coded with the files. As another example, you cannot use an image where the words on the image say 'Click Here' to successfully navigate the site. Private web sites are not required to follow these standards, but government funded software must comply with all the regulations of Section 508.
Water Sports
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Australian Rules Football
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Gaelic Football
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Football / Soccer / Rugby
Goal
Owners: 479
Football, no matter which sort, involves a ball, the ball being moved to one end or the other of a defined area, and a goal being made. In the variations on this theme the ball may be kicked, carried, or passed from one player to another either on the ground or in the air, but move toward a goal it must.
Rugby League
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Bartender
Sam Malone
Owners: 100
Played by Ted Danson for eleven seasons, Sam Malone was America’s favorite bartender. It’s said that had it not been for alcoholism, Sam would have spent his life pitching for the Boston Red Sox. He purchased Cheers while off the wagon, but decided to keep it once he’d cleaned up his act. Throughout the show, we see Sam deal with situations we endure every day, from falling off the wagon to an off-and-on relationship that breaks your heart. Regardless of the drama that surrounds him, Sam faithfully returns behind the bar each day to lend an ear to the friends on the other side. After a long, hard day’s work, there’s nothing like sitting down at the bar and grabbing a nice cold beer – especially when it’s in the place where everyone knows your name.
Python
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Creative Writing
Muses' Crown
Owners: 610
Oh to be able to wear the crown of inventiveness and inspiration. Truly the muse is with you when you wear it, as the crown is renowned for its ability to make the storytelling flow.
ColdFusion
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Rugby Union
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Polish
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Norwegian
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Scotland
Scotch Whiskey
Owners: 384
Scotch whiskey is famous through out the world for being one of, if not the finest types of whiskey around. Scotch is distilled from barley, either malted or unmalted. It is then left to age in wooden barrels, normally oak, for years, 24 years is not unusual. The barrels are normally used beforehand to age American bourbon. The storage in these oak barrels is what gives the whiskey its distinguishing flavour and colour.

Whiskies can be single or come in a blend. Single strain whiskies are generally considered more up market as they are 100% pure aged whisky while a blend will generally have a mixture of aged and un-aged whiskey in it. The word whiskey comes from the ancient Gaelic expression, <i>uisce</i>, meaning <i>Water of Life</i> which in itself says a lot about the Scots.
Wales
Sheep
Owners: 210
Wales, one of the 4 countries making up the "United" Kingdom, is one of the most picturesque places in the British Isles. Wales is physically located on a penninsula in the south-west of the United Kingdom, and is bordered by the English counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, Herefordshire, and Gloucestershire to the east, the Bristol Channel to the south, St George's Channel to the southwest, and the Irish Sea to the west and north. About 80% of the land surface of Wales is zoned as agricultural, with a large proportion of that used for cattle grazing, particularly sheep. Many outsiders (English, Scottish etc) consider that "Welsh" and "Sheep" go hand in hand because the animals are so prevalent.

Wales is split into North and South Wales, and further subdivided into 22 council areas. Both North and South primarily speak English, but some 20% of the population still speaks Welsh (Cymru), with a slightly larger proportion to the north. Road signs to this day continue to be printed in both languages. Much of the landscape is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions of Wales. The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia, and include Snowdon ('Yr Wyddfa' in Welsh), which, at 1085 m (3,560 ft) is the highest peak in Wales.
Tea
Ch a Ching
Owners: 234
"Although my neighbors are all barbarians,
and you, you are a thousand miles away,
there are always two cups on my table."
~ Tang Dynasty ~

The first written reference of tea made and consumed appeared in 350 A.D. Kuo Po updated an old Chinese dictionary to include the description of tea as a beverage made from boiled leaves. Tea during this time was made of leaves boiled in water with ginger, orange or other produce added to it. Although tea was mostly consumed for medicinal purposes to treat digestive and nervous conditions, people living in the interior part of China pressed tea into brick currency to barter with other tribes.

In the fourth century AD, tea was already a popular drink in China. Tea developed through three main stages: boiled tea, mashed or beaten tea and infused tea. The three Tea Schools are indicative of the spirits of their respective ages, which correspond to the Tang, Song and Ming Dynasties.

In the eighth century, tea became a royal beverage adopted by the nobility as an elegant pastime. Poet Lu Yu, at the height of the Tang Dynasty, wrote the first book of tea, Ch a Ching or Tea Classic in 780 A.D. Tea has always been linked to history and as it spread it brought peoples into contact with different religions and philosophies. The Indian History has a mention about how Marco Polo, the great traveler, carried tea from China to the court of the famous Indian Emperor Harsha Vardhana.

Lu Yu, because of his book, Ch a Ching - Tea Classic, is considered to be the Father of Tea in Chinese history.
Groove
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Marriage Equality
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LGB Adoption Issues
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Immigration Issues
Statue of Liberty National Monument
Owners: 416
The Statue of Liberty, located in New York Harbor, was frequently the first site to greet new immigrants to the United States after her unveiling day on October 28, 1886 on Bedloe's Island (now known as Liberty Island). "From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome" proclaims Emma Lazarus' famous poem, The New Colossus, written in 1883. The poem was added to an interior wall of the Statue of Liberty's pedestal in 1903. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" the poem concludes.

Between the years of 1892 and 1954, over 12 million immigrants entered the "great melting pot" of the United States via Ellis Island. With the passage of stricter immigration laws in 1891, immigrants were now screened for "moral turpitude" in a prison record, polygamy, "loathsome or contagious disease" and "undesireables". Only passengers with steerage class accommodations had to pass through Ellis Island; first and second class passengers were quickly "inspected" aboard ship before going directly to New York. Conditions in steerage were so horrific that at one point in time the average mortality rate for passengers in steerage class during a voyage which could take anywhere between 10 days and one month was 10%.

Steamboat companies were responsible for returning deportees to their homelands, the cost of housing and food while the deportees were detained in the U.S. and for the screening and medical examination of their passengers before they ever left Europe. Prospective immigrants were asked, among other questions whether they had at least $30, whether they were anarchists and whether they had ever been imprisoned, in an almshouse or institutionalized.

In 1965, Ellis Island was declared part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.
Sabermetrics
Bill James
Owners: 336
Bill James (born June 18, 1949 at Mayetta, Kansas) is an important and influential baseball writer, and is its most influential statistician. Since 1977, James has written over two dozen books devoted to baseball history and statistics. His approach, which he termed sabermetrics, attempts to use scientific data collection and interpretation methods to explain why teams win and lose.
For most of his career, James's ideas have either been ignored or rejected by professional baseball teams. James' sabermetrics rejects much of the "conventional wisdom" that has been passed down by players, executives and writers over decades. Most teams, managers and players prefer to continue to follow maxims that were developed decades ago.

In recent years, James's ideas have begun to gain official acceptance. Oakland Athletics general manager Billy Beane began applying sabermetric principles to running his low-budget team in the late 1990s, to great effect (as chronicled in Michael Lewis' book Moneyball), and sabermetricians have penetrated other organizations since then.
Collecting
The Packrat
Owners: 220
Why does the packrat need to collect things? Maybe it's to amuse himself, maybe it's to impress the neighbours, maybe it's to hold the house down in a tornado. Whatever the reason, only the packrat and other like-minded collectors truly understand and appreciate his obsession with his collection, and only a true friend will help him move.
LGBT News
The Advocate
Owners: 339
Beginning as a small LGBT newspaper, The Advocate quickly expanded to become the leading source for LGBT news in the United States.

When The Advocate began publishing, it was one of the only places LGBT people could turn for news coverage that mattered to them. Today, it is the most respected of the ever-increasing number of LGBT magazines.
Mirror Photography
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Digital Photography
Pixel
Owners: 215
Short for Picture Element, a pixel is a single point in a graphic image. The more pixels used to represent an image, the more accurate the picture resembles its original object. The word pixel was first published in 1965 by Frederic C Billingsley to describe the picture elements of the video images from space, though the word was not his idea – he claims to have heard it a few years prior though he did not remember where. More commonly known in the photography world, a megapixel is one million pixels and explains not only the number of pixels in an image, but expresses the number of display elements on digital display.
Lomography and Instant Cameras
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Detroit (MI)
Motown Records
Owners: 302
In the 1960's an independent record company named "Motown Records" in Detroit, Michigan began creating and marketing hit records better and in larger volume than any record company in the world. The recording techniques that were developed by Motown in the mid 60's were part of the formula for the company's success. Before the age of synthesizers and computer-aided recording, Motown engineers created special sound effects by ingenious means. A rich piece of Motown’s history is relived when visitors clap and sing into Motown’s innovative echo chamber (a hole cut in the ceiling), and experience early reverb. When “Studio A” was in use, the effects created by the echo chamber were relayed to the recording studio; they can be heard on recordings such as “Where Did Our Love Go”, “Dancing In The Streets”, and “Make Me The Woman You Go Home To”. Even today, many of the recording techniques used find their roots in this "Motown Sound" of the 1960's.

Top Motown talent includes names such as The Four Tops, The Temptations, Smokey Robinson, Diana Ross, Michael Jackson, Stevie Wonder, Gladys Knight and the Pips, Martha and the Vandellas, The Marvelettes, and The Contours.
Constitutional Law
Writ of Habeas Corpus
Owners: 297
Habeas Corpus is Latin for "produce the body." A Writ of Habeas Corpus is an order to bring a person before a Court or a Judge. The primary use is to obtain the release of a person who is being improperly held in custody by the government. The Writ allows a person to bring a constitutional challenge to his/her incarceration. The protection provided by the Writ of Habeas Corpus is such that Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution provides that "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it."
Tarot
The Fool's Journey
Owners: 133
Who knows where it comes from, that impulse to jump off a cliff on the way to discovery? Who knows where it comes from, the courage to strike out into the unkown. Who knows what sparks The Fool to go where, sometimes, angels dare not tread?

Why the Fool leaves the known for the unknown is the 64,000 dollar question, but leave s/he does. The Fool card in the Tarot represents the basic impulse for change, growth, beginning and beginning again, discovery. The Fool card, along with the other 21 cards in the Tarot's major arcana, comprises what some consider to be The Fool's Journey. That is, a symbolic, visual, archetypal representation of not just what might be considered a spiritual journey, but more basically of each person's journey through life.

The Fool card is usually numbered 0. Each of the other 21 major arcana (trump) cards represents a stage of the Fool's journey -- an experience, a guide, a state of being, an obstacle, a lesson, an epiphany. Taken together, these 22 cards become keys to the kingdom of wisdom, enlightenment, wholeness, self-actualization -- the ultimate goal of The Fool's Journey.
Asatru
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Celtic Reconstructionist
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Contemporary Paganisms
The Fifth Sacred Thing
Owners: 226
The Fifth Sacred Thing is the name of the acclaimed Utopian novel written by the neopagan visionary leader/teacher/activist, Starhawk. Published in 1993, it begins with the following declaration, which includes in it many of the core concepts shared by most neopagans.

"Declaration of the Four Sacred Things

The Earth is a living, conscious being. In company with cultures of many different times and places, we name these things as sacred: air, fire, water, and earth.

Whether we see them as the breath, energy, blood, and body of the Mother, or as the blessed gifts of a Creator, or as symbols of interconnected systems that sustain life, we know that nothing can live without them.

To call these things sacred is to say that they have a value beyond their usefulness for human ends, that they themselves become the standard by which our acts, our economics, our laws, and our purposes must be judged. No one has the right to appropriate them or profit from them at the expense of others. Any government that fails to protect them forfeits its legitimacy.

All people, all living things, are part of the earth life, and so are sacred. No one of us stands higher or lower than any other. Only justice can assure balance; only ecological balance can sustain freedom. Only in freedom can that fifth sacred thing we call spirit flourish in its full diversity.

To honor the sacred is to create conditions in which nourishment, sustenance, habitat, knowledge, freedom, and beauty can thrive. To honor the sacred is to make love possible.

To this we dedicate our curiosity, our will, our courage, our silences, and our voices. To this we dedicate our lives."
Wicca
Pentagram
Owners: 174
The pentagram, a five-pointed star drawn with five straight lines, is an ancient symbol adopted by Wiccans to represent earth, air, fire, water, and spirit. Called sometimes a pentacle (usually when referring to an object) and sometimes a pentagram (usually when referring to the symbol), the Wiccan pentagram includes a circle around the five-lined star with the end of each line touching the circle -- which stands for protection, sacred space, infinity, the wheel of life, and the circle/cycle of the year.

An ancient symbol, the pentagram has been found on broken clay fragments in Palestine (approx 4000 BCE) and Mesopotamia (approx 3500 BCE). It was an early Egyptian hieroglyph, and around 2700 BCE it was in common use among the Sumerians. The Greek Pythagoreans (6th century BCE) adopted it as a symbol of perfection.

In the Jewish kabbalistic tradition, it represents the five upper sephiroth on the Tree of Life. In Old Testament times, the pentagram was the first of the Seven Seals of Solomon and it represented the five books of the Pentateuch (the Torah). From 300 to 150 BCE it was the main ideogram in the official seal of the city of Jerusalem.

In early Christianity the pentagram represented the five wounds of Jesus and the Feast of the Ephiphany. In the Middle Ages it was associated with the five knightly virtues, and in various parts of Europe it was hung in windows and doors for (magical) protection. A Gnostic symbol, in Freemasonry the pentagram is known as the Blazing Star. It appears in much of the iconography of the early United States, which relates it to the many Freemasons who were Founding Fathers.

In the latter Middle Ages, the pentagram became associated with the Devil, and in the latter half of the 20th century the upside-down pentagram was adopted as one of the symbols of Satanism. The upside-down symbol also stands for the “Second Degree” in some Wiccan traditions and is used in Freemasonry, but any association of Satanism with Wicca (or Freemasonry, for that matter) is a false one. Unfortunately, the ignorance and fear of Wicca as somehow related to the Devil, Satanism, and all things bad persists, such that many Wiccans hide their Pentagrams at work and when in public, and school children in the United States are often denied the use of the Pentagram for jewelry even though this infringes on their First Amendment rights.

This ancient symbol almost certainly comes from ancient astronomical observations: it describes in two dimensions the eight-year cycle of the planet Venus as it travels around the Zodiac. Indeed, it has long been associated with both the planet Venus and the worship of the goddess Venus (and other goddesses associated with the planet, considered to be a star in earlier times).
Pittsburgh (PA)
Kennywood Park
Owners: 241
Declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987, Kennywood began as a small trolley park in 1898. In the 1910's, two roller coasters, the Racer and the Speed-O-Plane, were constructed on the site. After the park survived the Great Depression, it was made famous by rides such as the Jackrabbit, and the Thunderbolt (both of which still exist today), earning it the slogan "The Roller Coaster Capital of the World". Recent decades brought new rides, including the Pittsburgh Plunge and a new steel looping roller coaster dubbed The Steel Phantom, which would later be reconstructed and re-named The Phantom's Revenge. Today, Kennywood Park remains a popular tourist attraction for the entire state of Pennsylvania.
Poetry Writing
Form
Owners: 572
The poet fits the voice of the poem into its Form; the Form carries the dream to the reader. From the haiku to the sonnet, from the tightest villanelle to the loosest free verse, the poem would be invisible without its Form. Meter, whether as rigid as a strict march or open as a modern dance, echoes the poet's footsteps. Rhyme is the poet's shadow, following even when hidden by cloud or night. The world is void and without Form, then the poet creates.
BDSM
Contract
Owners: 389
Bondage/Domination, Domination/Submission, Sado-Masochism - this alternative lifestyle choice is governed by the Contract. It sets out what Master/Mistress and slave, Dom(me) and sub, find acceptable - whether that's a 24/7 lifestyle or an occasional romp involving novelty furry handcuffs. Above all, the Contract normally keeps everything within the bounds (no pun intended!) of the BDSM lifestyle coda - Safe, Sane, Consensual.
Turkish
New Language Movement
Owners: 444
Turkish belongs to the Altay branch of the Uralo-Altay linguistic family. Through the span of history, Turks have spread over a wide geographical area, taking their language with them. Turkish speaking people have lived in a wide area stretching from today's Mongolia to the north coast of the Black Sea, the Balkans, East Europe, Anatolia, Iraq and a wide area of northern Africa. Due to the distances involved, various dialects and accents have emerged. The history of the language is divided into three main groups, old Turkish (from the 7th to the 13th centuries), mid-Turkish (from the 13th to the 20th) and new Turkish from the 20th century onwards. During the Ottoman Empire period Arabic and Persian words invaded the Turkish language and it consequently became mixed with three different languages. During the Ottoman period which spanned five centuries, the natural development of Turkish was severely hampered. - - Then there was the "new language" movement. In 1928, five years after the proclamation of the Republic, the Arabic alphabet was replaced by the Latin one, which in turn speeded up the movement to rid the language of foreign words. The Turkish Language Institute was established in 1932 to carry out linguistic research and contribute to the natural development of the language. As a consequence of these efforts, modern Turkish is a literary and cultural language developing naturally and free of foreign influences.
Body Modification
Modern Primitive
Owners: 188
Pierced? Just the one? Tattooed? Just the one? Branded? Just the one?

Do not limit your modifications to the socially acceptable - stretch your limits, your imagination and your friendships: don't be such a wimp! Go the whole-hog like Stelarc or Fakir Mustafar: construct an artifical arm or suspend yourself for hours on end with hooks big enough to catch a shark.

With an artefact like this, your opponents will run in fear and shame when they see you armed with your Modern Primitive.
Kung Fu
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Motorsport
Turbo Charger
Owners: 325
The Turbo is  the best way to bump up the power of a cars engine, possibly by up to 30%!

They work on the basis that fast flowing air is denser than slow flowing air and cold air is denser than hot air, therefore cold, fast flowing air is very dense (Dense air means more air). Ideally an engine needs as much air as possible so cold, fast flowing air is the key. This is where the turbo comes in!

A turbo is basically a large air compressor that is powered by a turbine, which is spun by the exhaust fumes. This air compressor sucks in the air and forces it into the engine through a cooling system creating the massive power increases desired.

In an industry where fractions of a gram are important, the fact turbos have a relativly small mass is a big attraction, the power to mass ratio of an engine with a turbo is massively increased.
Goth
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Punk Culture
None!

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CSS
Håkon Wium Lie
Owners: 394
Håkon Wium Lie (born 1965 in Norway) is Chief Technology Officer of Opera Software. He is best known for proposing the concept of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) in 1994. Håkon's proposal was presented at the "Mosaic and the Web" conference in Chicago, Illinois, and again with Bert Bos in 1995. Håkon became a technical adviser to the W3C project aimed at adding CSS to the deliverables of the HTML editorial review board (ERB). He co-authored a book with Bert Bos on CSS etitled "Cascading Style Sheets: Designing for the Web"
Henna
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Tattoo
Ink Slinger
Owners: 316
These fringe artists tend not only to create this epidermal art form, they tend to inspire new works and quickly show their distain for the 'Trendy'. Often times these rare people are found in the midst of motorcyclists and various other unsavory types, so do be careful with them.
Piercing
None!

Suggest One in the forums.

Alabama
Sweet Home Alabama
Owners: 162
Written by the seminal Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd as a response to Neil Young's "Alabama" and "Southern Man", the song was a hit in 1974 and buoyed sales of their /Second Helping/ release. Many took the song to be antagonistic towards Young, but he eventually came to embrace the song, playing it in concert from time to time. When attending rock concerts in the Heart of Dixie, the audience is often serenaded to some form of "Sweet Home Alabama", whether the whole song as a cover or the opening riff just as a nod to the notoriety of the song and its reference to the state.
Alaska
Trans-Alaska Pipeline
Owners: 256
Writer and former president of the University of Alaska William R. Wood described it as "a silken thread, half hidden across the palace carpet." The Trans-Alaska Pipeline covers 800 miles of breath-taking landscape. It is a thread unlike any other, crossing the frozen tundra and septentrional forests in the shadows of majestic snow-capped mountains.

The presence of crude oil on Alaska's North Slope was suspected for many decades. The existence of a large oil field in Prudhoe Bay was confirmed in 1968 by Atlantic Richfield Company and Humble Oil (now Exxon). Environmental groups fought construction of the pipeline through lawsuits filed in 1970. Three years of legal proceedings prevented any construction, during which time the federal government and the state of Alaska considered proposals for construction of the pipeline.

Although presidential approval was obtained on November 16, 1973, construction was further delayed. In order to move equipment and supplies from the Yukon River to Prudhoe Bay, 360 miles of road needed to be constructed. This allowed time for the terminal to be built in Valdez.

Pipeline construction began in 1975 by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company. By May 1977, all 800 miles had been installed and tested. Oil entered the pipeline at Pump Station One, at Prudhoe Bay, on June 20, 1977, and reached Valdez on July 28. On August 1, 1977, the tanker "ARCO Juneau" sailed out of Valdez with the first load of North Slope crude oil.
Arizona
Grand Canyon
Owners: 423
The Grand Canyon is more than a great chasm carved over millennia through the rocks of the Colorado Plateau. It is more than an awe-inspiring view. It is more than a pleasuring ground for those who explore the roads, hike the trails, or float the currents of the turbulent Colorado River.
Arkansas
Razorbacks
Owners: 314
The first Arkansas football team was formed in 1894 and was known as the "Arkansas Cardinals". During the first year the team racked up two wins against Fort Smith High School but took a 54-0 drubbing at the hands of the Texas Longhorns.

In 1909 the football team finished a 7-0 season allowing only 18 points on defense and scoring 186 points on offense. The coach stated that his team played like "like a wild band of Razorback Hogs". The name proved so popular that the name was changed for the 1910 season.

Tale of the Arkansas Mascot - The history of the University of Arkansas’ athletic appearance began in 1894 when a contest was held on campus to select school colors, 23 years after classes were first held. Cardinal (a shade of deep red) was voted in over heliotrope, a shade of moderate purple. Arkansas athletic teams carried the name of Cardinals into battle for the next 15 years, until the close of 1909 season. Football coach Hugo Bezdek referred to his team as “a wild band of Razorbacks” at a post-season rally following an unbeaten season. The name Razorbacks quickly caught on and the famous yell, “Woo, Pig! Sooie” as added in the 1920s.

In 1936 the team won its first Southwest Conference championship in football and played their first Cotton Bowl in 1946.

In 1957 Frank Broyles was hired as head football coach and served in that position for 19 years. Broyles team won the National Championship in 1964. In 1969 Broyles team was ranked #2 and played the #1 Texas Longhorns, coached by Darrell Royal, at Fayetteville. The game, known as "The Big Shootout" is perhaps the greatest game in Arkansas history and even brought President Richard Nixon to the stands of Razorback Stadium. The Razorbacks led 14-0 until 15 minutes left in the 4th quarter. Texas scored 15 unanswered points and won the National Championship 15-14 in stunning fashion.

After Broyles left coaching and became Athletic Director he hired Lou Holtz to take his former position. Holtz served as head football coach for three exciting years. Under Holtz the Razorbacks lost a National Championship in the Sugar Bowl against Alabama and stunned the Oklahoma Sooners in the Orange Bowl ending their National Championship hopes.

In the 1980s the football team was coached by Ken Hatfield and established itself as a powerful running team. The Razorbacks challenged for the SWC title each year and went to the Cotton Bowl twice. Hatfield's teams established excellent regular season records but had difficulty winning bowl games.

In 1990 Broyles led the Razorbacks out of the Southwest Conference and into the Southeastern Conference setting off a major realignment in college football. In 1995 Arkansas won its first SEC Western Division Title in football.
California
Surfer Dude
Owners: 745
From San Diego all the way up to the Redwoods of Eureka, you can find the California surfer dude doing his thing 365 days per year. No matter the weather, there is always some brave (foolish?) soul willing to take his own life into his hands and brave the waves first thing in the morning, because he just cannot function for the rest of the day unless he's had his early dip in the surf. Vehicles are sold based upon how well they will carry your board to the beach. Weather forecasts start with the surf report. Life in California revolves around the surfer dude.
Colorado
Estes Park
Owners: 366
Situated on the eastern portion of Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park gives visitors access to just one of the many beautiful glimpses of nature to be found in Colorado. Hiking trails allow the casual tourist to explore snow-capped peaks in the middle of summer, while more experienced backpackers can spend a week in the backcountry, hiking to the contintental divide or climbing some of the many steep rock faces to be found in the park. Or, after a day of driving through the park, visitors can picnic and enjoy the view from Lake Estes at the foot of the Rocky Mountains.
Connecticut
Nutmeggers
Owners: 292
One of Connecticut's many nicknames is the Nutmeg State; people from Connecticut are often called "nutmeggers." A couple of stories exist as to the origin of this nickname. One story has it that this nickname came about as a comment on the ingenuity and shrewdness of the citizens of the state. In a story, perhaps originated by Sam Slick, it is claimed that the people of Connecticut were so ingenious and shrewd that they were able to make and sell "wooden" nutmegs to unsuspecting buyers. It may be that these wooden nutmegs were whittled by idle sailors on ships coming from the spice island and sold as souvenirs.
Delaware
The First State
Owners: 78
Delaware became the first state of the United States of America on December 17, 1787 when the state leaders voted to ratify the new U.S. Constitution. The vote came after delegates of the Philadelphia Convention reached an agreement known as the Connecticut Compromise. The Compromise defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. The result was the enacting of a bicameral legislature, the Senate and the House of Representatives, satisfying the Delaware delegates desire for equal representation for each state.
Florida
Orange Juice
Owners: 397
The official state beverage of Florida, orange juice is a beverage produced by squeezing or pressing the interior of an orange. Oranges are hand-picked in the field, loaded into trailers and delivered to the processing plant. The fruit is dumped from trailers onto conveyers where it is carried through a washing process. The fruit is then graded, and oranges not acceptable for processing are separated and diverted to be used for by-products. The oranges are then diverted to storage bins labeled according to juice specifications represented by each tested load of fruit. Oranges are selected from labeled bins to enable blending juice of optimal quality and transported via conveyor to juicing machines, known as extractors. Following the juice extraction, the stream goes through a finisher screen where the pulp and seeds are removed, along with the peel.

The Florida citrus industry provides $9.1 billion annually (as of 2006) to the state, and it employs nearly 90,000 people and provides 650,000 acres of green space.
Georgia (USA)
Georgia On My Mind
Owners: 384
On April 24, 1979, "Georgia On My Mind," with music by Hoagy Carmichael and lyrics by Stuart Gorrell, was designated Georgia's official state song. Gorrell wrote the song for Carmichael's sister Georgia in 1930. It was performed on March 7, 1979 before a joint meeting of the Georgia Senate and House of Representatives by Georgia-born recording artist Ray Charles.

... "Just an old sweet song keeps Georgia on my mind."
Hawaii (state)
King Kamehameha the Great
Owners: 282
Widely known as King Kamehameha or just Kamehameha, Kamehameha the Great (circa 1758-1819) was the military leader behind the formation of the Kingdom of Hawaii, he also served from 1810 until his death in 1818 as the nation's first monarch. The war lord was on hand at Cook's landing in 1778 and later embraced the western weapons that the Europeans brought to the islands. Kamehameha easily crushed his opponents who where still armed with primitive weapons such as spears.

King Kamehameha proved not only to be a genius military strategist but, also a skilled diplomat. He initiated friendly relations with many colonial powers in the region and began trading with nations across the globe. Today Kamehameha is remembered primarily for his unification of the Hawaiian Islands and his establishment of the "law of the splintered paddle" which is still an important international law. Every year on June 11 the life and accomplishments of Kamehameha is celebrated across Hawaii on Kamehameha day, a holiday in the state since 1872.
Idaho
Russet Burbank
Owners: 223
Until the First World War, potatoes were strictly a small-time enterprise in the Gem State. An important breakthrough came with the development of the Russet Burbank variety, which resisted disease and found favor with consumers as a tasty baking potato. Idaho became the nation’s number one potato producing state in the late 1950s.
Illinois
Illini
Owners: 506
Prior to 1640, the Illini occupied the state of Illinois including both sides of the Mississippi River from Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin to the mouth of the Ohio, and then south along the west bank to the Arkansas River. The dominant tribe in the region before 1655, their hunting territory extended into western Kentucky and across Missouri and Iowa, the latter provoking occasional skirmishes with the Pawnee and Wichita on the plains (from whom the Illini learned the calumet ceremony). The Osage migration to the lower Missouri River (sometime between 1450 and 1650) isolated the Michigamea and Chepoussa from the other Illini. From 1650 to 1803 they went through several wars with other tribes and migrated from place to place until 1803 when they ceded all claim to their homeland and placed themselves under American protection. They surrendered their last Illinois lands and moved to Missouri in 1818, and in 1832 eastern Kansas. After merging with the Wea and Piankashaw in 1854, they moved to northeast Oklahoma in 1867, where their descendents still live. So when you think of Illinois think of the Illini, the first residents.
Indiana
Hoosier
Owners: 341
A Hoosier is a resident or native of the U.S. state of Indiana. The term is commonly accepted and employed at all levels of discourse by Hoosiers themselves, and is considered neither derogatory nor informal. The word ‘Indianan’, as either noun or adjective, is rarely if ever used by an actual native of Indiana. Deriving from common usage, ‘Hoosiers’ is the team name for Indiana University athletic teams, and a movie about basketball in Indiana was also called Hoosiers.
Iowa
The Ethanol Pledge
Owners: 268
Fans of the NBC series "The West Wing" will no doubt recall Jimmy Smits' character giving in and making the so-called "Ethanol Pledge" - a promise to devote federal funds to the cause of converting some percentage of America's energy use to corn-based ethanol. Presidential candidates in the United States have little to no chance to get their names on the ballot without first surviving the Iowa caucus, giving the average Iowa corn farmer a pretty hefty voice in national politics. More than one third of Iowa's land is devoted to the production of corn, the majority of which goes unsold due to the lack of a feasible market. The solution? Corn-based ethanol.

Americans can see the growing influence of the Iowan in the rising number of gas stations touting that their fuel is as much as 30% ethanol, however this disproportional political clout obscures the facts. Several studies conducted at leading research universities across the nation have shown that the production of ethanol from corn requires a minimum of 29% more fossil energy than the ethanol fuel itself can actually produce.

While South American nations have demonstrated that other forms of ethanol, most notably sugar, are cheap, feasible alternatives to reliance on Middle Eastern oil, the United States has... The Ethanol Pledge.
Kansas
Leavenworth
Owners: 309
Leavenworth, the city named after Henry Leavenworth who founded Fort Leavenworth in 1827, was established in 1854 by the Leavenworth Town Company and in 1855 became the county seat of Leavenworth County. By autumn of 1856 Majors Russell and Waddell, made it headquarters for their vast transportation system. Leavenworth became a base of supply for the West and Southwest and still bears the marks of the start of the Oregon and Santa Fe Trails. During the Indian wars it served as an outpost and staging point for the 9th & 10th Cavalry, better known as "The Buffalo Soldiers" and today a monument has been erected in their honor on Fort Leavenworth.

In 1896 congress authorized the construction of a new prison and Leavenworth was chosen as the site. To ensure that labor would be kept to a minimum the prisoners from the Fort Leavenworth Military Prison were used in the construction. They were marched 2.5 miles to and from the military prison every day of work with construction taking 25 years to complete.

Modern day Leavenworth is a quaint town settled on the Missouri river just north of Kansas City. It is home to the Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary, The US military Disciplanary barracks, Fort Leavenworth, The US Marshals holding facility and just South of Leavenworth is the Kansas State Penitentiary. Leavenworth is also home to Fort Leavenworth and the US Army's Command and General's Staff College which is known for training military officers from around the world and includes such graduates as GEN Douglas McArthur & GEN Colin Powell.

The town itself has been home to many famous people through the years such as Buffalo Bill Cody as well as modern day stars and is the home town of Melissa Ethridge.
Kentucky
Churchill Downs
Owners: 344
Founded in 1874, Churchill Downs distinctive spires are internationally known, and synonymous with The Kentucky Derby and The Sport of Kings.

Horse racing in Kentucky has a history dating back to the late 18th Century. It wasn't until M. Lewis Clark visited Europe in 1873 and saw the elaborate tracks that anyone had the idea for a formal jockey club in Louisville. Upon his return to the US he founded the Louisville Jockey Club, and raised $32,000 by selling memberships at $100 each. The following year the track hosted what has since become the premier thoroughbred race in the United States, The Kentucky Derby.

The track was not financially successful, however. In 1894 the New Jockey Club of Louisville was founded, and took control of the track. The new president, William F. Schulte was instrumental in expanding the track, and building new grandstands, featuring the trademark spires. The track continued to lose money, however, and was eventually taken over by a group of prominent Louisville citizens. While they did take control of track management, however, they did not assume title to the track itself. Under their management the track was finally able to become profitable.

There continued to be changes in the ownership structure over the years, but The Kentucky Derby's popularity continued to grow, and with it the profile of Churchill Downs. And while there have been continued improvements to the track over the years, the distinctive style, including the majestic spires, has remained a constant in the Louisville skyline.
Louisiana
Crawfish
Owners: 352
Louisiana has always been a melting pot of diverse cultures, from colonial times to the present. French colonial settlers evicted from Acadiana ("Cajuns") by British armies to German, Irish, Portugese, Spanish settlers, freed slaves and Carribean tradesmen and more recently Vietnamese and Laosian immigrants were all drawn to the region by the rich Mississippi River delta waters and floodlands.

A thread common to all these cultures settled in Louisiana is a love for celebrating life and great food. In order to have great food and still have energy left for a bit of celebrating, you need to find something that is easy to catch, easy to prepare, and wonderful to eat. One has only to tie a bit of raw bacon to a string and dangle it in any muddy puddle to find Louisiana's favorite food: Crawfish.

With little more than table scraps as bait, you can summon these bite-sized crustaceans in droves, rinse them off and drop them into the boiler with a sache of spices. By the time you've opened a beer, dinner is ready! And oh, so good.

Baked, fried, broiled or boiled, crawfish is recognized worldwide as a unique aspect of life in Louisiana.
Maine
Lobster
Owners: 301
Despite centuries being considered a poor man's food, the lobster is now considered a prime delicacy in much of the world. The advent of better transportation systems allowed the transport of live lobster from coastal areas to inland markets. The resulting massive increase in demand resulted in turning the crustacean from being the mark of poverty to being deemed a meal for the upper classes. This has brought a great deal of wealth to the state of Maine, the largest single producer of lobsters in the United States, and among the largest producers in the world.
Maryland
Skipjack
Owners: 284
Developed in the 1890’s, an estimated 2000 Skipjacks were built in Chesapeake Bay for oyster dredging. The SkipJack fleet in Maryland is the only commercial sailing fleet in North America. In the 1900’s the price of oysters declined, causing abandonment and destruction of much of the fleet. Around 30 Skipjacks remain in existence today, most still located in Maryland in museums, though some are still functional and offer tours of the sea. The word “Skipjack” is believed to come from fish, such as the skipjack mackerel or skipjack tuna, though some believe it is an archaic English word meaning "inexpensive yet useful servant". In 1985, the Skipjack was named the Maryland State Boat.
Massachusetts
Shot Heard Round the World
Owners: 476
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has a rich history as one of the 13 States to form the Union known as The United States of America. There was the Boston Tea Party, the Boston Massacre and the even today, Boston is the home port of the USS Constitution in all her glory.

But there was one event that galvanized the 13 colonies. That was the British incursion to seize a store of gunpowder and arms in Concord, Massachusetts. The midnight ride of Paul Revere alerted the Minutemen who gathered to block the British heading up Massachusetts Avenue at Lexington Green. The British ordered the Minutemen to disperse. The Minutemen stood firm. The British opened fire and that was "the shot heard around the World." News of that shot spread literally around the World.

The Minutemen's defiance kicked off the American Revolution that lead to the unfolding of the fight for independence.
Michigan
meicigama
Owners: 490
Meicigama, a word from the Chippewa Indian language, means “great water.” It is believed to be the source of the name of Lake Michigan, the second largest of the five Great Lakes on or near the U.S.-Canadian border. From the name of this lake, the second largest of the five in volume and the only one entirely in the U.S., came the name of the U.S. state, Michigan -- the 26th to enter the union (1837).

Michigan was home to various Native American tribes for centuries before the arrival of Europeans. When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous and influential tribes were the linguistically and ethnically related Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi. Within Michigan, the Chippewa were the most populous, estimated at between 25,000 and 35,000, and were predominant in the western Upper Peninsula and northern Wisconsin, though they were also present in other areas of the Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan. The Ottawa primarily inhabited the area around the Straits of Mackinac and areas of Northern Michigan, while the Potawatomi resided primarily in southwest Michigan. The three tribes co-existed peacefully and formed a loose confederation known as the Council of Three Fires. Other tribes with a presence in Michigan were the Mascouten, Miami, and Wyandot (or Huron).
Minnesota
Hotdish
Owners: 403
Hotdish is any of a variety of casserole dishes consisting of a starch (typically potatoes), a meat (typically ground beef) and a vegetable (typically corn) mixed together with a type of sauce (cream of mushroom soup). It's the state food of Minnesota, and its origins are rumored to be from Lake Wobegon, a fictitious town in Minnesota where "all the women are strong, all the men are good looking, and all children are above average."
Mississippi
Magnolia
Owners: 142
The magnolia is a genus of flowering tree, with over two hundred species variants. It was first discovered by Charles Plumier and named after a French botanist named Pierre Magnol. The magnolia is the state flower and tree as well as the state symbol of Mississippi, which is nicknamed "the Magnolia State" for its abundance of the genus, which thrives in the state's humid subtropical climate.
Missouri
Mule
Owners: 361
On May 31, 1995, Governor Mel Carnahan signed a bill designating the Missouri mule as the official state animal. The mule is a hybrid, the offspring of a mare (female horse) and a jack (male donkey). After its introduction to the state in the 1820s, the mule quickly became popular with farmers and settlers because of its hardy nature. Missouri mules pulled pioneer wagons to the Wild West during the 19th century and played a crucial role in moving troops and supplies in World Wars I and II. For decades, the Show Me State was the nations premier mule producer.
Montana
Big Sky
Owners: 302
Montana is known as big sky country because of the immense area of prairie which makes up 60 percent of the land. The fourth largest state in area but with a relatively low population (only six states have fewer people) it is a relatively unspoiled area. The economy is based on agriculture, lumber and mineral extraction, along with a significant contribution from tourism. Visitors come to Montana to see the stunning views at The Glacier National Park, Flathead Lake and the Missouri River headwaters. Montana is also the site of The Battle of the Little Bighorn.
Nebraska
Willa Cather
Owners: 277
Though Willa Cather was born in Virginia, the eminent American author grew up in Red Cloud, Nebraska, and lived in that state for most of her 73 years. Her novels were inspired by the prairie and its people – immigrants, pioneers, and their descendants. Critics like H.L. Mencken celebrated her writing about ordinary people in plainspoken language. In Cather’s work, both landscape and women are brilliantly drawn and fully alive.

Cather was a political conservative, yet a nonconformist who resisted the traditional patterns for women's lives. She was a lover of women who, in her youth, wore her hair short in a boy's cut and dressed in men's clothing. Graduating from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1895, she became a journalist, teacher, critic, and magazine editor. Her first novel was published in 1912.

In 1923, she won the Pulitzer Prize for One of Ours. In 1930, when Sinclair Lewis won the Nobel Prize in Literature, he said Cather should have won it instead.

Her novels: Alexander's Bridge (1912), O Pioneers (1913), The Song of the Lark (1915), My Antonia (1918), One of Ours (1922), A Lost Lady (1923), The Professor's House (1925), My Mortal Enemy (1926), Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927), Shadows on the Rock (1931), Lucy Gayheart (1935), Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940).
Nevada
Mustang Ranch
Owners: 313
Founded in 1955 by former cab driver, Joe Conforte, The Mustang Ranch became the first legalized brothel in Nevada. Conforte's lawsuits against the State of Nevada were key in eventually making Nevada the only state with legalized prostitution. The ranch has played host to numerous celebrities and even foreign royalty. But Mr. Conforte spent the last several years as owner hiding from the IRS due to tax disputes, which had begun in 1963. Efforts to save the ranch became very well publicized, including an effort to make it the world's first publicly traded brothel, but eventually the efforts failed and the ranch was seized by the IRS in 1990. For a brief period the IRS actually operated the ranch in an effort to recoup the taxes owed, but this was short lived and the ranch was auctioned off. Yet the tale of the ranch was not yet finished, as the IRS eventually determined that Conforte had actually conspired to retain ownership through intermediaries and shell corporations. In 1997 the IRS again charged Conforte with tax evasion and in 1999 the Mustang Ranch was seized and closed for good by the IRS.
New Hampshire
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New Jersey
New Jersey Turnpike
Owners: 388
It is unlikely that any stretch of road is more integral to a state than the New Jersey Turnpike is to the state of New Jersey. While most of America knows the Turnpike as the road driven by Tony Soprano in the opening sequence of The Sopranos, to residents of the area, it is much more. Due to a clear need for a major north/south thouroughfare in the corridor between Washinton DC and Boston, the decision to build the Turnpike was made in 1948. By 1950 construction had begun on a hiway to replace the narrow roads that meandered through numerous towns and cities with a major roadway designed to handle the heavy traffic load. The first stretch opened in 1951, and the full 118-mile road was open in 1952, only 25 months after the start of construction. Today the Turnpike is so ingrained in New Jersey that when to natives meet it is not at all uncommon for them not to ask "Where are you from?" but instead to ask "What exit?"
New Mexico
Red or Green
Owners: 323
In the Land of Enchantment, you’ll find more than just coyotes and beautiful landscapes. New Mexico is proud of its diverse population. No one ethnic group is a majority. New Mexicans live side by side, working in one accord to build a state where all people are welcome. Ride in a hot air balloon. Race your motorcycle across barren deserts. Conquer the whitewater roaring down canyons after the snowmelt. See and feel the rugs and pottery produced for hundreds of years by Native Americans. Watch as the santeros lovingly make their Santos and other devotional art. Gaze on the paintings of Georgia O’Keefe. Hear the haunting sounds of Fernando Celicion and his native flute. Watch the sunset go down behind the red mesas and remember the people who struggle to make a home here in the barren, high desert. Finally, don’t leave New Mexico without trying our chili. The state question - Red or Green? is asked thousands of times a day to locals and tourists alike. How do you like yours?
New York (state)
New Netherlands
Owners: 506
One of the orginal 13 colonies that became the United States of America, New York State is often over-shadowed by (and confused with) its most populous city. Originally settled by the Dutch, it became known as New Netherlands, until the British (under the leadership of the Duke of York) took it over and called it New York.
North Carolina
The Wright Brothers
Owners: 564
Orville and Wilbur Wright were the first to design and build a flying craft that could be controlled in the air. Their first controlled aircraft, the 1902 Wright glider, flown out of Kitty Hawk, NC had controls to <i>roll</i> the wings right or left, <i>pitch</i> the nose up or down and <i>yaw</i> the nose from side to side. These three controls, roll, pitch, and yaw, let a pilot navigate an airplane in all three dimensions making it possible to fly from place to place. The entire aerospace industry depends on this simple, but brilliant idea.

The Wright Brothers changed the way everyone viewed the world. Before flight became available, people only travelled in two dimensions. The world economy, our awareness of our environment, and space exploration are all, to some degree, the results of the inventive minds of Orville and Wilbur Wright.
Ohio
Buckeye
Owners: 412
The Ohio Buckeye, the state tree of Ohio, is found primarily as an understory tree in the western half of Ohio, where the soils are more alkaline in pH. However, it is scattered throughout the eastern half of the state, except in extreme northeastern and extreme southeastern Ohio. Its lightweight wood is used in the production of artificial limbs, and the holding of a "buckeye nut" in one's pocket is considered good luck. A native of the Midwestern and Great Plains states, trees found in the open may reach 60 feet tall by 30 feet wide, but as a native understory it is often half that size. As a member of the Horsechestnut Family, it is related to other Horsechestnuts and Buckeyes, including man-made hybrids between the species.
Oklahoma
The Grapes of Wrath
Owners: 393
The Grapes of Wrath is a work of fiction written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939. The novel won the Pulitzer Prize in 1940 and a celebrated Hollywood film version was made in 1940, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford. Much of it is set in Oklahoma during the Great Depression. The popular proletarian novel, in which descriptive, narrative, and philosophical passages succeed one another, tells the story of a family of sharecroppers, the Joads — 'Okie' farmers driven from their land by drought and the Dust Bowl, and forced to endure the hardships of migrant workers moving West. The novel details the nearly hopeless situation of the downtrodden American farmer in the years of the Great Depression, and brings to life the grim landscape of Oklahoma during that time. But it also tells of the stoic strength of the American spirit. Steinbeck wrote this book, along with Of Mice and Men, in what is now Monte Sereno, California. When he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature (1962), the Swedish Academy called the book "an epic chronicle".
Oregon
Brookings
Owners: 307
A coastal town about 12 miles north of the California border, it is the site of the only known - fortunately, failed - attempt by the Japanese to bomb the continental United States during World War II. After the war, the pilot apologized to the town of Brookings and was sort of adopted as a "favorite son," even being selected one year as the Honorary King of the annual Brookings Azalea Festival.
Pennsylvania
William Penn
Owners: 376
In 1681, King Charles II granted William Penn a large area west and south of New Jersey. Penn called the area Sylvania (Latin for woods), which Charles changed to Pennsylvania in Penn's honor. Penn implemented a democratic system with full freedom of religion, fair trials, elected representatives of the people in power, and a separation of powers— ideas that would later form the basis of the American constitution. The freedom of religion in Pennsylvania brought not only English, Welsh, German and Dutch Quakers to the colony, but also Huguenots, Mennonites, Amish, and Lutherans from Catholic German states. Penn himself was a Quaker, earning Pennsylvania the nickname of "Quaker state."
Rhode Island
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South Carolina
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South Dakota
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Tennessee
Jack Daniel's Tennessee Whiskey
Owners: 468
Jack Daniel, born in 1850, was raised by a family friend before being hired out to work with the Dan Call family at the age of seven. Call, a Lutheran minister, also owned a whiskey still on the Louse River. Over the next several years, Jack learned everything he could about whiskey making from Call. In September, 1863, Call sold his still to Jack who was just 13 at the time. In 1866, in anticipation of government taxes, Jack registered his distillery. He was the first to do so making it the nation's oldest registered distillery.

Tired of the standard, round bottles, in 1895, a salesman showed Jack a unique, new bottle design - a square bottle with a fluted neck. More than 100 years later, the square bottle remains a symbol for Jack Daniel's quality - full of character, just like the whiskey it holds.

In 1904, Jack entered his Old No. 7 Tennessee sipping whiskey at the World's Fair held in St. Louis, MO. Of the 20 whiskeys from around the world, his was the only one awarded the World's Fair Gold Medal and honored as the world's best whiskey.

Jack died of blood poisoning in 1911. Because he never married or had children, he deeded his distillery to his hard-working nephew, Lem Motlow, who oversaw the distillery through Prohibition.
Texas
The Longhorn
Owners: 668
The Texas Longhorn became the foundation of the American cattle industry by claiming first rights in the untamed, newly discovered Americas a little over 500 years ago. A breed unique from any other, Texas Longhorns have helped pave the way for the future of the American cattle business while preserving their own uniqueness as a breed and as a trendsetter towards leaner beef. The Texas Longhorn - an old breed with a new future.
Utah
Beehive
Owners: 463
The Beehive commemorates the industry of the people of Utah. The beehive was adopted in 1847 as an official emblem of the state and represents the qualities of industry, perseverance, thrift, stability, and self-reliance, all virtues respected by the state's settlers. The beehive is the centerpiece of the Utah great seal and the Utah state flag.
Vermont
The Green Mountain Boys
Owners: 329
In the early 1700's two of the original thirteen colonies - New York, and New Hampshire - both tried to claim the piece of land that was in between them. An organized militia founded in that disputed region called themselves the "Green Mountain Boys." Although they were considered outlaws by the government of New York (the colony with official governance over the region according to the British), the Green Mountain Boys remained at large due to the inability of the New York authorities to exercise any warrants on their behalf.
During the revolutionary war, the Green Mountain Boys played a pivotal role when their leader Ethan Allen led them across Lake Champlain to overtake several British establishments. The most famous of these was Fort Ticonderoga - which they overtook without a fight. The cannons from the Fort Ticonderoga were then transported down to Boston - where they helped the Americans defeat the British.
The Green Mountain Boys are considered a symbol of Vermont independance. Without them, not only would certain battles of the Revolutionary War have been made more difficult - but Vermont would not exist as a state. Out of respect for the original group, the Vermont Air National Guard, and the Vermont National Guard go by the name of "The Green Mountain Boys" and use the same green-blue-and-white flag design that the original Green Mountain Boys used.
Virginia
Jamestowne Settlement
Owners: 370
"The Far East has its Mecca, Palestine its Jerusalem, France its Lourdes, and Italy its Loretto, but America's only shrines are her altars of patriotism - the first and most potent being Jamestown; the sire of Virginia, and Virginia the mother of this great Republic." -- from a 1907 Virginia guidebook.

In 1606, King James I granted a charter to a group of entrepreneurs, the Virginia Company, who were to establish an English colony in the Chesapeake region of North America. On December 20, 1606, the Discovery, the Godspeed and the Susan Constant set sail with 144 men aboard, 39 crew and 105 passengers. They were instructed to establish a settlement in Virginia, find gold, an alternate route to The Orient, and the Lost Colony of Roanoke.

Nearly four months later, on May 14, 1607, the explorers landed on Jamestown Island. They established a colony on the banks of a river the Indians knew as "Powhatan's River," sixty miles from the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. The colonists renamed it the James River, after their king.

Although the trade with the Powhatan Indians provided the colonists with food in exchange for copper and iron implements, disease, famine and attacks by the Algonquians took a tremendous toll on the population. The leadership of Captain John Smith kept the colony from dissolving. The "starving time" winter followed Smith's departure in 1609 during which only 60 of the original Jamestown settlers survived.

In June 1609, the survivors decided to abandon the town. The arrival of the new governor, Lord De La Ware and his supply ships brought the colonists back to the fort and the colony back on its feet. While it is true that the suffering did not end for decades, some years of peace and prosperity followed the wedding of Pocahontas, the favored daughter of the Algonquian chief Powhatan, to tobacco entrepreneur John Rolfe.

Virginia has held major Jamestown commemorations every 50 years since 1807. Celebration of the 400th anniversary of America's birthplace and its traditions of representative government, the rule of law, free enterprise and cultural diversity - will take place 2007.
Washington (state)
Mount St. Helens
Owners: 407
On the morning of May 18 1980, a 5.1 magnitude earthquake triggered the collapse of the summit and north flank of Mount St. Helens, and caused the largest landslide in recorded history.

Gas-rich magma and super-heated groundwater trapped inside the volcano were suddenly released in a powerful blast. In less than three minutes, 230 square miles of forest lay flattened. The hot gas and magma melted the snow and ice that covered the volcano, and the resulting floodwater mixed with the rock and debris to create concrete-like mudflows which scoured river valleys surrounding the mountain.

A plume of volcanic ash and pumice billowed out of the volcano reaching a height of 15 miles and transformed day into night across Eastern Washington. Avalanches of super-heated gas and pumice, called pyroclastic flows, swept down the flanks of the volcano. While the landslide and lateral blast were over within minutes, the eruption column, mudflows, and pyroclastic flows continued throughout the day and following night.

The crown and heart of a whole mountain had been blasted away, and the surrounding countryside devastated. The energy released by the eruption was estimated at ten megatons, an explosion thousands of times stronger than the Hiroshima bomb. Thousands of deer, elk, bear, and smaller animals perished--in addition to 57 humans. Two hundred thirty-two square miles of forest were destroyed, including three billion board feet of timber estimated at $400 million in value. Numerous buildings, bridges, roads, and machines were destroyed, and farms and communities up to a thousand miles away were partially buried in ash. One hundred sixty-nine lakes and more than 3,000 miles of streams had either been marginally damaged or destroyed. Losses to property and crops were set at more than $1.8 billion.
Shanghai (municipality)
Jade Buddha Temple
Owners: 53
Founded in 1992 the Jade Buddha Temple is named for the two Jade Buddha statutes it houses. The statutes were imported from Burma and feature both a sitting and reclining Buddha. The reclining Buddha is said to represent his death. The temple is home to other Buddha statutes as well, including a marble Buddha donated from Singapore that mirrors the Jade reclining Buddha. There is a charge of 10 yuan to view the Jade Buddhas.
West Virginia
Country Roads
Owners: 238
"Almost heaven, West Virginia...."

With these words begin one of John Denver's most familiar and most successful songs: Country Roads. Co-written with Bill Danoff and Taffy Nivert, Country Roads rose to #2 on the charts as a single in 1971.

Part of the Poems, Prayers and Promises album, in the refrain the singer petitions West Virginia's Country Roads:

"Country roads, take me home
To the place, I be-long
West Virginia, mountain momma
Take me home, country roads"
Wisconsin
Lambeau Field
Owners: 458
No region is as closely identified with its sports team as Wisconsin is to its Green Bay Packers. And why not? They own them. A rarity in the sports world, the Packers are a publicly held company with a stipulation in the articles of incorporation that no one entity should own more than 200,000 shares. Coach and team founder Curly Lambeau won six championships between the 20s and 40s. After a period of mediocrity, Vince Lombardi stepped to the helm to win five championships, including the first two Super Bowls. The Super Bowl trophy is now named after him. Among his many famous quotes: "It's not whether you get knocked down; it's whether you get up."

The luxury boxes at the newly renovated Lambeau Field are an ideal place to negotiate backroom stock dealings or woo potential investors.
Wyoming
Yellowcake
Owners: 212
Uranium was first found in Wyoming in 1949. The most significant discovery took place in 1953 in the Gas Hills in the central part of the state. Today, uranium production is concentrated in the Powder River Basin in the northeast part of the state. The uranium industry employed over 300 Wyomingites in 1997.

The name "yellowcake" is applied to uranium after it has been processed by a mill. It is called yellowcake because of its color. Milling involves grinding and crushing the uranium ore. Then chemicals are added and yellowcake is what remains after the liquid evaporates. Newly-formed yellowcake is not very radioactive compared to the uranium ore from which it comes. Yellowcake is the principal unit in which uranium is bought and sold in the United States. It is stored in 55-gallon drums and shipped from Wyoming to a number of conversion and enrichment facilities in other states. The energy contained in one pound of yellowcake is equal to that of 31 barrels of oil or 10 tons of Wyoming coal!
Dallas (TX)
J.R. Ewing
Owners: 338
J.R. Ewing was the vain, greedy, scheming, crass oil baron on the primetime TV soap opera "Dallas" (1978-1991). J.R. Ewing, or "The man we love to hate" was played by Ft. Worth native Larry Hagman for the show's entire run. J.R. Ewing came to be viewed as the quintessential evil Texas oil man, and the show "Dallas" gave people a new icon for the state of Texas. In 1980 the season ended with J.R. Ewing being shot. Viewers had to wait all summer (and most of the fall due to a Hollywood actors' strike) to learn whether J.R. would survive. The great success of this stunt, which kept viewers in many countries glued to the show's season opener, helped usher in the practice of ending a television season with a big cliffhanger. It also made "Who Shot J.R.?" a brief but popular catch phrase.
Felting
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Sewing
Tomato Pincushion
Owners: 220
Pincushions date back as a sewing staple to 15th century England, used to keep costly metal pins from being lost. Originally they were ornate cases, but decorated, stuffed objects made of silk or linen became popular during the Tudor era. Centuries later, pincushions began to be mass-produced and took on a variety of shapes, including fans, teacups, fruits, and vegetables.

The Tomato Pincushion is one of the most common and traditional of all pincushions, shaped like a red, green-topped tomato. Usually attached to the plump tool is an emery-filled strawberry. Emery, the hard abrasive mineral used to make emery boards, sharpens the pins and needles as they're pushed in and out.
Quilting
Rotary Cutter
Owners: 327
The modern quilter would be lost without her or his rotary cutter. Before a block is created, before the design is pieced together, before any kind of stitching can be done, the fabric must be precisely cut. Forget scissors - they don't cut the straightest line, they take too long, and they're old fashioned. The rotary cutter is the quilter's power tool.
Woodworking
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Paper Crafts
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Fiber Arts
Linen
Owners: 332
Linen is perhaps the oldest of the plants cultivated for its fibers. After wool, it may even be the oldest fabric made by mankind. It is more durable than cotton, and more versatile than wool. It was used to clothe rich and poor alike. Linen is mentioned in the Bible, and found wrapped around Egyptian mummies. It is found throughout Europe and the Middle East. Nowadays, with cheap synthetic fibers in abundance all around us, natural linen is considered a high-end fabric suitable only for the best textiles. Its use in fiber arts tends to be more for high quality stitchery and wall art than the utilitarian clothing of ancient times.
Dyeing
Michele Chevreul
Owners: 338
Michele-Eugene Chevreul (1786-1889) was director of dyeworks at the Gobelins Tapestry Works. He studied chemistry and was deeply interested in how we perceive colors. Chevreul created the first chromatic color wheels and established the concepts of contrasting and complementary colors. He developed a color-classification system using the categories of tint, hue and saturation.
Weaving
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Spinning
Spinning Wheel
Owners: 316
Invented somewhere in China or India between 500 and 1000 AD, the spinning wheel improved the efficiency of the spinning process significantly, allowing spinners to move on from the centuries-old use of the drop spindle for spinning yarn from wool, cotton, or other fibrous material.

Cutting the time required to spin yarn from one week (by drop spindle) to a few hours, the spinning wheel made the business of spinning yarn far more profitable. The innovation spawned a whole series of fairy tales wherein young girls with the ability to spin well brought prosperity to their households. Examples of these fairy tales were "Rumpelstilskin," "Sleeping Beauty," "The Three Spinners," and "Habetrot and the Scantlie Mab." Today, spinning hobbyists still use the spinning wheel to make handspun yarn.
Drag Racing
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Rally
Monte Carlo Rally
Owners: 90
The Monte Carlo Rally organized in 1911 by Prince Albert I of Monaco is considered to be the first (and for over a decade, the only) Rally event in the world. Run each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco, the race takes place along the beautiful French Riviera in Monaco and parts of France. The difficult race conditions have always demanded technical innovation from participants, and numerous automotive technologies have likely developed in response to this prestigious Rally.
Motorcycle Racing
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Formula One
The Big Four
Owners: 237
Formula One racing is dominated by 4 teams: Ferrari, McLaren, Renault (formerly known as Benetton) and Williams. The Big Four, as they are referred to, have won every World Championship since 1984. The Big Four also have the top drivers in the sport on their teams.

Some of the drivers from these teams include Kimi Räikkönen (McLaren), Juan Pablo Montoya (formerly with Williams, now McLaren), Fernando Alonso (Renault) and Michael Schumacher (Ferrari), the most dominant Formula One driver in the history of the sport.
Volleyball
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Veganism
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Scrapbooking
Embellishment
Owners: 217
A picture is just a picture without an embellishment. This is where the art of scrapbooking begins to take off. Embellishments can be anything from a torn piece of paper to a staple or button. The sky is the limit on what can be used, as long as it will stick to the page. It is believed that embellishments were first used in the 1830s, when people used to decorate their common-place books with brightly colored scraps that were left over in paper mills. This was even before the invention of photography! 150 years later, those scraps of paper gave way to stickers, brads, eyelets, and other forms of "ric-rac". The pictures of our lives are wonderful memories, and adding embellishments helps to not only preserve those memories, but to enhance them as well. Embellishments are now sold as themed kits in craft stores throughout the world.

These days, embellishments have grown even more, becoming digital pixels, eliminating the need for scissors and glue or tape. Special designers create embellishments that are used in both traditional and digital scrapbooking. Digital versions of the themed kits are sold online and are found to be easier to manipulate. Unfortunately, these digital elements can be hard for the average person to duplicate, therefore there will always be the need for "real" embellishments.
Beadwork
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Needlework
Royal School of Needlework
Owners: 282
Located in London and founded in 1872 by Queen Victoria's daughter the Princess Christian, the Royal School of Needlework continues to this day to teach the the art of fine needlework. The School is vigorously dedicated to ancient textile restoration and conservation, as well as to training professional embroiderers through three-year apprenticeships. Displayed within its walls are nearly 5,000 pieces of textile, including lace, silkwork, whitework, Jacobean embroidery and many other forms of embroidery and needlework.
Decoupage
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Rubber Stamping
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Doll Making
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Pottery
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Ceramic Crafts
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Jewelry Making
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Wood Carving
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Lions Club
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Supercomputers
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Phoenix (AZ)
Dry Heat
Owners: 322
"But it's a dry heat." Yeah, and so is my oven, but I wouldn't want to spend my summer in there. The fact is that it's 120 degrees out there. It's hot enough to fry an egg on the pavement, melt a cassette tape on a car's dashboard, and get second-degree burns from the sidewalk. You need a potholder to handle your steering wheel and you have to make sure you don't touch anything metal as you're sliding into your car, where the temperature is such that you have to squint your eyes so they don't get seared by the scalding air and try not to breathe too much because the air bakes the inside of your nostrils. "But it's a dry heat."
Buffy the Vampire Slayer / Angel
Stake
Owners: 281
In a world populated by demons and vampires, both of the blood-sucking and corporate variety, you should never leave home without one! The Stake will protect you equally well against the vampire who wants to drain your blood and the leech who wants to bleed your Portfolio dry.
Cartels
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E-Mail
Hotmail
Owners: 224
Hotmail was founded by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith in 1995, and was launched on July 4, 1996. Smith had come up with the idea to get email via the web as a way of circumventing corporate firewalls which blocked regular mail services. The name hotmail was chosen as it contained the letters HTML, and was initially referred to as HoTMaiL with selective upper casing. Originally backed by venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson, it was sold to Microsoft in 1997 and continues to be one of the largest and most recognizable webmail providers today with a 35% world market share in 2005.
Socratics
Elenchos
Owners: 60
Elenchos is the Greek term describing the distinctive form of questioning associated with Socrates and what is referred to as “the Socratic method” of learning and discovery. Elenchos refers to questioning dialogue both to draw out the implications of an assertion and to discover if it aligns--or is in conflict with--an established truth.
Portland (OR)
The Rose Festival
Owners: 346
Portland is known as "The City of Roses" or "Rose City", nicknames originated during the 1905 Lewis and Clark centennial exposition. Its climate is ideal for growing roses, and the city has many rose gardens. To celebrate its namesake, Portland hosts an event each year known as the "Rose Festival." The festival begins on June 1st, and continues throughout the month of June. During the festival, expect to see fireworks, hippees, and lots of people looking for an excuse to have fun.
Public Administration
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Adoption
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Crocheting
The Loop
Owners: 155
The loop is the alpha and omega of crocheting. All crochet begins with a loop (either a plain loop, or a loop fastened with a slip knot). A hook is inserted through the loop, and is used to draw another loop through the original loop. This process may be repeated as often as required to create a chain of loops. The chain forms the basis of all the work which follows, and may be worked from one end to the other in rows, or joined to the beginning with a slip stitch (yet another loop) and worked in rounds. Stitches are formed by pulling one or more loops through the loops of the chain edging of the row or round below. At the beginning of each stitch, there will only be one loop on the hook, and although each stitch in progress may have many loops on the hook, the stitch is only completed when there is once again only one loop on the hook. The work is finished when the last loop is completed by pulling the cut end of the yarn through the final loop.
Genealogy
Family Tree
Owners: 268
A family tree is the totality of one's ancestors. In genealogy, it is a diagram or chart that shows family connections between individuals from generation to generation. It typically consists of the individuals' names (usually accompanied by dates, and often also places and occupations), connected by various types of lines representing marriages, extra-marital unions, and progeniture.
DIY / Home Improvement
Sore Thumb
Owners: 267
Do-it-yourself home improvement has been popular for many years, and with the advent of Cable TV networks like DIY and HGTV, every homeowner can get into the act. And everyone who picks up a hammer for the first time is going to miss at least once. Or cut the counter top the wrong size. Or hang the door crookedly. Or leave gaps in the flooring. Or buy the wrong size light fixtures. Doing it yourself can be a major pain, but it can also be fun and satisfying. So homeowners, proudly display that sore thumb, because you did it yourself.
Cartoons (Print)
Charles Schulz
Owners: 373
Charles Schulz is one of the most famous cartoonists in US history. His Peanuts comic strip was featured in over 2600 newspapers before his death in 2000 when the last strip was run after 50 years as part of American culture. The Peanuts gang also appeared in a number of animated television specials over the years, including "You're a Good Man Charlie Brown" and "A Charlie Brown Christmas." The Charles Schulz Museum and Research Center opened in 2002 to honor his talent and contribution to cartoons.
Audioblogs
Podcast
Owners: 152
A podcast is a syndicated series of audio files typically distributed by an audioblog. Special software can be used to automatically download new podcasts to a computer or a Portable Media Player. Podcasts were originally made for the iPod, but now can be listened to on other devices.
Cuba
Fidel Castro
Owners: 350
With his distinctive beard and military fatigues, Fidel Castro is one of the most recognizable men worldwide. The last remaining Communist head of state remaining from the Cold War era of the 20th century, Castro has led Cuba for more than 45 years and is commonly viewed as a principal voice for third world countries that remain unaligned with the superpowers.

During all but the first few months of his leadership, Castro became engaged in bitter dispute with his close neighbor, the United States. Early on, Castro made enemies by establishing a hardline Marxist regime, implementing major land redistribution, and nationalizing foreign-owned business interests, typically offering to compensate those interests only at the significantly depressed tax valuation prices that the businesses themselves had previously arranged. His adversarial status with the United States was cemented when he responded to a U.S. embargo by setting up close relations with the USSR and by supporting Marxist insurgencies throughout Latin America. Tensions almost led to war with the 1961 U.S.-backed Bay of Pigs invasion by Cuban nationals and Cuba’s 1962 installation of Russian missiles. Ultimately, his own socialist government has survived those of many of his former allies. Said Castro, “The sun vanished from the horizon when the Soviet Union collapsed.” Yet through the administrations of ten U.S. presidents, numerous assassination attempts, and a stifling embargo that remains in effect to this day, Castro remains “entero,” as he puts it: in one piece.

In October 2004, the 78-year-old Castro fell off a stage following a speech, fracturing his arm and shattering his left kneecap. Within two months, he was walking again in public, exhibiting a stamina that prompts speculation that he might outlast ten more U.S. presidents. And although he did faint during a speech in 2001, that "momentary fatigue" came only after the septuagenarian had been speaking for seven hours under the hot Caribbean sun. Once the world record-holder for the longest speech, Castro is notorious for his animated diatribes against what he characterizes as imperialist aggression aimed against his Cuban revolution, typically closing with his patent call to arms, “"Socialismo o muerte! Patria o muerte! Venceremos!" (Socialism or death! Homeland or death! We shall overcome!)
Ecuador
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Uruguay
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Stamp Collecting
The Penny Black
Owners: 122
On May 6th, 1840, the world’s first postage stamp was issued in United Kingdom, bearing the profile of the young Queen Victoria on a black background. The Penny Black, as it came to be known, was an important step in the reform of postal services. It signified two important changes in the UK postal service, later adopted world-wide: prepayment for delivery and establishment of a simpler flat rate. For the price of one penny, a letter weighing not more than half an ounce could have a Penny Black affixed to it for delivery anywhere in the UK.

Prior to the release of the Penny Black, the price of delivery was calculated based on the distance travelled and the number of sheets of paper in the letter. A single sheet of paper cost two pennies to send a mere eight miles. When it arrived, this cost was extracted from the recipient. Since the cost of postage could easily be exorbitant for the average citizen, the postal service understandably had some problems collecting postage on delivery. The issuance of the Penny Black relieved the postal service of the considerable burden of post-delivery fee collection and made the mail system more affordable for the masses.

The release of the Penny Black was followed two days later by the Two Penny Blue, bearing the same image of Queen Victoria on a blue field.
Coins
1933 Double Eagle
Owners: 126
In 1933 President Roosevelt ordered the United States off of the so-called "gold standard" to attempt to bring the US economy out of the Great Depression. As a result, all of the gold Double Eagle coins minted that year were ordered destroyed. Only ten specimens were known to have escaped destruction into private ownership. Since the coins were never officially released to the public before they were to be destroyed they were not considered legal US tender and could not legally be owned. The US Secret Service then tracked down, seized, and destroyed 9 of those 10 coins in the 40's and 50's. The final coin remained missing until 1996 when it was found and also seized by the Secret Service. The coin was eventually returned to the US Mint in a Department of Justice settlement, and as a result that coin became the only 1933 Double Eagle ever authorizied for private ownership by the government.

The coin was auctioned on July 20, 2002 for $7.95 million, becoming the most expensive coin ever sold.

(Info Source: www.ecoinprices.com)
Comic Book Collecting
Overstreet Price Guide
Owners: 282
Description (cribbed from Wikipedia): The Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide is widely considered one of the greatest authorities on the subject of comic book grading and collection values in the industry.

Begun in 1970 by Bob Overstreet as merely a guide for fellow fans of Golden Age era comics, the Overstreet comic book price guide has since been grown to become the most referenced price guide in the industry, and has been dubbed "the Bible" for comic collectors old and new. While later competitors such as the Comics Buyer's Guide or ComicBase offer extensive pricing and issue information on more recent comic publications beginning from 1960s and onwards, The Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide is yet unrivaled in its coverage of rare, hard–to–find (and consequently expensive) early titles dating back for over a century.

A favorite of old–time collectors and true connoisseurs, the annual Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide has seen fans past its 35th year and is an integral part of comic book collecting history.
Chile
Pedro de Valdivia
Owners: 275
Head of the second Spanish expedition from Peru to Chile in 1540, Pedro de Valdivia founded the capital city of Santiago on February 12, 1541. The ceremony was held at the foot the Huelén hill (now known as Cerro Santa Lucia).

One of the first orders that Valdivia gave was for the search for gold in the Marga Marga mines and the construction of a courier service to Peru.

He also founded several other cities in the territory, including Concepcion and Valdivia.
Dolls
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Soap Making
Reeta Nut
Owners: 97
The earliest soap makers of record may have been natives of India who utilized the Reeta nut by crushing it into a paste. Antimicrobial properties of this versatile nut may have been directly responsible for protecting humans from many potentially dangerous infections and diseases. Still in use today for everything from medication to removing tarnish, the Reeta nut is a vital but relatively unknown key to the development of civilization in the Indian subcontinent and beyond.
Forensic Science
Latent Print
Owners: 85
A fingerprint is mark left after any part of the finger's friction ridges touches a surface. The practice of using fingerprints for identification goes back all the way back to references in both the 7th and 9th centuries. A key part of forensics is latent fingerprints which are fingerprints visible or invisible on a surface. Using a variety of techniques, investigators work to develop a print for the purpose of identifying the person who left it.
Trivandrum
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Puerto Rico
El Coquí
Owners: 249
The unofficial national symbol of Puerto Rico is El Coquí, a little tree frog that lives in Puerto Rico. It is a very popular creature throughout the island and enlivens the evenings with its timid ko-kee from which it get its name.

The Coqui is a very popular creature throughout the island because it harmonizes the evenings with its graceful melody. The people on the island love to listen to the Coqui sing at bedtime, and its melody is dearly missed by the Puerto Ricans that are away from home. The name “Coqui” comes from the song that the male of the species is often heard singing, what it seems to say is: “Ko-kee… Ko-kee…”. That’s why it is called “Coqui” in Spanish.

The Coquies begin to sing at sunset, and sing all night long until dawn when they stop singing and head for their nest. In almost all the towns and countrysides of the island you can find that the species “Eleutherodactylus Coqui” has a slower chant, while the other specie “Eleutherodactylus portoricensis” sings faster with a higher tone and is found in the mountains.

The unique chant of the Coqui serves two purposes. The first syllable “co” (ko) which reaches 1,160 hertz is for warning nearby males, a “go away” message, and the second syllable “qui” (kee) which reaches 2,090 hertz is used to invite the female to reproductive activity. Only males call during courtship, although both sexes vocalize aggressively against intruders that enter their territory. Males typically call during courtship from 1-2 meters above the ground while sitting on a leaf, and female Coquies travel long distances to answer the male’s calling. The experience of the Coqui songs is quite unique and found nowhere else in the planet. Although some Coquies have been successfully exported to other countries, they can never sing once removed from the Island Puerto Rico.
Seoul
The 63 Building
Owners: 125
Serving as a testament to the technological advancements that took taken place in Seoul in the final decades of the 20th century, the Dawhen Life Insurance building, better known as The 63 Building, opened in 1985. The skyscraper is located on Yeouido Island, alongside the Han River, and at the time construction on it was completed it was the tallest building in Asia (a title that it has since relinquished).

The "63 Building" name refers not to any street location but instead to the number of stories in the building, 60 of which are above ground.

Visitors to the structure can visit its observation deck, known as "63 Golden Tower", to take in a sky-high view of Seoul and the surrounding area. The building features a variety of attractions, including a convention center, an aquarium, a banquet hall, and an IMAX movie theater.
Cardiff
Bute Docks
Owners: 85
Cardiff was a very different place prior to the building of the Bute Docks by John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute in the 1830s. Before the docks opened Cardiff was one of the smallest towns in Wales with a population of only 1,870. But with the docks built Cardiff became one of the busiest ports in the UK, and in time grew to be the thriving cultural and sports destination and a thriving capital city for Wales.

Now you too can use the docks to gain influence and trading opportunities to help your portfolio thrive just like John Crichton-Stuart did for Cardiff.
England
Stiff Upper Lip
Owners: 722
Renowned quality of the proper Englishman which gives something of a lisp to all the expressions from political commentary to a particular brand of humour, the stiff upper lip adds just the right amount of required acerbic propriety.
Mac OS X
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Colombia (nation)
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Tapestry
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Cross Stitch
14 Count Aida
Owners: 267
14 Count Aida is the fabric most people use in creating their cross stitch masterpieces. It's what you'll find when you go looking for counted cross-stitch fabric. There are a variety of numbers, from 10 to 28 count Aida, but since the count indicates how many stitches you will make per inch, you had better have really good eyesight for 28 count. 14 count is the average - not too small, not too big. It's just right.
Matchbooks
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Trading Cards
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Gambling Memorabilia
Token
Owners: 162
Of all the collectibles that come from casinos, ranging from chips to roulette tables to rare old Mills slot machines, the token is the one piece that most gamblers bring home with them. Whether on purpose or "buy" accident, the token is an inexpensive souvenir of the attempt to "Win the Big One".
Sports Cards
1909 Gretzky T206 Honus Wagner
Owners: 221
The 1909 Gretzky T206 Honus Wagner baseball card is considered by collectors to be the Mona Lisa of sports cards. In 2000, it sold for a record $1.265 million (US$), making it the highest priced item sold on ebay at the time. It is also currently one of only three items of sports memorabilia to top the $1 million dollar mark in an auction, the other two being Mark McGwire's 70th home run ball and the Louisville Slugger that Babe Ruth used to hit the first home run in Yankee Stadium.

Between the years of 1909 and 1911, the American Tobacco Company issued what is now known as the T206 set; a collection of 523 cards depicting both minor and major league baseball players. Honus Wagner demanded that American Tobacco stop issuing his card, so it became a rarity right from the beginning. This card, which has a Professional Sports Authenticator (PSA) rating of NM-MT 8, is in the best condition of the 50-60 known 1909 T206 Honus Wagner cards. It is also one of only two known which feature a Piedmont cigarettes advertisement on the back.

This card was once owned by hockey player Wayne Gretzky, but mystery shrouds the first 75 years of its history.
Louisville (KY)
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South Korea
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Lisbon (city)
Tagus River
Owners: 351
The Tagus River is the main watercourse that cuts through the Portuguese capital city of Lisbon on its way to the Atlantic Ocean. Its headwaters are deep in the Albarracin Mountains of Spain, and the river winds across Spain and Portugal for 1,038 kilometers (645 miles). The remains of Lisbon's oldest historical neighborhoods lie along the Tagus, and some of its most imposing monuments frame the river. The Jeronimos Monastery (where Vasco de Gama lies entombed) towers on the bluffs above the river. The beautiful Monument to the Discoveries is right at the riverside at Belem, and glorifies the achievements of such Portuguese explorers as Vasco de Gama.

In modern times, however, much of the city's activities take place away from the Tagus in urban and surburban enclaves where neighborhoods and business centers are connected by roadway, tram and trainlines, and bus routes. While the waterfront is currently under redevelopment, much work needs to be done. The most lively times for the riverfront still remain the weekends, when various car shows and urban activities take place at various spots along the river. Cruise ships dock at the riverfront several times a week, and at those times, the squares and plazas come alive with tourists, craftspeople, and tour guides. If you take a cruise ship into or out of Lisbon, you will undoubtedly sail under the largest bridge that crosses the Tagus, the Vasco de Gama suspension bridge.
Holga
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Marriage
Vena Amoris
Owners: 237
The ancient Egyptians believed that the vein that runs through the fourth digit on the left hand flowed directly to the heart. The Romans called it the Vena Amoris, which in Latin means vein of love. Even though it has no scientific basis, this romantic tradition of wearing the engagement ring and wedding band on the fourth digit of the left hand continues to this day.
Love
Freya
Owners: 265
Freya was a beautiful Vanir Norse goddess of love, magic, and divination, who was called upon for help in matters of love. Freya was the daughter of the god Njord, and the sister of Freyr. Her husband was the god Od (possibly Odin) and her hall, Sessrumnir, was where half the slain warriors went (the others went to Valhalla, the hall where Odin presided).

Freya herself was loved by men, giants, and dwarves. By sleeping with four dwarves she acquired the Brisings necklace. Freya travels on a gold-bristled boar, Hildisvini, or a chariot pulled by two cats.

The Vanir were the Norse nature and fertility gods who lived in Vanaheim, in Asgard. They were at war with the warrior Aesir gods until they reached a treaty and exchanged hostages. The Vanir sent to Asgard, where the Aesir lived, Njord, god of winds, sea, and fire, and his children Freya and Freyr, god of sun, rain, and patron of bountiful harvests. Although the hostage sent by the Aesir was not as valuable as the Vanir's offering, war did not break out again. Instead the Vanir were absorbed through intermarriage into the Aesir.
Hate
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RSS
News Aggregator
Owners: 464
A News Aggregator is software that periodically reads a set of news sources in one of several XML-based formats, finds the new bits, and displays them in a certain order on a single page. The feeds are processed by aggregator software and one doesn't have to visit all the different sources to find out what is new. And, as we all know, information is power...
Brisbane (QLD)
Story Bridge
Owners: 281
Arguably Brisbane's most recognisable icon, the Story Bridge is a monument to the city's coming of age. In use since the early 1940s, this link from the city to Kangaroo Point provides much more than a thoroughfare for traffic. Its construction was a triumph of local ingenuity, forever leaving its mark on the city's skyline.
Chennai
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Druidry
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Canberra
Parliament House
Owners: 283
Parliament House is the name given to two purpose-built buildings in Canberra, the capital of Australia, where the Parliament of Australia has met since 1927. It is is one of the world's most acclaimed buildings. Situated in the center of the nation's capital, it is renowned for its impressive architecture, landscaped gardens and collection of Australian contemporary art. The 81 meter flag mast soaring above the building has become the symbol of Canberra.

In 1978 the Fraser government decided to proceed with a new building on Capital Hill, and the Parliament House Construction Authority was created. The design competition was won by the American architect Romaldo Giurgola, with an imaginative design which involved burying most of the building under Capitol Hill, and capping the edifice with an enormous spire topped by a large Australian flag. The facades, however, deliberately echoed the designs of the Old Parliament House, so that there is a family resemblance despite the massive difference in scale.

Construction began in 1981, and the House was intended to be ready by January 1988, the 200th anniversary of European settlement in Australia. It was expected to cost A$220 million. Neither deadline nor budget were met. The building was finally opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 9 May 1988, the anniversary of the opening of both the first Federal Parliament in Melbourne (9 May 1901), and of the Provisional Parliament House in Canberra (9 May 1927). The final cost was over $1,000 million, making Parliament House the most expensive building in Australian history.
Sydney
Opera House
Owners: 328
The Sydney Opera House in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, is one of the most distinctive and famous 20th-century buildings, and one of the most famous performing arts venues in the world. Situated on Bennelong Point in Sydney Harbour, with parkland to its south and close to the enormous Sydney Harbour Bridge, the building and its surroundings form an iconic Australian image. To some the spherical-sectioned shells remind them of the flotilla of sailboats commonly cruising there. Tourists, most with no interest in opera, throng to the building in their thousands purely to see it.
As well as many touring theatre, ballet, and musical productions the Opera House is the home of Opera Australia, the Sydney Theatre Company and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. It is administered by the Opera House Trust, under the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of the Arts.
Melbourne
W-Class Tram
Owners: 381
Introduced in 1923, the W-Class was the mainstay of Melbourne's tramways system for sixty years. While most have now been scraped or turned into museum exhibits or restaurants, some routes today can still be seen running trams from the W-Class. The iconic green and yellow favourite's longevity was aided by Melbourne's wide streets and the traffic demand of the 1956 Olympic Games. Melbourne has the eleventh largest tram network in the world, and the only notable, existing network in Australia.
Boredom
Chairman of the Bored
Owners: 223
Industry: Boredom

Artefact: Chairman of the Bored

Description:
"I'm the chairman of the bored. I'm a lengthy monologue. I'm livin' like a dog." -- Iggy Pop, punk rocker, recorded a hit song, "I'm Bored," which featured the lyric: "I'm bored. I'm the chairman of the bored." When he performed the song, Pop would strip off his clothes while monotonously repeating the line. In an interview, Pop was asked, "As Chairman of the Bored, what mundane activities do you enjoy?" The punk rocker replied, "Relaxing in the sun and sipping my wine." Frank Sinatra liked to proclaim himself the Chairman of the Board, but insiders know that Iggy Pop is the true "Chairman of the Bored."
Homeschool
A Beka Book
Owners: 280
While Homeshooling is not just for Christians anymore, even the non-Christian homeschoolers recognize the Abeka program as the first and leading publisher of curriculum material. Based on scholarship from God's point of view, it has long been a good jumping-off point for the novice homeschooler. Today, there are many more curriculums, secular and religious, in this ever growing market. But Abeka will be the one everyone recognizes first.
Icelandic
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Edinburgh (Scot)
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Weimaraners
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Alternative Travel
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Air Travel
Concorde
Owners: 258
The Concorde supersonic airliner, built jointly by France and Great Britain, remains to this day the only such supersonic plane to operate successfully in commercial service and has earned its prominent place in aeronautical history. For half a century, planebuilders flew their airliners at increasingly high speeds and altitudes. Concorde marked the limits of this trend, with the aviation industry subsequently returning to conventional jets rather than seeking newer frontiers.

Only 14 Concordes ever flew in commercial service. All of them served the national airlines British Airways and Air France. They acquired considerable glamour. There was very great prestige in flying to Paris on a Concorde, and those who did it let their friends know about it. The flight was whisper-quiet. The windows were small, but through them one could see a velvet-purple sky that brightened to a light-colored band near the horizon. Coastlines were as distinct as on a map. By looking closely, one might see the curvature of the Earth.
New Haven (CT)
Yale University
Owners: 191
Yale University was founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School in the home of Abraham Pierson, its first rector, in Killingworth, Connecticut. In 1716 the school moved to New Haven and, with the generous gift by Elihu Yale of nine bales of goods, 417 books, and a portrait and arms of King George I, was renamed Yale College in 1718. From then on, Yale and the city of New Haven grew in a symbiotic relationship. New Haven would be a small and insignificant Connecticut hamlet without Yale University.
Zope
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Washington, D.C.
Pierre L'Enfant
Owners: 462
Born in Paris, France in 1754 into a family of artists, Pierre Charles L'Enfant came to America in 1777 at the age of 23. He entered the Continental Army as an engineer, later becoming a captain in the U.S. Engineer Corps and a brevet Major in the U.S. Army during the Revolutionary War. After his service during the war, he caught the attention of the leaders of the new country when he designed the Federal Hall in New York City. L'Enfant was more than ready to tackle an even bigger challenge when a design was needed for an entirely new federal city to be built in a 10-mile square on the banks of the Potomac River.

L'Enfant wrote President Washington in 1789: "No nation perhaps had ever before the opportunity offered them of deliberately deciding on the spot where their capital city should be fixed...And altho' the means now within the power of the country are not such as to pursue the design to any great extent it will be obvious that the plan should be drawn on such a scale as to leave room for that aggrandizement and embellishment which the increase of the wealth of the nation will permit it to pursue at any period however remote."

He was considered to be "self-righteous, hot-headed, imperious, unreasonable, arrogant, scornful of authority and quick to take offense." As the chief designer of the new national capital, he antagonized the three commissioners tasked with building the city. He alienated his principal supporters, including George Washington, who reluctantly fired him. Although the city was constructed generally following L'Enfant's plans, his vision was for the grand city was not fully realized for another century.

Pierre L'Enfant died alone and penniless in 1825 and was buried in a nearly unmarked grave at Digges Farm in Prince Georges County, Maryland.

The city seemed incomplete. When Charles Dickens visited in 1844 he commented that Washington, D.C. was "the city of magnificent intentions" marked by "spacious avenues that begin in nothing, and lead nowhere." It was designed, he noted, "by an aspiring Frenchman."

When architects, engineers and artists began to transform the city, they found their inspiration and guide in L'Enfant's original plans. In the spring of 1909, L'Enfant's remains were exhumed and reinterred with military honors on the hillside at Arlington National Cemetery overlooking the radiating avenues and circles and squares he had designed.

It took a century for the nation to acknowledge L'Enfant's genius. A permanent memorial to L'Enfant was dedicated in 1911. Secretary of State Elihu Root said, "Few men can afford to wait a hundred years to be remembered. It is not a change in L'Enfant that brings us here. It is we who have changed, who have become able to appreciate his work. And our tribute to him should be to continue his work."
CMS
Metaphoria Data Transformation Server
Owners: 361
The Metaphoria Data Transformation Server was introduced in 1998 by Pencom Web Works. It allowed Java developers to write applications tied with content that would target the content output to different channels. Though the product failed, its concepts can be found in most of today's content management systems (CMS).
Gay Couples & Families
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Brunei
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Fiji
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Tahiti
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French Polynesia
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Cook Islands
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Tonga
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Non-Fiction Literature
Printing Press
Owners: 500
The printing press changed the conditions under which information was collected, stored, retrieved, criticized, discovered, and promoted. The printing press with moveable type has been implicated in the Reformation, the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution, all of which had profound effects on their eras. The impact of the printing press was profound in breadth and depth, and was directly related to its one-to-many communications capability. "Typographical fixity" refers to the preservative power of print. Ideas recorded in only a few manuscripts were always in danger of being forgotten or lost by the intellectual community. Put those same ideas in hundreds of identical printed copies, and they were much more likely to spread and endure. Bibliographies, book catalogues and encyclopedias flourished thanks to these systematic changes brought about by the printing press. These, in turn, contributed to the retrieval of and critical reflection on published works and the accumulation of knowledge that characterized particularly the Scientific Revolution. The holder of the Printing Press artefact has a world of Ideas at their fingertips.
LARP (Live Action RolePlaying)
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North Dakota
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Aquariums
Betta
Owners: 120
One of the most common, and popular, of all aquarium fish is the Betta, short for /Betta splendens/, commonly known as the Siamese fighting fish. The Betta are desirable aquarium fish because of their attractive, colorful fins that have been enhanced by breeders through generations of selective pressure. Betta are easy to care for, especially for the beginning aquarist, due to their ability to thrive in low oxygen conditions due to the labyrinth organ they have in their heads which allows them to extract oxygen directly from the atmosphere.

The fish are most famous for the aggressiveness from which their name has been derived. Two or more fish of the same gender will often fight each other and males will often fight to the death if housed in the same aquarium. Some countries use this behavior as a sport similar to cockfighting, where bets are placed on which fish will be the victor.

In popular culture, James Bond's nemesis, Ernst Blofeld, watched two Bettas fight to the death in a famous scene from "From Russia With Love,"feeding the loser to his cat afterward. This scene was further parodied by Leslie Nielsen in "The Naked Gun."
Diabetes
Insulin
Owners: 240
Insulin is a hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism and also plays a role in the metabolism of fat and proteins. It takes its name from the Latin word insula (island), because it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.

Insulin is used to treat those with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, who depend on injections of it because of an insulin deficiency, and some of those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus -- characterized by low insulin production or insulin resistance -- whose blood glucose levels cannot be controlled through diet, exercise, and/or other medications.
Candle Making
Beeswax
Owners: 82
Produced by the worker bees in a colony of honeybees, beeswax is used in the beehive for the building of honey combs, where the young are raised and where honey and pollen are stored.

Humans have been using beeswax for various purposes for millennia. Beeswax has been found in trace amounts in the cave paintings in Lascaux and in Egyptian mummies. It is the traditional material used in the making of mouthpieces for the Australian didgeridoo, and there is evidence that Indigenous Australians have used beeswax for tens of thousands of years. In various parts of the ancient world, beeswax was used in shipbuilding, as a waterproofing agent, as an art-making material, and in metal casting. In the Middle Ages, the value of beeswax was so great that it was used as a form of currency.

Today, beeswax is used commercially in the making of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and a variety of polishing and modelling waxes. It is also used in the making of fine candles in both commercial and cottage industries. A beeswax candle is the candle of choice in Eastern Othodox churches, in the Paschal and other candles in the Catholic Church, and in various Neopagan rites and traditions.

While there may be many reasons for the preference of beeswax candles in various religious settings, at least two of them are quite practical: beeswax burns with very little smoke, and burns with very little to no wax drippings to spoil altar cloths and coat consecrated candle holders.
Evolution
Charles Darwin
Owners: 357
Charles Robert Darwin was a British naturalist who achieved lasting fame as the originator of the theory of evolution through natural selection.

With the publication of Charles Darwin book, Origin of Species in 1859, the theory of evolution by natural selection became firmly established within the scientific circles and has survived through to the modern day as the basis for the currently accepted evolutionary synthesis explaining variation and speciation, and within the science of biology, it has completely replaced earlier accepted explanations for the origin of species, including creationism and Lamarckism.
The theory underlying the modern synthesis has three major aspects:

1. The common descent of all organisms from a single ancestor.
2. The manifestation of novel traits in a lineage.
3. The mechanisms that cause some traits to persist while others perish.

Darwin's theory of evolution is a scientific theory. As such, it is a model of the world (or some portion of it) from which falsifiable hypotheses can be generated and be verified through empirical observation. In this sense, "theory" and "fact" do not stand in opposition, but rather exist in a reciprocal relationship - for example, it is a "fact" that an apple dropped on earth will fall towards the center of the planet in a straight line, and the "theory" which explains it is the current scientific theory of gravitation.
Gambling
Bookie
Owners: 540
Legal or illegal, regulated or unregulated, state-run or private, the bookie is a fixture wherever gambling is the order of the day. A bookie, or bookmaker, is a person or organisation that takes bets and pays out winnings depending upon results and odds. Regardless of whether you fancy a flutter on the horses, a long-shot on the dogs, or a spread bet on the football, the bookie's your man.
Accordion
Free Vibrating Reed
Owners: 195
The free vibrating reed is the basic mechanism responsible for the accordion's sound production. The oldest known free-reed instrument is the Chinese sheng, widely accepted as the musical ancestor of the harmonica and accordion. Other well-known free-reeds include the concertina, bandoneon, melodica, and harmonium.
Heidelberg
The University of Heidelberg
Owners: 160
The University of Heidelberg (also known as Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg) was founded in 1386 by Rupert I of Wittelsbach. The first lecture was held on October 19, 1386, making the University of Heidelberg Germany's oldest university.

The University is regarded as one of the top-ranking locations in the world of international science and scholarship. Currently, the University has an enrollment of over 27,000 students, with 12 different faculties and approximately 80 courses of study.

Two interesting facts:

One in five residents of Heidelberg is a student at the University. The University makes Heidelberg one of the youngest cities in Germany.

The University used to have its own prison. The prison is in the Old University, and was operational from 1778 to 1914. Common offenses were disturbance of peace, especially after excessive drinking at night, insulting official authorities or playing jokes at them as well as participating in duelling. During these years, the University administration was embodied with an autonomous jurisdiction and had the legal right to detain students. Depending on the seriousness of the offense, imprisonment would last from three days to four weeks. One was allowed, however, to attend lectures. After classes, the juvenile delinquents had to return to jail. Biding their time, many of the young prisoners "decorated" the walls with graffitis and paintings. Their "artwork" is still preserved and to be seen at the Students' Prison.
Buenos Aires (city)
Tango
Owners: 266
The real origins of tango music are as complicated as tango itself. The French colonists in the Dominican Republic around the 18th century made their slaves play for them while they danced "la contre dance", a French type of music where the tango's "counterpoint rhythm" originated. These slaves played also for their own pleasure, travelled around and received important influences from Cuban music and the Spanish zarzuela, that has similar musical aspects.

The first Tango ever recorded was made by Angel Villoldo and played by the French national guard in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris because in Argentina at the time there was no recording studio.

Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires. The first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja" (the Old Guard). By the end of the 19th century, this blend of salon, European, African and native American music was heard throughout metropolitan Buenos Aires. It took time to move into proper circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women (in 1914). The complex dances that arose from this rich music reflects the habit of men to practice tango together in groups, expressing both machismo and sexual desire, leading to the distinct mix of sensitivity and aggressiveness of the form. The music was played on portable instruments: flute, guitar and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century. The organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Eduardo Arolas was the major instrument of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins and two bandoneóns. Like many forms of popular music, the tango was associated with the underclass, and the better-off Argentines tried to restrict its influence.

In spite of the scorn, some, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of the tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, and wrote a poem ("Tango") which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts".
Spirits / Liquor / Mixed Drinks
The Martini
Owners: 100
The martini is one of the most revered cocktails in existence. Classically made with gin, dry vermouth and a dash of orange bitters, the martini has evolved over the years to include versions made with vodka. Today the name is frequently used to address a whole category of mixed drinks, which may have little to no resemblance to the venerable mix of gin and vermouth, but which are served in the familiar V-shaped glass and are adorned with the "-tini" suffix.
Cordoba (Spain)
None!

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Commentary
Nit
Owners: 535
Good for picking, the Nit is the source of most new ideas in the field of Commentary. Also known as the burr under one's saddle, the fly in the soup, or just plain that annoying typo, the Nit goads writers into action. Biased sources in the news? A Nit to be picked. Continuity errors in Star Trek? Get the book: The Nit-Picker's Guide To Star Trek. Lousy grammar and punctuation? Only you can save the world from those dangerous Nits, and only the Nit can save you from writer's block!
Raleigh (NC)
Cameron Village
Owners: 352
In 1949, Willie York built Cameron Village next to a small village settled by freed slaves in Raleigh. The shopping center was the first in the Southeast United States, and set the standard for many years to come. Today, Cameron Village faces modern challenges, and the continual encroachment of urban scrawl further erodes its customer base. However, over 50 years of success have left a strong legacy of innovation and imagination as benchmarks for York's creation, and Cameron Village remains a favorite shopping destination for many in the area.
Embroidery
Bayeux Tapestry
Owners: 260
Depicting the Battle of Hastings and dating back to 1077, one of the oldest and most famous pieces of embroidery work is the Bayeux Tapestry. It was stitched in a traditional English style of woollen yarns on linen, and is an amazing 231 feet long. It depicts 626 human figures (including English Kings Edward, Harold and William the Conqueror), 190 horses, 35 dogs, 506 other birds and animals, 33 buildings, 37 ships and 37 trees or groups of trees, and 57 Latin inscriptions.

Considered to be one of the great historical records of the Middle Ages, the Bayeux Tapestry is a French national treasure currently on display in Normandy, France.
Lace Making
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Emergency Medicine
RSI
Owners: 329
Rapid-sequence intubation (RSI) is an important technique for airway management of patients in the emergency department and is in the domain of emergency medicine practice. RSI is defined as a technique where a potent sedative or induction agent is administered virtually simultaneously with a paralyzing dose of a neuromuscular blocking agent to facilitate rapid tracheal intubation. The technique includes specific protection against aspiration of gastric contents, provides excellent access to the airway for intubation, and permits pharmacologic control of adverse responses to illness, injury, and the intubation itself.

Indications for intubation include respiratory failure, altered mental status, cardiopulmonary arrest, and significant trauma. The basic tenets of RSI are that all patients present with a full stomach and that all patients present a significant aspiration risk. Intubation must be performed in rapid, controlled, and safe manner to minimize this risk and promptly stabilize the airway.
Military Service
Conscription
Owners: 278
Conscription is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority, but it is most often used in the specific sense of government policies that require (very often, male only) citizens to serve in their armed forces. It is known by various names — for example, the most recent conscription program in the United States was known colloquially as "the draft". Many nations do not maintain conscription forces, instead relying on a volunteer or professional military most of the time, although many of these countries still reserve the possibility of conscription for wartime and "crises" of supply.

In the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and elsewhere the term conscription is generally used only during wartime. National Service was the term used during peace-time in the United Kingdom and Singapore. In New Zealand the term Compulsory Military Training was used. In Japan during World War II, Japanese women and children were conscripted to work in factories. The term "conscription" refers only to the mandatory service; thus, those undergoing conscription are known as "conscripts" or "selectee" in the United States.
Mobile Blogging
Citizen Journalist
Owners: 244
With approximately half of mobile phones currently incorporating a camera in 2006, and over 80% of mobiles expected to have an integrated camera by 2010 (Gartner Research), ordinary people in the street are now in the front line of news recording and reporting, and often on the scene of emerging events before a news crew has the time or opportunity to arrive. Citizen Journalists are everywhere ordinary people are, and often blog unique and personal perspectives, far removed from the rhetoric and hyperbole of the mainstream media.
Lyrics
Irving Berlin
Owners: 239
Irving Berlin (1888-1989) is considered to be one of the greatest songwriters in American history. He only had a basic ability to read & write music but this didn’t stop him from composing over 3,000 individual songs. After writing a few hits, he became one of Tin Pan Alley’s biggest successes after composing “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” in 1911. Over the next five decades his work was featured in film & Broadway musicals such as Annie Get Your Gun, Holiday Inn, Easter Parade, Call Me Madam, Blue Skies and The Jazz Singer. He is also well known for White Christmas, (introduced by Bing Crosby in 1942) which is one of the most-recorded and biggest selling songs in music history.
NASCAR
Richard Petty
Owners: 194
Second-generation NASCAR driver Richard Lee Petty was born to race. They call him "The King", and for very good reason.

During his career he amassed 200 NASCAR Cup victories; 7 NASCAR Cup championships (1964, 1967,1971, 1972,1974, 1975, 1979); 7 Daytona 500 wins (1964, 1966, 1971,1973,1974, 1979, 1981); 27 victories in one season (1967); and competed in 513 consecutive Cup races, an 18 year streak that ran from 1971-1989. He also collected a record number of poles (127) and over 700 top-ten finishes in 1,185 NASCAR Cup races in his career. He was NASCAR'S first million dollar driver after the Dixie 500 on August 1, 1971 in Atlanta, Georgia.

As for awards, he was named Winston Cup Rookie of the Year in 1959 and Driver of the Year in 1971. He was inducted into the North Carolina Athletic Hall of Fame in 1973 and the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1997. He was also awarded the National Medal of Freedom, one of the two highest civilian awards, by President George H. W. Bush in 1992, the first motorsports athlete ever to be honored with this award. Richard Petty was also named one of NASCAR’s 50 greatest drivers in 1998.

Arguably, Richard Petty is the one who catapulted NASCAR into the national spotlight. Through his popularity and loyalty to the sport and to his fans, he helped grow a regional racing circuit into the nation's most popular spectator sport.

You will still find Richard Petty trackside in his trademark sunglasses and a Charlie One Horse hat. And he is still a fan favorite. His legacy of dominance in the sport as well as his straightforward, unwavering devotion to his family and his fans make him one of the most popular motorsports stars in America.
Geriatrics
Ignatz Nascher
Owners: 59
The term "geriatrics" was coined by Austrian-born physican Ignatz Nascher. He combined the Greek words geras meaning "old age" and iatrikos meaning "physician" into geriatrics. Nascher wrote in a 1909 issue of the New York Medical Journal, "Geriatrics ... is a term I would suggest as an addition to our vocabulary, to cover the same field that is covered in old age that is covered by the term pediatrics in childhood, to emphasize the necessity of considering senility and its disease apart from maturity and to assign it a separate place in medicine." Although Nascher was not the first to work in this field (his predecessors include Ibn Al-Jazzar Al-Qayrawani and Marjorie Warren), he is considered to be the first modern American geriatrician.
Running
Jim Fixx
Owners: 294
Jim Fixx introduced thousands of people to the sport of running through his book, The Complete Book of Running, published in 1977. A graduate of Oberlin College, Fixx took up running in order to improve his own health; he weighed 220 pounds at the time. He quit smoking, started running, and brought his weight down to 159 pounds.

Ironically, the man who did so much to popularize running as a hobby, and who extolled the health benefits of an active lifestyle, died in 1984 of a heart attack while jogging. For his own reasons, Fixx chose to disregard his doctor’s warnings about high cholesterol, despite his own advice to other runners to consult their doctor. Running may or may not have bought him a few extra years, given his family medical profile; his dad died at 43, and Jim died at 52.

While some focus on the circumstance of his death, others see a vibrant legacy of runners and athletes. On the 20th anniversary of Jim’s death, his son John said "My father would be thrilled to see what has happened with women's distance running, at older runners re-defining what it means to age, and how Olympic athletes have stretched the limits of human endurance and achievement."
Race Walking
The Fair Heel and Toe Rule
Owners: 74
As Pedestrianism, the predecessor of modern Racewalking, became more popular in the mid 19th Century the sport found itself in need of standardized rules. There were numerous competitions and, as a direct result, wagering and cash prizes became common. This necessitated some sort of codified rules to distinguish the sport from running and to ensure that competitions were fair. To achieve this end the organizers started to require racers to follow "The Fair Heel and Toe Rule". This rule was always somewhat vague but basically required that the toe of one foot could not leave the ground until the heel of the other foot had reached the ground. The essential aim was to require one foot to always be in contact with the ground. Interestingly, many events still allowed trotting by competitors periodically to ward of cramps. This rule formed the basis for the first official rules established in 1880. There have been some changes to the rules since 1880, but the requirement that one foot always be in contact with the ground has remained.
Jogging
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Triathlon
Ironman
Owners: 167
140.6 miles. One day. One event.

Considered my many to be the ultimate endurance sport, merely completing an Ironman Triathlon is a physical accomplishment of the highest degree. An Ironman consists of three parts: a 2.4 mile swim, 112 mile bike and a full marathon, 26.2 miles, at the end. While the original, and most difficult, Ironman in the world is held every year in Kona, Hawaii, there are now 21 Ironman Triathlon races throughout the world, each of which offers a chance to qualify for the Kona event.

The Ironman came to be by combining three long-distance Hawaii competitions: The Waikiki Roughwater Swim, the Around-Oahu Bike Race and the Honolulu Marathon. The bike ride is particularly notable, both for its beauty as well as its difficulty, crossing the Hawaiian lava desert to Hawi and back. Top athletes typically finish the race in under 9.5 hours, but the average time is much higher with the official time limit now set at 17 hours.

The most famous finish to an Ironman race happened in 1982 when Julie Moss, heading towards the finish line in first place, collapsed from fatigue and dehydration in the home stretch. And even though Kathleen McCartney passed her by to win the women’s title, Moss nevertheless crawled across finish line in one of the most iconic moments in all of sports. Due to that finish, Ironman adopted the slogan "Just finishing is a victory!" - which is still used today.
.NET
The Base Class Library (BCL)
Owners: 86
The Base Class Library (BCL) is a common library of commands shared by all of the programs which interact with the .NET framework. By providing a standard library for programmers of various languages for a large number of functions it is possible to make the job of the programmer easier. The .NET Base Class Library is one of the largest common libraries available to programmers, rivaling that of Java in size and scope.
Midget / Sprint Cars
Belleville
Owners: 141
"Belleville" has a name that is recognized by fans as far as Australia and New Zealand and from California to Pennsylvania. The $12,500 to win and the total purse over $72,000 dollars makes Belleville one of the highest paying Midget races anywhere, making it the Premier Event in the Country for Midgets.

This Event has been won by former Indy Car drivers like Stan Fox, Johnny Parsons, Jr and Billy Boat and has also been won by Nascar drivers Jeff Gordon, Jason Leffler and Kasey Kahne. Their has been only 4 drivers in the History of the Nationals to be lucky enough or skilled enough to repeat as Belleville Champions and they were the late Stan Fox and Steve Knepper, Kasey Kahne and Dave Darland.

Winning the Belleville Midget Nationals means everything to the drivers along with the Prestige and recognition that comes along with it. It is looked at and compared to the "Indy 500" or the "Daytona 500" for Midget racing. This track is one that is a tough one to tame and can really bite you, if you don't give it the respect it deserves.
Marxism
October Revolution
Owners: 265
Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. This theory and practice of socialism includes the labor theory of value, dialectical materialism, the class struggle, and dictatorship of the proletariat until the establishment of a classless society.

The 1917 October Revolution, led by Vladimir Lenin was the first large scale attempt to put Marxist ideas about a workers' state into practice. The new government faced counter-revolution, civil war and foreign intervention. Socialist revolution in Germany and other western countries failed and the Soviet Union was on its own. Lenin died and Joseph Stalin gradually assumed control, eliminating rivals for power. He instituted a ruthless program of industrialization, which, while successful, was prosecuted at great cost in human suffering, including millions of deaths.

Following World War II, Marxist ideology, often with Soviet military backing, spawned a rise in revolutionary communist parties all over the world. Some of these parties were eventually able to gain power, and establish their own version of a Marxist state. Such nations included the People's Republic of China, Vietnam, Romania, East Germany, Albania, Poland, Cambodia, Ethiopia, South Yemen, Yugoslavia, and others.

Source: Wikipedia
Canadian Football
None!

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Smoking
The Pipe
Owners: 172
A pipe is a device used for the smoking of various products, such as tobacco. The material to be smoked is placed in a bowl at one end of the pipe. This material is then lit and the smoker inhales through an opening at the other end of the pipe, allowing the smoker to inhale the smoke produced by the combustion. Pipes have been in existence since antiquity and were used in many places around the world. Pipes have been made form a variety of materials, including stone, bone, wood, clay and glass. Famous types of pipes include the hookah (a water pipe of middle eastern origin), the calabash (a curved pipe with a large bowl often associated with Sherlock Holmes, although never mentioned in any of the original works) and the corncob (a pipe with a bowl made from a dried corncob, made famous by Gen. Douglas MacArthur).
Helsinki
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Web 2.0
Dale Dougherty
Owners: 703
The term 'Web 2.0' was coined by Dale Dougherty of O'Reilly Media brainstorming with Craig Cline of MediaLive to develop ideas for a conference that they could jointly host. Dougherty suggested that the web was in a renaissance, with changing rules and evolving business models. Dougherty gave examples — "DoubleClick was Web 1.0; Google AdSense is Web 2.0. Ofoto is Web 1.0; Flickr is Web 2.0." — rather than definitions, and recruited John Battelle for a business perspective, and O'Reilly Media, Battelle, and MediaLive launched the first Web 2.0 Conference in October 2004. The second annual conference will be held in October 2005.
Shoujo
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Mecha
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Satellites
Sputnik 1
Owners: 252
History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union (Russia) successfully launched Sputnik 1 from Kazakhstan. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 83 kg (184 pounds), and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. It incinerated upon re-entry to Earth on January 3, 1958, but that launch had ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R. space race.
Vegetarian / Vegan Cooking
Tofu
Owners: 308
Vegetarian or vegan cooking is a world with which most are unfamiliar, which is probably why tofu has been the butt of many a joke about boring tasteless food. While plain tofu is in and of itself bland, that isn't how the cook interested in meat or animal product free cuisine would use it.

Tofu, made from soybeans, comes in several forms, from the very soft (good for sauces or smoothies) to the very firm (good for kebabs, stir fries, or eating on its own). One of tofu's most important characteristics is that it can absorb any flavor that one wants to give it. Want it in a stir fry? A quick marinade in soy sauce, chilies and sesame oil will do the trick. Want a vegan chocolate mousse? The cocoa and sugar are all you need, for tofu will not only maintain the dessert's shape and consistency, but carry the decadent chocolate to the diner's lips.

This is just the tiniest hint of what the vegan or vegetarian chef can do with the little soybean miracle: tofu.
MMORPGs
Lan Party
Owners: 373
A LAN party is a temporary, sometimes spontaneous gathering of people together with their computers, which they connect together in a local area network (LAN) primarily for the purpose of playing multiplayer computer games.

These LANs come in various sizes, from the very small (2 people) to the very large (4000+ people). Small parties can form spontaneously, but large ones usually require a fair amount of planning and preparation on the part of the organizing team.

Many parties offer various tournaments, competing in such games as Quake III, Warcraft III, Counter-strike, Unreal Tournament, and the Doom series, sometimes awarding prizes to the winners, as well as counting for standings in national and international gaming leagues, such as the WWCL. There are regular events, such as Quakecon, in which the very best players from around the world compete against one another, much like in popular sports.

The duration of the event is not standardized; many organized parties last for a weekend, while there have also been longer and shorter parties. In particular, small, spontaneous parties often last for only minutes to hours.

Big LAN parties often offer a quiet place to sleep, showers, catering, alternative entertainment (such as music) and a dedicated support crew, as well as a professionally managed network including a connection to the Internet.

Gaming clans, groups of gamers that often play in team games such as Counter-Strike, often use these gatherings to meet one another, since they typically play together over the Internet between parties with little real-world contact. Their goal is often to win tournaments. Some attendees also use these parties as a forum to show off case mods, and other technical wizardry.

There are also other kinds of parties where temporary LANs are built, but which are not commonly referred to as a "LAN party" alone; amongst these are demo parties such as Assembly, hacker conventions such as DEF CON, and freestyle events such as the Burning Man.
Tehran
Imperial Crown Jewels Of Persia
Owners: 66
The Iranian Crown Jewels, also known as the Imperial Crown Jewels of Iran, or of Persia, is one of the worlds largest and most valuable jewel collections in the world. There are crowns, decorative thrones, tiaras, swords, shields and other unusual items. The most famous items are the Koh-i-Noor and the Darya-ye Noor which are among the largest gems in the world. The Iranian Crown jewels are so valuable that they back the Iranian currency as a reserve.
Austria
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Romania
Vlad Tepes
Owners: 267
Most authorities believe the character of Dracula in BramStoker's novel was based upon the historical figure Vlad Tepes (pronounced tse-pesh), who intermittently ruled an area of the Balkans called Wallachia in the mid 15th century. He was also called by the names Vlad III and Vlad Dracula. The word Tepes stands for "impaler" and was so coined because of Vlad's propensity to punish victims by impaling them on stakes, then displaying them publicly to frighten his enemies and to warn would-be transgressors of his strict moral code. He is credited with killing between 40,000 to 100,000 people in this fashion. <br />King Sigismund of Hungary, who became the Holy Roman Emperor in 1410, founded a secret fraternal order of knights called the Order of the Dragon to uphold Christianity and defend the Empire against the Ottoman Turks. Its emblem was a dragon, wings extended, hanging on a cross. Vlad III’s father (Vlad II) was admitted to the Order around 1431 because of his bravery in fighting the Turks. From 1431 ognward Vlad II wore the emblem of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the dragon symbol.The word for dragon in Romanian is "drac" and "ul" is the definitive article. Vlad III’s father thus came to be known as "Vlad Dracul," or "Vlad the dragon." In Romanian the ending "ulea" means "the son of". Under this interpretation, Vlad III thus became Vlad Dracula, or "the son of the dragon." (The word "drac" also means "devil" in Romanian. The sobriquet thus took on a double meaning for enemies of Vlad Tepes and his father.)
Slovakia
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Gerbil / Hamster / Guinea Pig
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Real Estate
Realtor
Owners: 431
The Realtor is the kingpin behind all real estate transactions. S/he knows the legal ins and outs, where the best deals can be found, and how to close escrow in an impossibly short timeline. Trained and certified to high state-specific standards, the Realtor is considered to be a necessity and valuable asset for most people who buy or sell real estate. Known by other names in other parts of the world (estate agent, etc.), the realtor holds an important stake in a major part of the international economy.
Television Comedies
Laugh Track
Owners: 265
A laugh track is a soundtrack of canned audience laughter, made to be inserted into TV comedy shows and sitcoms. Laugh tracks are meant to "cue" the viewing audience to laugh at the appropriate time during a TV show. The first television show to incorporate a laugh track was The Hank McCune Show.

TV critics have often claimed that laugh tracks are used to cover up problems with the writing of a TV show by using artificial "canned" laugh tracks to make the show seem funnier than it actually is. This has led some to change the common phrase, "taped in front of a live studio audience," into "live in front of a taped studio audience."

Some viewers regard the laugh track as an insult to their intelligence and sense of humor. ABC, among other television networks, was notorious for overusing the laugh track, which was parodied on The Rerun Show's adaptation of a Bewitched script.

Several TV comedy series have aired completely without laugh tracks, though such shows are rare in the United States. The most successful contemporary U.S. TV comedy show to air completely without a laugh track or "live" audience laughter is The Simpsons, an animated series. The show has been known, however, to occasionally parody canned laughter.
Dungeons and Dragons
Dungeon Master
Owners: 265
The Dungeon Master knows all. The Dungeon Master knows what castle is under siege by whom, where the treasure being quested for can be found, what dragon is snacking on whose cattle. Making all the die rolls, he knows the pulse of the dungeon, and can best guess what the future holds. His is the wisdom to which the Long Lived Hero listens.
Malay
Amok
Owners: 269
Amok (noun) is a Malay word that describes an episode of sudden mass assault against people or objects, usually by a single individual following a period of brooding. Traditionally regarded as occurring especially in Malaysian culture, this phenomenon is now increasingly viewed as psychopathological behavior occurring worldwide in numerous countries and cultures. Also spelled "amuck." Use this Artefact when it's time to ... run amok!
Woodburning
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Las Vegas (NV)
The Rat Pack
Owners: 357
The name "Rat Pack" was coined when actress Lauren Bacall copped an eyeful of the gang of glamorous reprobates as they lay around like the living dead after a five day round-the-clock rampage through Las Vegas. "You look like a ...Rat Pack" she remarked. They hung out and partied for days on end at The Sands Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. In their heyday, the Rat Pack consisted of Sammy Davis Jr., Peter Lawford, Dean Martin, Joey Bishop and the king Rat himself, Mr. Frank Sinatra. After the cold war summit in the late 1950's, Sinatra declared that he and the guys would hold their own "summit of cool" in Vegas, one which would last for seven bourbon-filled years.

The Rat Pack would perform at The Sands at night, and during the day (between the partying and womanising) they would make films such as OCEANS 11. These were men in their 30's and 40's and behaving like teenagers, yet they were always turned out impeccably in clean, crisp white shirts, immaculately tailored suits, smoothed back hair, and smelling of the finest cologne. These were magical times in Vegas, and everyone wanted to know the Rat Pack and party with them.
Restaurants / Food Service Industry
Tom’s Diner
Owners: 301
Suzanne Vega’s well known a capella song, "Tom’s Diner," was written while she was sitting at "Tom’s Restaurant," located at 2880 Broadway at 112th Street in New York City. The same restaurant later became known as "Monk’s Diner" in the popular television sitcom Seinfeld, where Jerry and his friends regularly ate. Nothing more than a typical diner, it has been owned and operated by the same Minasizoulis family from Greece for nearly 50 years.
Diet Clubs
Jenny Craig
Owners: 147
Jenny Craig and husband Sidney Craig are American weight loss center pioneers who founded Jenny Craig, Inc.in 1982. Although neither had formal training in nutrition or exercise, Ms Craig developed a weight loss regimen that led to creating a weight-loss company in the mid-1980s with her husband. Their company was one of the pioneers in transforming weight loss into a booming industry. In 1983, she started her first commercial weight loss program in Australia. The success of their program inspired the couple to expand to the huge American market in 1985 where they establised headquarters in La Jolla, California and eventually added weight loss centers in Canada, Puerto Rico and New Zealand.

At age 28 she discovered her true calling. During a difficult pregnancy with her second daughter, Michelle, she gained 45 pounds. Her mother had also been overweight after giving birth, eventually dying of an obesity-related stroke at age 49. In an effort to avoid a similar situation, Jenny joined a local gym and shed her excess pounds using a two-pronged approach of healthy eating and exercise. She was offered a job as gym manager, and was soon managing three other local facilities. Shortly thereafter, she and a partner opened their own gym, Healthletic Studio, which they later sold.

Jenny’s personal weight-loss experience, and the industry knowledge she obtained in the years that followed, provided the foundation on which the company that bore her name would ultimately be based. Working in Centres and with clients uniquely positioned her to understand and address the challenges faced by those trying to shed extra pounds.

Today, Jenny Craig, Inc. is one of the largest and most recognized weight management service companies in the world, with 652 Company-owned and franchised Centres in the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Puerto Rico and Guam. In addition to the tens of thousands of clients active in Jenny Craig’s weight management program, thousands more visit the Company’s Web site each week seeking ways to live happier, healthier lives.
Live Stand Up
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Healthy Eating
Food Guide Pyramid
Owners: 216
Since publishing its first dietary recommendations in 1894, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been trying to get Americans to eat healthy. The first food guide called “Food for Young Children” was published in 1916. In the guide author and nutritionist Caroline Hunt divided food into 5 groups: milk and meat, cereals, vegetables and fruits, fats and fatty foods, and sugars and sugary foods.

In 1941, following prompting by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the first National Nutrition Conference was held. USDA developed the nutritional guidelines known as Recommended Daily Allowance or RDA. This was followed in 1943 by the "Basic Seven" which was a modification of the original guidelines due to food rationing during World War II. Soon after, the guidelines were simplified to a Basic Four food groups: milk, meats, fruits and vegetables and grains.

In the 1970's the USDA added a fifth category that included fats, sweets and alcoholic beverages. This was done as an attempt to address unhealthy foods that should be consumed only in moderation. A graphic of the 5 food groups was created in 1988, and in 1992, the Food Guide Pyramid was released. It was the first depiction of the USDA's recommendations for healthy eating through "variety, proportionality and moderation". In 1994, the nutritional food label was put into effect by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, which was supposed to give Americans everything they needed to follow the guidelines in the Pyramid.

While not perfect, the Food Guide Pyramid was meant to educate the public so that healthier food choices could be made. In 2005, the next generation of healthy eating guidelines, known as "My Pyramid", was introduced.
Ostrava
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Czech
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Denver (CO)
Mile High City
Owners: 359
Denver is the capital of Colorado, USA and was founded in 1858. The City and County of Denver is the largest city and capital of the state of Colorado. It is the largest city along the Front Range and forms the heart of the Denver-Aurora metropolitan area.
Denver is nicknamed the "Mile High City", because its official elevation, measured on the fifteenth step of the state capitol building, is 5,280 feet (1,609 m) above sea level. (The elevation is 5,431 ft (1,655 m), as surveyed at the Denver International Airport). Also, a row of seats in the upper deck of Coors Field, home of Major League Baseball's Colorado Rockies (NL), is distinctively marked in purple (one of the team's colors) to indicate that the row is one mile above sea level.

Source: Wikipedia
Bangladesh
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Jamaica
Bob Marley
Owners: 172
Bob Marley is a veritable legend on the island of Jamaica. Called the "Rasta Prophet," his name is synonymous with reggae music. His music and political leanings helped shaped the country throughout his life. His funeral in May, 1981 was attended by both the Prime Minister of Jamaica and the leader of the opposition party. While his death prevented any pivotal role he might have had in the political arena, many were motivated by his voice. He created a musical legacy that has extended long past his death, and he is still a very popular artist in reggae music.
Moldova
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United Arab Emirates
Trucial States
Owners: 290
The states that comprise the UAE were formerly known as the Trucial States (also referred to as Trucial Coast or Trucial Oman), a name the area retained until the formation of the UAE. The term trucial refers to the fact that the sheikhs ruling the seven constituent states were bound by maritime truces concluded with Great Britain in 1820 and by an agreement made in 1892 accepting British protection.

Before British intervention, the area was notorious for its pirates and was called the Pirate Coast. After World War II the British granted internal autonomy to the sheikhdoms. Discussion of federation began in 1968 when Britain announced its intended withdrawal from the Persian Gulf area by 1971.

The sheikhdoms began to try and create a single state consisting of Bahrain, Qatar and the Trucial States. But Bahrain and Qatar chose to become independent states, so negotiations collapsed. However, the Trucial States remained committed to forming an alliance and in 1971 the Federation of the United Arab Emirates was created.

The leaders of the new federation elected the Ruler of Abu Dhabi (territorially the largest of the sheikhdoms), His Highness Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, as their new president, a position he held until his death on November 2, 2004. His son, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan, was elected president the next day.
Afghanistan
Darul Aman Palace
Owners: 49
Located outside the city of Kabul, the Darul Aman Palace (now in ruins) was built in the "European style." Built in the 1920's it was intended to be part of a new capital planned by King Amanullah Khan as part of his desire to modernize Afghanistan. Intended as the seat for a future parliament outside of Kabul, the building was unused for many years after religious conservatives forced Amanullah from power and halted his reforms. The palace was gutted by fire in 1969 and refurbished as the home of the Defense Ministry. By the end of the 1990's heavy shelling had left the palace in ruins. While plans were announced in 2005 to refurbish the palace and make it the seat of a new Afghanistan parliament, as of 2011 no work had begun.
New Orleans (LA)
Jackson Square
Owners: 315
While Bourbon Street is known throughout the world, Jackson Square, surrounding the beautiful gardens of the St. Louis Cathedral and bordered by the Mississippi river, is home to
much of what gives New Orleans its real flavor - voodoo practitioners, fortune-tellers, musicians, and artists gather daily to provide tourists and locals alike a glimpse of the majestic underbelly of the city. Grab a beignet and catch an acrobatic show, have your palms read, or just enjoy a relaxing stroll up Decatur Street. This is New Orleans.
Bahamas
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Budapest
St. Stephen's Basilica
Owners: 222
The St. Stephen's Basilica is one of the must see sites in Budapest. Located on the Pest side of the city it is the largest building in the city and is one of the most beautiful structures in town. Named after the first king of Hungary, Stephen, it took over fifty years for the basilica to be completed.
Athens
The Parthenon
Owners: 254
The Parthenon is the most relevant monument of ancient Greek civilization and a masterpiece of the world’s archaeological patrimony. The word Parthenon alludes to the cult of Athena Parthenos, the "Virgin Athena", the patron goddess of the capital of Athens. The temple was built in her honour, between 447 and 432 BC, as a recognition for the salvation of Greece in the Persian Wars.
Constructed in the Doric style, with 17 columns along its length and 8 along its width, the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon is one the greatest examples of ancient sculpture.
Baghdad
One Thousand and One Nights
Owners: 150
Baghdad, a little to the north of the ruins of ancient Babylon, was the centre of the Islamic Golden Age. For almost two hundred years from 762 to about 930, it was one of the largest and most influential cities of the world. It was the heart of the Caliphate and the portal through which Greek and Indian learning cross-pollinated the Arabic world of ideas.

From this era sprang the stories attributed to the legendary Shahrazad, whom some identify as the mother of the great Caliph himself, Harun al-Rashid. These tales of derring-do, conmen, merchants, monsters, fantastic magicks and peculiar artifacts, of journeys across the world and under it, have fascinated us for a thousand years. The first recorded mention of the book comes in Ibn Al-Nadim's "Fihrist" (Catalogue of books) in Baghdad, originally published in 938. Since their translation by Sir Richard Francis Burton as 'The Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night' in 1885, the English-speaking world has thrilled to its many stories in books, films, poetry and plays.

For the 1001 Nights, or Arabian Nights as it’s often titled in English, have given us Aladdin, Ali Baba, Sinbad the Sailor and 998 other heroes, heroines and singular characters. It is through these that we remember the glory of ancient Baghdad and hope that the close fellowship of tale and fable may someday come to pass again.
Riyadh
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Dublin (City) (RoI)
Temple Bar
Owners: 226
Located in the beating heart of Dublin's city centre, Temple Bar is the city's cultural quarter. But culture is just one aspect of Temple Bar, it being equally famous for its many and varied pubs, nightclubs, restraunts and winebars, making it a popular destination for tourists and locals alike.
Manchester (city)
Old Trafford
Owners: 268
The Old Trafford (AKA The Theater of Dreams) football stadium, built in 1910, is the home of one of the most famous football clubs in the world, the Manchester United F.C. (The Red Devils). The stadium is located in Trafford, Greater Manchester, near the Old Trafford cricket ground. Bombed in 1941 and rebuilt in 1949, Old Trafford is one of the largest football stadiums in the UK and has also played host to the rugby league Grand Finals since 1998.
Birmingham (UK)
Brummie Accent
Owners: 213
The Brummie accent, spoken by the inhabitants of Birmingham, England, is one of the most widely-recognized regional accents in the country. Distinct from neighboring Black Country and Coventry accents, it features unusual vowels - such as pronouncing the word 'rice' as 'roice'. Some academics have theorized that Shakespeare spoke with an early Brummie accent, based on his rhymes and vocabulary use.
Cambridge (UK)
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Glasgow (Scot)
Saint Mungo
Owners: 270
St Mungo, also known by his less familiar name birth name Kentigern, was a bishop and evangelist of Strathclyde. His early teacher, Serf, may have been responsible for giving Kentigern his popular monniker of Mungo, which means 'dear one'.

St Mungo, the recognized founder of Glasgow, was the illegitimate son of a princess, Thenaw. In A.D. 543, following exile from Culross where his miracle powers had aroused jealousy among his monastic brothers, Mungo established a Christian church on the banks of the Molendinar Burn, a tributary of the River Clyde, where the Glasgow Cathedral now stands.

Legend has it St Mungo performed four miracles in Glasgow, commemorated on the City of Glasgow’s coat of arms, depicting a tree with a bird perched on its branches and a salmon and a bell on either side.

When Mungo died, he was buried in his own community, making the site one of pilgrimage and importance. Around it arose a township, and by the 12th century it was a cathedral city. Through the centuries, it continued to grow, in importance, in wealth, in status and in population.

But it all started because of a religious settlement, and both the city's coat of arms and his motto relate directly to the founding father, whose remains are still buried in the crypt of the Cathedral. The motto is now "Let Glasgow flourish" but it used to be "Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the Word" an expression that is ascribed to Mungo himself.
Barcelona (city)
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Oslo (city)
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Copenhagen
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Bremen (city)
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Hamburg
Reeperbahn
Owners: 303
In the city of Hamburg, St Pauli district lies the Reeperbahn. The half-mile long Reeperbahn runs the entire length of the red light district. The street is filled with restaurants, bars and some establishments offering erotic entertainment. The Reeperbahn became the the Sailor's choice after the city banned them from more respectable areas. The real name reeperbahn comes from reeper = rope, bahn = road, which means that in the early days the ropes for the ships were made there.
Delhi
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Mumbai
Bhel Puri
Owners: 288
The city of Mumbai is famous for its street food, and its most renowned street food is Bhel Puri. Popularised by Bollywood films, this snack is often yearned for by city outsiders.

Though available in most parts of India, the Mumbai Bhel Puri stands out for it distinctive taste: spicy, sweet, tangy, crunchy -- out of this world!

Puffed rice, finely cut tomatoes, onions and chiles, various chutneys, a chick-pea based topping, and coriander leaves form the bhel, which is then served with toasted puri, (a wheat based bread, deep fried).

Bhel Puri is synonymous with the beaches of Mumbai. You have to experience the walk on Chowpatty beach, the endless stalls of street vendors selling Bhel Puris, the Pav Bhaji (bread served with a spicy vegetable dish) sprinkled with lemon juice, the sugarcane juice, and the Vada Pau (a vegetable burger for lack of a better description).
Karachi (Pak)
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Lahore (Pak)
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Murcia (city)
La Catedral de Santa María
Owners: 216
Often referred to as Catedral de Murcia (Murcia Cathedral in English) but officially known as La Catedral de Santa María, this cathedral is Murcia's best known architectural structure. The building and its 310 foot (95 meter) tall bell tower were constructed and added to over several centuries beginning in the late 14th century. The cathedral was built on a site where a mosque was once located and combines many different architectural styles including Gothic, Baroque and Renaissance. La Torre (the bell tower), a highly visible landmark for the area, took over 200 years to be completed. Design and construction of La Torre were begun by two unrelated Italian architects, both named Florentino.
The façade of the cathedral is in the Baroque style but most of the interior is Gothic with the Chapel of los Junterones being Renaissance architecture. Inside the cathedral is a museum which includes a Roman sarcophagus and many beautiful works of religious art but the cathedral is still being used for religious services as well.
Fan Fiction
Mary Sue
Owners: 244
Every fan fiction writer has done it, whether they admit it or not. They've written a fan fiction featuring a non-canon character who is strikingly similar to themselves - or at least themselves in an ideal universe. Her name is usually not Mary Sue, but seasoned readers recognize her as soon as she steps onto the stage. She's beautiful, graceful, charming, and can beat every character at their own game: in a phrase - annoyingly perfect. And the main protagonist must fall madly in love with her or at least make her his sidekick. Men do it too, and the less-used name of Marty Stu applies. It may be that every author starts out writing Mary Sue before they even know what fan fiction is. She is the budding fan fiction author's muse.
San Diego (city) (CA)
San Diego Zoo
Owners: 292
The San Diego Zoo is part of Balboa Park, which sprawls over a hill overlooking downtown San Diego. Airliners often fly right over the park, and sometimes passengers can catch a glimpse of the animals.

The zoo's main patron was Dr. Harry Wegeforth, who began the enterprise as a zoological society in the early 1900s. It was built in 1921 and has expanded to a wild animal park which lies some miles outside of the city. The zoo complex also includes the Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, which was created in 1975. Today a huge collection of animals roams in their native habitats, and visitors have access to a variety of restaurants and exhibits to enhance their visit.

Many of the San Diego Zoo's animals have made their television debuts on late-night TV, most notably on the Tonight Show with both the late Johnny Carson and host Jay Leno.
Soap Operas
Guiding Light
Owners: 200
Guiding Light holds the record of being the longest running Soap Opera in production and the longest-running drama in Television History. Created by Irma Phillips based on her personal experiences, it debuted as an NBC radio serial on January 1937. In 1952 it made the transition to Television, remaining part of the CBS lineup ever since. Mostly centered around Springfield USA, it has followed the lives of several different families over the years, including the Bauers who were introduced as part of the transition to Television. Over most of its run it was a ratings hit, but recent low ratings and budget cuts have led many to speculate about its long-term future.
Nottingham
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Existentialism
Søren Kierkegaard
Owners: 127
Often regarded as the father of existentialism, Søren Kierkegaard was a complex individual who at best could be described as conflicted. His early life was wrought with excess and indulgence that changed rapidly after his father died and Kierkegaard devoted himself to the study of theology. His journals and writings are often referred to by those studying existentialism which may irritate the man who wrote:

After my death no one will find among my papers a single explanation as to what really filled my life (that is my consolation); no one will find the words that explain everything and which often made what the world would call a bagatelle [or trifle] into an event of tremendous importance to me, and what I look upon as something insignificant when I take away the secret gloss which explains all. (1842)
Software Security
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St. Louis (MO)
The Gateway Arch
Owners: 316
No trip to St. Louis is complete without a visit to the Gateway Arch - the stunning stainless steel structure that rises 630 feet high from the banks of the Mississippi, making it our nation's tallest monument.

More than an engineering marvel, the arch has come to represent the spirit of the City of St. Louis, the Gateway to The West.

Each year, millions of visitors flock to the Arch to make the journey to the top. Explore the links in the upper left column to discover for yourself this marvel made of stainless steel.

In 1947, a group of civic leaders held a national competition to select a design for the main portion of the Memorial space. A young Finnish-American architect named Eero Saarinen won this competition with plans for a 590 foot (180 metre) catenary arch to be placed on the banks of the Mississippi River. However, these plans were modified over the next 15 years, placing the arch on higher ground and adding 40 feet (12 m) in height and width.

The construction of the Arch began February 12, 1963 and was completed on October 28, 1965, costing less than US$15 million to build. US Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall dedicated the Arch on May 25, 1968.

The Arch stands 630 feet (192 m) tall, and is 630 feet (192 m) at its widest point; by ordinance it is the tallest structure in the city. Its legs are equilateral triangles, narrowing from 54 feet (16.5 m) at the base to 17 feet (5.2 m) at the top. Each wall consists of a stainless steel skin covering reinforced concrete from ground level to 300 feet (91 m) or carbon steel and rebar from 300 feet (91 m) to the peak. The interior of the Arch is hollow and contains a unique transport system leading to an observation deck at the top. The interior of the Arch also contains two emergency stairwells in the event of a need to evacuate the Arch or if a problem develops with the tram system.

Underneath the Arch is a visitor's center, entered from a descending outdoor ramp starting at either base. With the center is the Museum of Westward Expansion, exhibits on the history of the St. Louis riverfront, tram loading areas, a movie theater showing a documentary on the Arch's construction, and a movie theater with a rotating playlist.


From the visitor's center one may move to the either base of the arch and enter a unique tramway much as one would enter an ordinary elevator, through double doors. Passing through the doors the passengers in small groups enter a horizontal cylindrical compartment containing five seats on the sides of the cars and a flat floor. A number of these compartments are linked to form a train. These compartments each individually retain an appropriate level by rotating, this allows them to maintain the correct orientation while the entire train follows curved tracks up one leg of the arch.

There are two groups of these tramways, one on the north end and the other on the south end of the Arch. Each group of cars is made up of eight cars. The trip to the top of the Arch takes four minutes, and the trip back down takes three minutes. The car doors do have glass panes, so passengers are able to see the interior of the Arch during the trip.

Near the top of the arch, a rider will exit the compartment and climb a slight grade to enter the arched observation area. Small windows, almost invisible from the ground, allow views across the Mississippi River and southern Illinois with its prominent Mississippian culture mounds to the east at Cahokia, and the city of Saint Louis and the Great Plains to the west.
Ducks
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3G
Mobile Music Downloads
Owners: 296
Expectations that video telephony would be the flagship "killer" application for 3G proved false, but not before they fueled speculation in spectrum licensing fees in many countries and ultimately caused financial difficulties for telecommunication businesses which resulted in the delay of 3G roll-out in most countries except Japan and Korea. As a result, Japan has become the test case for 3G (third-generation mobile telephone technology) services.

Data for 2005 shows that over 40% of Japan's mobile telephone subscribers use 3G networks. Japan’s transition from 2G to 3G is expected to be largely completed in 2006.

The successful introduction of 3G in Japan has shown that the actual killer application for 3G networks is not video telephony, but mobile music downloads. Downloads of mobile music on KDDI-AU mobile phones through KDDI’s Chaku-Uta services are comparable to download numbers of iTunes in the US, but with a much smaller potential user pool.

Japan's 3G experience shows that mobile music downloads are substantially more attractive for paying users than fixed-line Internet music downloads.
Usenet
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Streaming Media
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Databases
Query
Owners: 244
While databases all store data, the data would be quite meaningless without the ability to query it. Query languages allow databases to be interpreted as needed. Without them, databases would just be collections of data that lacked an efficient method for being read.
Storyblogs
Liquid Plotline
Owners: 375
At the heart of every successful storyblogger's blog is the Liquid Plotline. As the name implies, a liquid plotline is not fixed -- it extends over many posts, changing constantly to keep the readers' interest. Once able to "go with the flow", a writer's story is left free to be told in the best way possible - to keep readers hooked, that is. Multiple characters, suspense, drama, romance, and comedy are all valid components that may be found in a Liquid Plotline. A wise investor can use the Liquid Plotline in order to flow right through barriers and around any obstacles another player may place in one's way.
Paper Piecing
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Open Source
GPL
Owners: 504
GPL, or GNU General Public License, is the name of a software licensing scheme designed to preserve the freedom of the author and of users. Software under the GPL may be modified and used as the user wishes, but the source code must always be made available. Another underlying principal of the GPL is that no warranty exists for the software. Thus: you may do whatever you want with this code, so long as it remains free and open, and you don't hold the author responsible for any problems you may have.
Blues
Crossroads
Owners: 210
Early bluesman Tommy Johnson said: "If you want to learn how to make songs yourself, you take your guitar and you go to where the road crosses that way, where a crossroads is. Get there, be sure to get there just a little 'fore 12 that night so you know you'll be there. You have your guitar and be playing a piece there by yourself...A big black man will walk up there and take your guitar and he'll tune it. And then he'll play a piece and hand it back to you. That's the way I learned to play anything I want."

This description of becoming a guitar master by selling one's soul to the devil was later misattributed to Johnson's contemporary, peer, and friend, Robert Johnson, who wrote a song called "Crossroads" (which had nothing to do with souls or devils). Besides a surname and an avocation, what these two men had in common was this: they both left home as unaccomplished guitarists and returned as virtuosos. Did they make pacts with the devil? Or did they just get a lot of practice playing on the road? Whatever the truth may be, they must surely have passed a number of crossroads along the way.
Bollywood
Big B
Owners: 238
Amitabh Bachan, also known as Big B, is a famous Bollywood Star and the first Indian to find a place in Madame Tussad's Wax Museum. He was known as the angry young man of Indian cinema from the 1970's to 1990's, and is still considered a superstar. The Big B acted in films of different genres for two decades continuously, as the leading hero. After a few years he returned to celebrity as the host of "Kaun Banega Crore Pati", an Indian version of "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?." He continues to actively participate in the Indian entertainment industry.
Terrorism
Carlos the Jackal
Owners: 415
Carlos the Jackal, née Ilich Ramirez Sánchez, was the mastermind behind a spectacular series of bombings, kidnappings and hijackings across Europe. With crimes that spanned three decades, he was wanted for terrorist crimes in at least five European countries. He is best known for being the mastermind behind the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre and the hostage crisis at the 1975 OPEC conference in Vienna.

Born in Venezuela in 1949, he is a son of a millionaire Marxist lawyer who demonstrated the depth of his Communist convictions by dividing the name of the leader of the Russian revolution between his three sons, calling them Vladimir, Ilich and Lenin.

In 1970, Sánchez joined Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. He received training at their terrorist school in Amman, Jordan, and it was here he received the pseudonym Carlos. He was later kicked out of PFLP and formed his own terrorist group which he named Organisation of Arab Armed Struggle. OAAS performed its first terrorist act in 1982, a failed attack on a nuclear power plant. After his wife Magdelana Kopp was arrested in Paris, the group carried out a series of bombings against French targets.

Carlos was forced to flee Europe, eventually settling in Damascus. He lived in Syria between 1985 and 1991. When he was forced out of Syria, he moved to Jordan and then the Sudan.

On August 14, 1994, the Sudanese government turned Carlos over to French agents, who extradited him back to France. After three years in solitary confinement in a Paris jail, he was sentenced to life in prison for killing two French secret agents and a Lebanese fellow revolutionary in 1975. He is currently held in Clairvaux prison, where he is part of the general inmate population.
Sea Travel
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Rail Travel
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Database Technologies
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mySQL
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Oracle
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DB2
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MS-SQL
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Solar Power
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Portable Computing
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Laptop / Tablet Computers
Gavilan SC
Owners: 323
This early laptop was released in 1983 at a list price of $4,000; it was the first computer to be marketed as a “laptop”. Only partially IBM-compatible, its standard programs included a terminal program, MS-DOS, & MBasic. As well as having a floppy disk drive as a standard feature unlike other laptops of the day, it included an internal 300 baud modem. It included a touchpad device and a screen resolution of 400 x 64 pixels. It weighed in at a very light nine pounds and sported a clamshell design.

Unfortunately the Gavilan Computer Corp was beset by financial and technical difficulties. They had to redesign the device due to floppy disk drive supply problems. This led to cash flow and difficulty in supplying large quantities and eventually the company had to file for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy in 1985.
Handheld Computers
Tricorder
Owners: 95
The tricorder debuted as a handheld, albeit two hands, computer used on the original Star Trek TV series for a wide range of scientific uses ranging from technical to medical. It has gone through a number of design changes over the years, but by the time Star Trek: The Next Generation came out it had been sized down to a unit that would fit comfortably in one hand.

The tricorder is just one of a number of items used in the popular science fiction franchise that have since come to or come close to fruition for real. With the debut of the U.S. Robotics Palm Pilot in the late 90's a handheld computer with significant computing power was born. In the following years models have dramatically improved with ever increasing processing power and memory capacity. There have been a number of companies that have produced handheld computers since that initial debut including Palm, Sony and various others. While none of these current generation handhelds is capable of tricorder like functions there is development towards that end being done in both the private and public sectors. One notable example is by researchers at Georgia Tech's Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA) who have developed a handheld unit the size of a deck of cards that can be moved over a patients skin in order produce a subsurface image of the underlying tissue.
Embedded Computers
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Natural Fiber Optics
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Man Made Fiber Optics
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CRM
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Data Driven Web Design
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Static Web Design
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Dream Weaver
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FrontPage / Expression / Sharepoint
_vti_
Owners: 155
_vti_ is a filename and directory prefix seen in web sites created with FrontPage, Microsoft’s Windows-based web editor and publisher.

The _vti_ prefix is a footprint in cybersand, leaving a path back to the original creator of FrontPage, Vermeer Technologies Inc., a software startup company acquired by Microsoft in 1996.

With FrontPage, Microsoft was able to add a proprietary web editor to its word processing and spreadsheet applications, a key component of its strategy to extend its presence in the world of corporate and individual desktop publishing.

Use the _vti_ to power up your portfolio and extend your reach in the BlogShares markets.
Tucson (AZ)
Tucson Gem & Mineral Show
Owners: 82
Held at over 40 locations across Tucson, the Tucson Gem & Mineral show is considered to be one of the premier events of its kind in the world. There is not one single location for gems, minerals and fossils, but rather dealers occupy dozens of locations across the city: many big hotels and most motels are occupied for this occasion, with professionals displaying their specimens in such locations as hotel bedrooms, lobbies, tents, and lawns. The premier event however is held on the second Thursday of February at the Tucson Convention Center and has been held annually since 1955.
Santa Fe (NM)
Santa FE Trail
Owners: 79
The Santa FE Trail was a vital route for traders between the USA and the Mexican city of Santa Fe in the early to late 19th century. The trail initiated from western Missouri and was first used in 1821 by William Becknell, a freight operator. The route quickly became a vital international commercial highway between the two nations. The trail remained in use for nearly sixty years. Only after the first Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad train reached Santa Fe in 1880 did use of the trail fall off.
Orlando (FL)
Walt Disney
Owners: 300
Walt Disney purchased a large amount of rural farm land south-west of a sleepy community called Orlando in the mid 1960's. He announced his project to the world bringing the mouse aka Mickey Mouse to Florida! From that point, Orlando boomed. Disney's creation now has over 27,000 hotel rooms, with 4 major amusement parks, 2 water parks, and is larger than Manhattan with over 50,000 workers on staff. If you count Universal and Sea World, Orlando is the biggest theme park destination in the world - all thanks to Walt Disney.
Sacramento (city) (CA)
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Vancouver (Can)
Grouse Grind
Owners: 345
The Grouse Grind is a famous hiking trail that starts in the north part of Vancouver and climbs some 853 metres (2,800 feet) in 2.9 kilometres (1.8 miles). It is also referred to as Mother Nature’s Stairmaster by some.

In any other country, its very existence would be seen as an aberration. But, to Canadians -- citizens of a nation that gave us one-legged, cross-continental marathon runner Terry Fox -- there is something gloriously heroic about it.

Today aspiring grinders continue to come in droves, more than 150,000 a year at last count, peaking at a rate of more than 5,000 people per day during the busier summer months. Climbers, fun runners, families, friends and work parties -- the committed and the curious lining up alongside the mad -- or just plain masochistic -- sports shoes doubled-knotted and stopwatches at the ready.

Some gluttons for punishment, unhappy with their first ascent time, have been known to tackle the trail twice in the same day. Others, like local hockey professionals the Vancouver Canucks, have incorporated it as part of their preseason training routine.
Halifax Regional Municipality
The Halifax Explosion
Owners: 192
In December 1917, Halifax, Nova Scotia was a bustling port, made prosperous by WWI. The harbour was filled with wartime shipping, with vessels containing everything from munitions and troops to food and other supplies bound for Europe.

At 7:30 a.m. on December 6, 1917, the French ship Mont-Blanc, loaded with 2,300 tons of wet and dry picric acid, 200 tons of TNT, 10 tons of gun cotton and 35 tons of benzol, left its anchorage and joined a convoy gathering at Bedford Basin. At the same time, the Norwegian vessel Imo set off from the Basin bound for New York to pick up a cargo of relief supplies for Belgium. Due to poorly executed navigation in the Narrows, the Imo struck bow of the Mont-Blanc. The collision was not severe, but fire did break out almost immediately aboard the Mont-Blanc.

The captain, crew and pilot aboard the Mont-Blanc abandoned ship immediately, fearing that an explosion was imminent. She burned for twenty minutes drifting until coming to rest against Pier 6, located at the busy industrial end of Halifax. Crowds of people, seemingly unaware of the danger, gathered near the vessel to view the blazing spectacle.

Just before 9.05 a.m., the Mont-Blanc exploded. The explosion was so forceful that not one piece of her remained beside the dock where she had come to rest a short while before. Churches, houses, schools, factories, docks and ships were destroyed. There were few buildings left in Halifax and Dartmouth that still had windows.

It is estimated that over 1,900 people died in the blast. 250 bodies could not be identified. For those who survived, the injuries were horrifying, many blinded at least partially by the shards of flying glass and debris. 1,630 homes were completely destroyed. Many of those were destroyed by fires that spread following the explosion. An additional 12,000 houses were damaged. 6,000 people were left homeless.

The Halifax Explosion was the largest man-made explosion prior to the atomic bomb.
Anchorage (AK)
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Tacoma (WA)
Point Defiance Park
Owners: 30
Visited by more than 3 million people yearly, Point Defiance Park is a 702 acre park located in Tacoma, Washington. The park is home to Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium, the Rose Garden, Rhododendron Garden, beaches, trails, a boardwalk, a boathouse, a Washington State Ferries ferry dock for the Point Defiance-Tahlequah route to Vashon Island, Fort Nisqually, and an off-leash dog park.
Aspen (CO)
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Taos (NM)
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Cape Town
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Durban
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Johannesburg
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Pretoria
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Alexandria (Egypt)
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Sao Paulo (city)
Catedral da Sé
Owners: 287
Those who admire the Sé Cathedral (Catedral da Sé) in the downtown of São Paulo today can hardly believe that it is the same church seen abandoned in the late 90's. Strangely, although Sé Cathedral which was the first church built in the city and is more than 400 years old, it was only ready after the last restoration. This is because it was always in a constant process of changing and went through several reforms.

Construction began on the church in 1591. In the middle of the 18th Century, two small temples were built next to the main church that remained intact until 1911, when they were demolished. The construction of the Catedral da Sé with its present gothic architecture began in 1913 in order to replace the small main church of the city - São Paulo was growing and needed a proper church.

The construction dragged on for decades and the cathedral was finally inaugurated in 1954 (still unfinished) because of the 400th aniversary of São Paulo. Fourteen towers that were designed in original plans hadn't been built because of lack of funds. Catedral da Sé closed between 1999 and 2003 for complete renovation, restoration, and completion of the original building plans. Finally in 2004, after over 400 years of waiting, the construction of one of the oldest symbols of the city was completed.
Rio De Janeiro (city)
Girl from Ipanema
Owners: 313
Tall and tan and young and lovely..... as the song goes, the girl from Ipanema leaves all men breathless when she passes by. The beach in Ipanema is one of the most beautiful in the world. It's actually quite dangerous to swim here with the unpredictable currents but there is no view anywhere that can compare to the view at Ipanema. The sands of Ipanema are occupied to capacity by of some of the most beautiful physiques in the city, so it is easy to imagine the beauty and mystery of this girl from Ipanema. At the end of the beach, are two hills known as the 'two brothers'. The beach is marked with points known as postos. Each posto is known for the crowd that gathers there. Posto 8 marks the beginning of the gay stretch of beach. At posto 9, the marijuana smokers gather. Ipanema at posto 9 is one of the most popular gathering place on the beach. This is the place that is known to be frequented by young rich sun worshippers. There are always circles of people playing football, volleyball and the uniquely Brazilian sport, foot-volley. The girl from Ipanema transcends each generation of tall tan lovely young women on the beach, and when she passes, each boy she passes.......says "aaahhhhh..."
Caracas (Vnz)
El Panteón Nacional
Owners: 284
El Panteón Nacional, located on the northern edge of old town Caracas is considered to be Venezuela's most revered monument. Initially built as a church, the building was rededicated to its current purpose in 1874 by Guzmán Blanco. The National Pantheon is now the final resting place for many eminent Venezuelans. The central nave of the National Pantheon is dedicated to El Libertador Simón Bolívar, with his sarcophagus positioned where the church's altar was located. The vault of the church is now covered with paintings of scenes from Bolívar's life which were painted in the 1930s. Ceremonial changing of the guards happen several times per day.
Lima
Quechua
Owners: 64
Quechua is the language of the Pre-Columbian Inca Empire which was centered in the mountainous region of Cuzco Peru and extended along the western coast of South America including the area the modern countries Colombia, Ecuador, and Chile. Peru's modern capital, Lima, is home to the Larco Museum where stone carvings, metal sculpture and ceramics from the Inca period have been preserved. Quechua is still spoken by an estimated 10 million people in its historical Andean region. Along with Spanish, it is an official language of the country of Peru.
La Paz (city, Bol)
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Bible Study
Concordance
Owners: 364
Long before the Internet made hypertext links commonplace, a Concordance gave net-like links to the student of scripture. Painstakingly collected by traditional manual tabulations, the Concordance is like an index to every single word of significance, listing each occurrence by chapter and verse. An advanced Concordance will supplement those links with the original Hebrew or Greek words from which the modern text has been translated, sometimes providing additional commentary on key words. Electronic concordances take the tool to a new level, empowering scriptural research and study with advanced search functions, database control, and link targets for blogging the seeker’s spiritual journey.
Restaurants and Reviews
Zagat
Owners: 425
Mispronounced almost as often as relied on, the Zagat logo of white letters on a red background is the gold standard when it comes to rating a restaurant. From the Zagat website:

Tim and Nina Zagat established Zagat Survey® in 1979 by inviting avid diners to rate and review the restaurants they visited. Both native New Yorkers, these two successful Yale educated lawyers applied a unique premise that rating a restaurant on the basis of thousands of experiences was inherently more accurate than relying on one reviewer. Starting with the first Zagat NYC Restaurant Survey, that premise has proven true, and Zagat Survey has continued to expand over the last 26 years. The company now offers guides to dining for more than 70 major markets.
Welsh Corgis
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New Age
Ascended Master
Owners: 212
From Seth to St. Germaine to Master Hilarion, ascended masters are the avatars of the New Age -- highly evolved souls whose purpose is to foster the spiritual evolution of humanity from across the great cosmic divide. Most have male "personalities" because we mortals are accustomed to taking divine guidance from the male form, but be not deceived! These are great spirit beings, beyond gender, who offer healing and love and spiritual wisdom through a human scribe -- someone spiritually awake enough to channel their divine wisdom. For the evolution of your soul, for questions about past and future lives, for the healing properties of crystals, finding your soul mate, living a spiritually and materially rich life, call on an Ascended Master, or read the book.
Scientology
L. Ron Hubbard
Owners: 147
L. Ron Hubbard (1911 -1986) was the founder of Dianetics and the Church of Scientology. He was a pulp fiction & science fiction writer whose work began to be published in the 1930s. After serving in the United States Navy during World War II, he published Dianetics: The Modern Sciene of Mental Health in 1950. Along with his (then) wife Mary Sue Hubbard, he founded the Church of Scientology in 1953. Over the years he established Scientology centres and Celebrity centres around the world and founded the Sea Org in 1967. After continuing controversy over his church and his books for many years, he returned to writing science-fiction, publishing books such as Battlefield Earth & Mission Earth, until his death in 1986. A number of Hollywood celebrities have embraced his teachings and become amongst its most vocal supporters, including Tom Cruise & John Travolta.
Sufism
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Shi'itism
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Sunnism
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Arnhem
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Berne
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Goats
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Protestant
Wittenburg Door
Owners: 577
The Wittenburg Door refers to the door of the Wittenburg Cathedral. It is here that Martin Luther posted his 95 theses--95 grievances that he had with the Catholic Church of his day. This is commonly referred to as the act that officially began the protestant reformation. Martin Luther posted these theses on October 31st, still to this day celebrated in protestant circles as Reformation Day, often in lieu of celebrating Halloween.
Reality TV
Mark Burnett
Owners: 310
British-born Mark Burnett is one of the driving forces behind reality television and has a long history of executive producing Emmy Award-winning television. He is best known for the reality television series Survivor and the Eco-Challenge adventure race, as well as for The Apprentice, The Restaurant, The Casino, Rock Star: INXS and The Contender.
East Timor
Xanana
Owners: 102
Xanana is a symbol of resilience and self-determination in East Timor: Xanana Gusmão was the leader of the East Timorese Resistance (Fretilin) to the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Xanana fought the occupation for 14 years until he was arrested in 1992 and condemned to life in prison. Whilst in prison, he continued his fight to liberate his country. After much international pressure, Indonesia returned East Timor to the native East Timorese and released Xanana Gusmão. The first free election election in East Timor was held in 2002, in which the East Timorese elected Xanana as their president.
TV Shows
The Remote Control
Owners: 331
The Remote Control is the sceptor of power in any household. The Decider Of Entertainment rules supreme among the lesser family members when he is wielding this modern electronic marvel. In ancient times, a ruler could simply be determined in the barbaric way of physically moving to the television and actually placing one's hand on a mechnical "dial" to change channels. Barbaric!

Along with the power granted to the holder of the Remote Control, comes great responsibility. Selection of the appropriate entertainment must be made quickly, and choices must be made from over 300 channels of worthless brain-poison. The skilled master of the Remote Control, can rapidly surf through the chaff to find the most enjoyable program, spending less that .25 seconds on each station.

Loss of the The Remote Control can be devastating. Many a frustrating hour have been spent searching under sofa cushions, among the nasty bits of food and lost change, to find where the Remote Control had slipped from the users hand as they felt into a television induced coma. If it cannot be located, members of the household must either revert to their ancient barbaric ways, or simply stare at the blank screen until a hero comes to free them from their agony.
Music Composition
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Live Music
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Concerts / Gigs
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Trance Music
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Techno Music
4/4
Owners: 189
It’s the 4/4, the heart of the track,
And it thumps maliciously along.
It is the backbone, and the lifeblood,
Pulsing, all throughout, this “simple” song.
The 4/4 doubles on top of itself,
Over and over again, just rolling,
Pounding, away into infinity.
It’s about distortion, and controlling.
Metal Music
Stratocaster
Owners: 232
Guitar playing is very important in heavy metal. Amplification of guitars, as well as innovative effects and electronic processing is used to thicken the sound. The result was a simple yet powerful impact.

The Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar produced by the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company from the early 1950s until the present, and used by many leading guitarists and on many historic recordings.

The Stratocaster has been widely copied, such that "Stratocaster" or "Strat" can also denote a type of guitar, by various manufacturers, showing the same general features as the original. But properly, and to all legal intent, a Stratocaster is always a Fender; and the guitar's popularity shows no sign of abating.


The name Stratocaster was intended to evoke images of newly emergent jet-aircraft technology, and reinforced Fender's modernistic design philosophy. In designing the Stratocaster's body, a significant area of the back of the guitar, and the area where the strumming arm rests, were beveled to accommodate the player's chest and arm. The upper bouts featured two cutaways, for easier access to the higher frets. The new “Custom Contour Body”, along with the “Synchronized Tremolo” bridge made the Stratocaster a revolutionary design. The guitar also featured more complex electronics than the Telecaster: a then unheard-of three single coil pickups, each with staggered magnetic poles; a three-way selector switch; one volume knob, and two tone controls. Patents were applied for, for all these new designs. Other manufacturers began ripping off the innovations immediately.

The Stratocaster fell out of fashion in the mid-sixties, to the point where the Fender company reduced its price and considered removing it from their production line. Leo Fender had sold the company to CBS for 13 million in January 1965. However, soon after, Jimi Hendrix, started playing Stratocasters. Stratocaster sales soared and the Stratocaster has remained a mainstay guitar ever since.


Although Fender, the company, still manufactures some high-quality models in the United States, they now have extensive manufacturing facilities in Japan, China, and Mexico, such that a new guitar with the name, "Fender Stratocaster," can be purchased for roughly the same dollar amount today as in 1954.

Players first perceived a loss of the initial high quality of Fender guitars after the CBS takeover in the early 1960s. So-called "pre-CBS" Stratocasters are, accordingly, extremely sought-after and expensive. All original 1954 to 1958 Stratocasters can bring as much as $20,000 now! Many now reside in Japan, cached away as collectible pieces of Americana.

Famous Stratocaster players include Jimi Hendrix, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Hank Marvin, Ritchie Blackmore, Eric Clapton, Mark Knopfler, Jeff Beck, Buddy Holly, and David Gilmour.
Funk Music
Karl Denson
Owners: 276
First discovered by Lenny Kravitz, singer/saxophonist Karl Denson has since stormed the funk scene as a soloist, as well as with such bands as The Greyboy Allstars and Karl Denson's Tiny Universe (KDTU). A true California funkster, Karl's music has been inspired by such greats as James Brown and Maceo Parker, as well as the acid jazz and hip hop genres, as evidenced by his teaming up with DJ Greyboy in the Allstars. In the years since the Allstars were first formed, a large Karl following has evolved in both the funk and jam band scenes. KTDU shows across the country sell out on a regular basis, and Karl remains true to his fans, regularly appearing at music festivals across the States and abroad.
Disco
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Grunge
Nirvana
Owners: 99
Grunge is a punk/metal rock subgenre created by Nirvana, a band formed in the early 90's by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic. By fusing elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal and filling their songs with angst-filled lyrics, Cobain and Novo created an outlet for unsettled youth with their high-energy music. The "grunge" moniker came out of the unkempt nature of the artists, an aspect often reflected in the sweaty mosh pits and dirty dives of their venues.

Nirvana's album Nevermind became an instant hit in 1991 thanks to its lead single "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind went on to sell 26 million copies worldwide and win numerous accolades, including placing 17th on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. Their success inspired numerous copycat artists and helped other grunge bands, such as Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, break into the mainstream. Sadly, Nirvana's tremendous success ended virtually overnight, as lead singer Curt Cobain died of a heroin overdose just three short years after Nevermind's release.

Despite this tragedy, Cobain and Nirvana left behind an incredible legacy, impacting the music industry as great as any artist who came before them.
New Wave
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Vocalists
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Orchestral Music
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Pan Pipe
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Folk Music
Balalaika
Owners: 226
The varied family of Central Asian lutes is a large one, and one of the most popular and best known is the balalaika, with its unique triangular shape. Developed from folk lutes by the nobleman Andreyev in the late 18th century into a whole family of instruments with standard tunings, the balalaika has become one of the most important plucked instruments in Eastern Europe, and the quintessential lute in Russia and the Ukraine. A very intricate, virtuosic repertoire has elevated the balalaika to the level of a classical instrument, and it is taught as such.

The Balalaika family of instruments includes, from the highest-pitched to the lowest, the prima balalaika, sekunda balalaika, alto balalaika, bass balalaika and contrabass balalaika. All have three-sided bodies, spruce or fir tops, and backs made of from three to nine wooden sections, and all have three strings. The prima balalaika is played with the fingers, the sekunda and alto either with the fingers or a pick depending on the music being played, and the bass and contrabass (which are equipped with extension legs which rest on the floor) with leather picks.
Gangsta Rap
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R & B
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House Music
Frankie Knuckles
Owners: 179
While studying Textile Design at FIT in Manhattan, Knuckles aka The Godfather of House, began working as a DJ. He played soul, disco and R&B at The Continental Baths with fellow-DJ Larry Levan. Shortly after this, he began to gain notoriety and played at Better Days. When the Warehouse opened in Chicago in 1977 he was invited to play on a regular basis. He continued DJing there until 1982, at which point he started his own club, The Power Plant. When business difficulties caused it to fold, he moved back to NYC, and was the featured resident DJ at The World, and also had numerous subsequent residencies, including The Choice.

His career really took off and he immersed himself in producing, remixing and recording. His earliest remixes include First Choice's "Let No Man Put Asunder" and Jago's "I'm Going To Go". As house music gained momentum, pioneering producer Chip E. took Frankie under his tutelage and produced Frankie's first recording, "You Can't Hide", featuring vocalist Ricky Dillard. Then came more production work, including Jamie Principle's "Baby Wants to Ride", and later, "Tears" with Robert Owens (of Fingers, Inc.) and Satoshi Tomiie.

By the late 1990's, the public's ardor for House music had diminished, and it was no longer the world leading music genre it had become but Knuckles continued to produce some of his best work. The demand for his remix work was as high as ever, and he revamped the material of A-List recording artist's including Michael Jackson, Luther Vandross, Diana Ross, Toni Braxton and many others. He released fewer original productions in the last years of the 1990's, but as the new millennium approached he worked closely with Definitity Records and released several successful new singles including Keep On Movin' and a re-issue of an earlier hit Bac N Da Day. In 2004 he released a 13-Track album of original material - his first in over a decade, titled A New Reality which was critically well received.

On September 19th, 2005, Frankie was inducted into the Dance Music Hall of Fame for his outstanding achievement as a DJ. It is testament to his status as one of house music's most influential and respected artists and it is widely accepted that his style of DJing and his selection and the appeal of the Warehouse gave house music its name. Frankie Knuckles is arguably the pioneering DJ of his generation and is certainly one of house music's founding fathers.
Garage Music
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Drum 'n' Bass / Jungle
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Karaoke
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Music Festivals
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Raves
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Busking
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Club Music
The DJ
Owners: 178
Standing outside the club fishing for your ID in your pocket, you hear a few people start to mutter and point - the DJ is here - followed by his entourage of friends who've come to dance the night away. Raised high above the rest of the people, he controls the entire night, the energy of the room, and the movement of the crowd. One bad mix can cause the sound of the horn to blow; one wrong track can empty the dance floor in the blink of an eye. But, if you're lucky enough, the music is exactly what you came for, the dance floor is packed, and everyone around you is having a good time. As the night comes to a close, the crowd is shuffled out doors into reality, but before you take that final step, you tilt your head and wave to the DJ to say, "Hey - thanks for making my night". He smiles, nods and waves back and says, "You’re welcome - that's why I'm here".
Pub / Bar Music
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Bangkok
Khao San Road
Owners: 334
When Bangkok was established in 1782, the center of the town was the Grand Palace area. For two centuries Khao San Road, which is 20 minutes walk from the Palace, remained a quiet residential area for the locals.

How did the tranquil road turn out to be a Mecca for travelers? On the brink of Thailand's economic boom in 1982, the Thai Government issued its policy to commemorate Bangkok's bicentennial anniversary and celebrate the Buddhist calendar's lucky year "2525", by launching festive ceremonies in Bangkok to bring in tourist dollars. Tourists poured in from around the world, causing Bangkok's hotels to overflow with bookings. The most spectacular festivities were performed in the Grand Palace.

Some backpackers, unable to get an overpriced room, successfully convinced local residents on Khao San Road to rent out vacant rooms in their houses by reasoning that, in return, the guest house owners could earn some extra income and it was convenient for them to travel to their destinations. The guest house business generated more profits than any amateur entrepreneur ever expected. In a short period of time more, a plethora of guesthouses, restaurants and souvenir shops sprouted along Khao San Road.

Nowadays, for many travellers from all over the world, this is the start of their journey. Amongst backpackers it is called the "gateway" since there are many agents offering package deals to explore Thailand and the rest of South-East Asia (e.g. Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam).
New Romantics
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Rap Metal
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Rock 'n' Roll
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Music Videos
Video Killed the Radio Star
Owners: 78
"Video Killed the Radio Star" by the UK new wave pop group The Buggles was released on September 7, 1979 on the Island Records label. It rose to number one on the UK Charts in October, the first number one for Island Records.

Although widely viewed as a "one hit wonder", The Buggles fame grew when the video of their song, directed by Russell Mulcahy, became the first video aired on MTV when it debuted on August 1, 1981. It was also the millionth song played on MTV on February 27, 2000.
Acid House
Phuture
Owners: 117
Dark, monotonous, and long. That describes the music of Phuture (now known as Phuture 303), a Chicago, IL acid house band. Formed in 1985, Phuture is widely considered to have had the first acid house record - Acid Tracks (1987).
Trip Hop
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Boy / Girl Band
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Drums and Percussion
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Government
Bureaucrat
Owners: 515
Politicians may think they control their governments, but this is an illusion. The Bureaucrat is the government professional, the politician an amateur. The bureaucrat looks forward to a lifetime career of managing a government. Politicians come and go but it is the Bureaucrat Forever!
Civil Service
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Charity
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Bisexual
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Samoa
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Co-operative / Team Blogs
Drupal
Owners: 718
Drupal is a PHP-based content management framework, content management system and blogging engine which was originally written by Dries Buytaert and is the software used to power Debian Planet, Terminus1525, Spread Firefox, Bayosphere, and Kernel Trap.

Drupal is the English spelling for the Dutch word 'druppel' which means 'drop'.

Though it started as a small bulletin board system, Drupal has become much more than just a news portal, thanks to its flexible architecture. Drupal has a basic layer which supports the modules that enable additional behaviors. The modules available for Drupal provide a wide assortment of features, including e-commerce systems, photo galleries, mailing list management, and CVS integration.
Archery
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Automobiles
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot
Owners: 391
The definition of automobile is arguable.   However, automobile historians who accept that early steam-powered road vehicles were automobiles agree that the inventor of the first automobile was French engineer and mechanic Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot.

In 1769, Cugnot invented the very first self-propelled road vehicle, a steam-powered military tractor.  The vehicle, used by the French Army to haul artillery at a blistering speed of 2 1/2 mph on only three wheels, had to stop every 20 minutes to build up steam power.  In 1770, Cugnot built a steam-powered tricycle that carried four passengers.

In 1771, the inventor drove one of his vehicles into a stone wall, making him the first person to get into a motor vehicle accident.
Independent Comic Publishers
Spawn
Owners: 193
In 1992, comic book artist Todd McFarlane helped make Image Comics a driving force in the industry with the publication of Spawn #1. It sold 1.7 million copies, making Image Comics a serious contender in the comic book publishing industry. Spawn, aka Al Simons, was once a soldier and government assassin, but when he died, he was brought back to earth by the forces of Hell to be a soldier in Hell's army. But is he really a bad guy? That is the question that had readers coming back every month, and made the independently published Spawn popular enough to meet DC's Batman face to face in a widely acclaimed crossover event. Spawn's meteoric rise in the comic book industry led to a Hollywood movie, an animated TV series, action figures, and a publishing empire headed by Todd McFarlane.
Austin (TX)
Treaty Oak
Owners: 310
In 1989 a deranged vandal poured Velpar, a poison designed to kill hardwood trees, around an oak tree in Austin. Extensive rescue efforts saved the Treaty Oak from death, but only at a third of its former majesty. It would take 8 years of recovery -- 1 year before the release of its attacker from prison -- before the grand old oak would again produce a crop of acorns.

Only survivor of a group of 14 oaks known as the Council Oaks, the 500-year-old landmark originally was revered as a sacred meeting site for Commanche and Tonkawa tribes. Native American women were said to have drunk a potion made from the tree's leaves during the full moon to guarantee the safe success of their men in battle. Texas legend places Stephen F. Austin himself beneath the Treaty Oak's branches to sign the initial boundary agreement between native Americans and settlers. The Treaty Oak was admitted to the American Forestry Association Hall of Fame in 1927, then as "the most perfect specimen of a North American tree."
Object databases
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XML storage
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Internet News
Slashdot Effect
Owners: 523
If you've ever visited an Internet News site and clicked through to visit the manufacturer of a product or provider of a service, you may have helped cause the Slashdot Effect. This phenomenon, named for the Internet News site Slashdot, occurs when the site for that product or service featured in a news story is inundated with visitors who click through to learn more information. This sudden influx of visitors can cause the featured sites difficulty as the number of hits for their site increases exponentially. In extreme cases, less-powerful web servers have been known to completely crash for hours from this effect.
Authors
Pseudonym
Owners: 465
Express your talents in secret! Avoid the spotlight, or bask in it under a better name! Who wants to be Samuel Clemens when you can be Mark Twain? Just beware - the truth always comes out eventually. Richard Bachman dies, and the Stephen King behind the curtain is revealed.
African History
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Minangkabau
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Multilingual Blogs
Maximilian D. Berlitz
Owners: 436
Founded by Maximilian D. Berlitz in Providence, Rhode Island in 1878, Berlitz is the most well-known foreign language instruction program in the world. The program is best known for “The Berlitz Method”. This method emphasizes personal instruction and all conversations in the class utilize the language being learned. This approach is now widely used in classes worldwide, and is the basis for many educational strategies. The method was developed when Berlitz hired a new instructor to teach French to English speakers. Unfortunately he was unaware the man he had hired spoke absolutely no English. Due to an illness, Berlitz was forced to allow the teacher to teach the class despite this seemingly insurmountable problem. However, in several weeks when Berlitz was again healthy he returned to the class and discovered the students had advanced greatly, and were speaking a great del of conversational French with perfect accents. This happy accident showed Berlitz the value in what became the Berlitz System. Today the Berlitz program is taught at over 450 centers in 65 nations, as well as via Internet, books, CD’s and computer programs. Additionally, Berlitz has programs for virtually every language spoken globally.
Pinhole
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Weblog Hosting
The Pitas
Owners: 414
In July 1999 Pitas launched the world's first weblog hosting company. This was a very important day in history. Before weblog hosting the truth was that only those people who knew how to code a web page using html could make their voices heard. Now people with little or no knowledge of html had the ability to publish on the web: to pontificate, remember, dream, and argue in public, as easily as they could send an instant message.

References:
The weblog handbook, practical advice on creating and maintaining your blog, by Rebecca blood
Perseus Publishing, July 2002
ISBN: 073820756X
Cologne
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Stockholm (City)
Stockholm Syndrome
Owners: 266
On August 23, 1973, three women and one man were taken hostage in one of the largest banks in Stockholm. They were held for six days by two ex-convicts who threatened their lives but also showed them kindness. To the world's surprise, all of the hostages strongly resisted the government's efforts to rescue them and were quite eager to defend their captors. Indeed, several months after the hostages were saved by the police, they still had warm feelings for the men who had endangered their lives. Two of the women eventually got engaged to the captors.

The Stockholm incident compelled journalists and social scientists to research whether the emotional bonding between captors and captives was a "freak" incident or a common occurrence in oppressive situations. They discovered that the phenomenon was more common than any had imagined. It has happened to concentration camp prisoners, cult members, civilians in Chinese Communist prisons, pimp-procured prostitutes, incest victims, physically and/or emotionally abused children, battered women, prisoners of war, victims of hijackings, and of course, hostages. The phenomenon eventually came to be known as Stockholm Syndrome, or Stockholming.

Virtually anyone can suffer from Stockholm Syndrome, which is characterized by four conditions: (1) A perceived threat to survival and the belief that one's captor is willing to act on that threat, (2) A perception of small kindnesses from the captor within a context of terror, (3) Isolation from perspectives other than those of the captor, and (4) A perceived inability to escape.
Marseille
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Scuba Diving
Jacques Cousteau
Owners: 162
Jacques Cousteau was the most famous undersea explorer and researcher in the world. His exploits earned him the title "explorer of the world of silence". One of his major accomplishments was being a co-inventor of the aqualung, a device that made it possible for a diver to remain underwater for several hours. This was the beginning of scuba diving. He was also co-inventor of a underwater camera. With these inventions Cousteau was able to bring the mysteries of the sea to the world at large in his documentries and his tv show. For many underwaterfilmers/photographers and scuba divers he's a great hero . Jacques Cousteau was born in 1910 and died in 1997.
Auckland (city)
One Tree Hill
Owners: 286
One Tree Hill, also known under its Maori name Maungakiekie (which translates to 'hill of the kiekie vine'), is a 182 metre volcanic peak located in Auckland, New Zealand.

On the summit of the hill lies an obelisk, the grave of Sir John Logan Campbell, and until recently a lone pine tree. The tree had been planted to replace a sacred Maori totara tree that was cut down by a white settler in 1852 for firewood. The obelisk was constucted in accordance with the wishes and provisions in John Campbell's will to commemorate his admiration for the Maori people. The tree was attacked with chainsaws twice by Maori radicals, and as a result was removed on October 26, 2000 as it was at risk of dying and falling down.

One Tree Hill is also immortalized by the rock band U2 in a song going by the same name in 'The Joshua Tree' album in 1987.
Brussels (city)
Manneken Pis
Owners: 83
At the junction of Rue de lÉtuve/Stoofstraat and Rue du Chêne/Eikstraat you will find one of the most famous of statues of a young lad doing that most natural of things - having a wee.

This charming statue has been around since the early 1600s and has a range of costumes to choose from. He also gets the chance to dispense beer, much to the delight of those who have a fondness for the golden nectar.

Veni, vidi, pipi...
Toys
Toys "R" Us
Owners: 194
For almost 60 years, Toys "R" Us has been a favorite destination for kids and grown-ups alike with its impressive assortment of toys, games, sporting goods, electronics, software, baby products, children's apparel and juvenile furniture. With 587 stores throughout the United States, Toys "R" Us offers an unparalleled selection of new toys, old favorites, Toys "R" Us exclusives and many other great values under one roof. With experienced and toy-trained staff members always ready to help customers, Toys "R" Us is THE authority when it comes to finding the perfect toy.

"I wanna be a Toys R Us kid...."
Esfahan
None!

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Lyon
Bouchon
Owners: 117
As the food capital of France, Lyon has a cuisine unique to the city and an equally unique type of restaurant to serve that food. When the city was the center of the silk trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, inn owners established small eateries to cater to the travelers, the Bouchon. Although the silk trade has ended, the tradition of the Bouchon remains very much alive. Today around twenty officially certified Bouchons operate in the city offering patrons traditional Lyonnaise cuisine, meaning fatty dishes with lots of meat, and a congenial environment that emphasizes the personal relationship between the customer and the owner.
Istanbul
Hagia Sophia
Owners: 313
One of the eight wonders of the world, Hagia Sophia basilica, Αγια Σοφια in Greek (meaning: the Church of the Divine (or Holy) Wisdom) is known as Ayasofya in Turkish. Istanbul′s most famous structure is located on a site which has been used for religious purposes for millenia. It was at one time the site of a pagan temple, and three separate basilicas were built here in different times, all called Hagia Sophia. The first two churches built on this site were destroyed by fires, the second one being burned in the Nika Riot of 532. The current Hagia Sophia has been damaged several times by earthquakes over the centuries, but has been restored, though not exactly as it was originally built. The emperor Justinian I selected the architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to design and build an architectural marvel which for about 1000 years was the largest church in the world. Hagia Sophia was completed late in the year 536. The interior walls of Hagia Sophia are beautifully covered with marble mosaics. The 56 meter high 31 meter diameter dome of Hagia Sophia appears to hover weightlessly in the air due to the series of arched windows which lie directly beneath it. Justinian supposedly said in reference to Hagia Sophia, ″Νενικηκα σε Σολομων″ (I have surpassed you, Solomon!)Currently a museum, Hagia Sophia has been at various points in history the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, a Roman Catholic cathedral and an Islamic mosque.
Social
VD
Owners: 157
The social nature of humanity creates relationships between people for many purposes - sustenance, mutual protection, fun, profit - and has lead to the development of specialized skills that in turn have become jobs and careers. Unfortunately, these relationships can also have their negative aspects, and can become associated with certain professions. The oldest of these negative aspects arises from the unfettered exercise of the most primal of relationships, and is most often associated with the oldest profession.
Company Blogs
The Newsletter
Owners: 361
Before the days of widespread email and web access, companies relied on printed and mailed newsletters to distribute announcements about their products, services and corporate events. While printed newsletters are still commonplace, many companies have shifted first to corporate Web sites and now to blogs as their medium-of-choice for disseminating current information.

Conventional wisdom states that the consistency and frequency of newsletter publication, not the volume of information, is the key to success—an idea better suited to the sized-to-fit pages of blogs and web sites than to fixed size sheets of paper. The same wisdom dictates that the content must not be merely advertising but have some depth to it, making it informative and useful to the customer—also an idea well-suited to blogging.

In embracing blogging as a logical evolution of the newsletter, focus has shifted from layout to content, from fancy graphics to text, in the interest of keeping information as fresh and as easy to update as possible. Blogging also allows immediate customer feedback, reduces production and distribution costs, and opens doors to new, tech-savvy customers. Still, it’s not a complete substitute for the printed newsletter with its attractive layout, able to be passed around, mulled over during a coffee break, written on, and annotated with sticky notes.
Mozilla
Firefox
Owners: 332
Mozilla Firefox (originally known as "Phoenix" and briefly as "Mozilla Firebird") is a free, cross-platform, graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and hundreds of volunteers. Mozilla Firefox was downloaded 25,000,000 times within 100 days of it's release.

Firefox is one of Mozilla's most popular products. It is used by many home users. It has various features such as tabbed browsing, live bookmarks (RSS/Atom), pop-up blocking and it's easy to customise. Firefox uses the same engine as other Mozilla products like SeaMonkey and Thunderbird.
Children's Literature
Maurice Sendak
Owners: 335
Born in 1928, Maurice Sendak is well known for his children's stories and accompanying illustrations. His 1963 book Where the Wild Things Are, for which he won a Caldecott Medal, is still revered as a classic, and continues to excite the imaginations of children and parents alike as Max becomes king of the Wild Things and exclaims, "I'll eat you up!" His 1970 book In the Night Kitchen is still banned in some areas due to illustrations of a naked boy dancing throughout the story.

Sendak is best known for the darker side of his children's stories, as evidenced by the frightening portrayals of the Wild Things in the book of the same title. In more recent years, Sendak collaborated on a remake of the children's opera Brundibar, and a movie version of Where the Wild Things Are is slated for release in 2008.
Harry Potter Books
J. K. Rowling
Owners: 353
A native of South Gloucestershire, England, J. K. Rowling’s phenomenally popular 7-book series about the young wizard, Harry Potter, made her fortune. The first billionaire (US$) whose wealth came from writing books, she was a single parent living on public assistance when she started writing the books and today is wealthier than the Queen of England.
Dr. Seuss
Pale Green Pants with Nobody Inside Them
Owners: 65
“The Sneetches and Other Stories” is a collection of four short stories by Dr. Seuss. The final story in the compendium, “What Was I Scared Of,” tells the story of a young child walking home at night who encounters a disembodied pair of Pale Green Pants who float in the air and move on their own. After several encounters with the spooky threads, he eventually realizes that the pants are just as scared of him as he is of them. Having overcoming their mutual fear, he and the Pants become friends and now wave to each other as they pass by.

The story is written in trochaic tetrameter, the second of the two meters Seuss typically uses.

/Then I was deep within the woods
When suddenly I spied them.
I saw a pair of pale green pants
With nobody inside them.
I wasn't scared but yet I stopped.
What could those pants be there for?
What could a pair of pants at night
be standing in there for?/
Land of Oz
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Golden Books
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Hardy Boys
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Artificial Intelligence
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Nancy Drew
Plucky Girl Detective
Owners: 53
In 1930, Nancy Drew came to life in The Secret of the Old Clock. A smart, spirited, gutsy teenager, Nancy kept house for her widowed father, had an active social life, wore the latest fashions, drove a snazzy blue roadster, and still managed to solve mysteries. Nancy was a younger version of many of the independent career women showing up in the films of that era. She inspired young women. The success of the Nancy Drew books is most likely partly responsible for a number of other similar book series such as Trixie Belden, Cherry Ames and others. Multiple revisions of the series have kept Nancy roughly current with the times as the years have passed, but Nancy is forever intrepid and determined, forever the plucky girl detective.
Hostels
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Needlepoint
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Russian
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Cherokee
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Army
Fort Jackson
Owners: 282
Fort Jackson is the largest training point for the US Army in the United States. Located near Columbia, South Carolina, recruits going through basic and NCO training often call it home first. Founded in 1917 and chosen as a location ideal for all-year training, Fort Jackson continues to be central in the Army's training program.
Navy
Shellback
Owners: 274
A long-time Navy tradition (Royal, U.S., and other navies) and an event no Sailor or Marine ever forgets is the rite of initiation that commemorates a Sailor's first crossing of the equator.

Originally created as a test for seasoned sailors to ensure that their new shipmates were capable of handling long rough times at sea, the tradition nicknames sailors who have crossed the equator as Shellbacks and those who have not as Pollywogs.

"King Neptune and his court" -- Shellbacks including Neptunus Rex, his first assistant Davy Jones, her Highness Amphitrite, and various dignitaries (all represented by the highest ranking seamen) -- officiate at the ceremony (usually a set of increasingly disgusting tasks performed for the amusement of the Shellbacks). With few exceptions, those who have been inducted into the "mysteries of the deep" by Neptunus Rex and his Royal Court count the experience as a highlight of their naval career.

All wogs, even the Commanding Officer if he has not crossed before, must participate. Once the ceremony is complete, a Pollywog receives a certificate declaring his new status which is officially recognized in service record entries with indications of date, time, latitude and longitude.
Air Force
Berlin Airlift
Owners: 311
On June 26, 1948, the fledgling Air Force began its first major international challenge -- the Berlin Airlift. For the next 462 days, the Air Force and its allies flew in the face of a belligerent Soviet Union to keep the city of Berlin from starving. For more than 42 years, the Berlin Airlift operation held the record for being the most Herculean single-operation airlift effort of all time. It still holds the record for hard-nosed determination.

Through it all, airmen delivered more than 2.3 million tons of cargo -- about 75 percent flown in by American aircraft. American crews took off more than 189,000 times, totaling about 600,000 hours of flight time, covering more than 92 million miles. Thirty-one Americans lost their lives in 12 crashes.
Marine Corps
Eagle, Globe and Anchor
Owners: 268
In 1868, Brigadier General Commandant Jacob Zeilin appointed a board "to decide and report upon the various devices of cap ornaments for the Marine Corps." The emblem recommended by this board has survived with minor changes to this day. It consists of a globe intersected by a foul anchor, and surmounted by a spread eagle. The globe signifies service in any part of the world. The eagle also indirectly signifies service worldwide: the eagle they selected for the Marine emblem is a crested eagle, a type found all over the world. The anchor, whose origin dates back to the founding of the Marine Corps in 1775, indicates the amphibious nature of Marines' duties. On the emblem itself, the device is topped by a ribbon inscribed with the Latin motto "Semper Fidelis" (Always Faithful).
Coast Guard
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Military Veterans
Les Invalides
Owners: 284
Les Invalides, in Paris' 7th arrondissement, is one of the most famous facilities for military veterans in the world. Originally designed as a hospital and retirement home for war veterans, as part of a project initiated by King Loius XIV in 1670, Les Invalides consists of an array of different buildings and courtyards, museums, monuments and chapels. It also houses the tombs of Napoleon Bonaparte, several members of his family and other French military heroes.

Though Les Invalides (which is short for hôpital des invalides - hospital for the invalids) has become a popular Parisian tourist attraction today, it continues to serve its original purpose, housing facilities for military veterans, including a retirement home, a medical and surgical centre and an outpatient centre.
Women In The Military
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Tribal Law
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Sexual Fetishes
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Family Law
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Divorce
Decree Absolute
Owners: 240
In the UK, the Decree Absolute is the final stage of a divorce which legally ends your marriage, enabling you to marry again.

Before you are granted a Degree Absolute, you are required to jump through a few hoops. First thing to do is to fill in a form called a petition for divorce, explaining your reason for wanting a divorce. This form then has to be delivered to the Divorce County Court.

Once the court is satisfied that you have sufficient grounds for divorce (and sufficient arrangements have been mode for any children involved) the court will issue a Decree Nisi. Once this document has been issued you have to wait for six weeks and one day (to allow any objections to the divorce to be heard by the court) before you can apply for your Decree Absolute. Once this document has been issued, you are no longer married.

A Decree Absolute can also be issued to nullify a marriage if a missing spouse is presumed to be dead.
Child Custody
Best Interest of the Child
Owners: 91
The “Best Interest of the Child” is the standard used by courts when making a determination of where to place a child when parents are separated or divorced. All other matters are secondary to insuring that the child’s interests are protected.
Flute
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Native American Flute
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Artists and Bands
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Choral Music
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Chamber Music
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Composers
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Vocal Soloists (Classical)
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Classical Instrumental Soloists
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Brass Instruments
Sousaphone
Owners: 173
The sousaphone is a type of instrument similar to a tuba, that is often used by marching bands. It is the first brass instrument that can be verified as having been invented in the United States. Famous composer and marching band leader John Phillip Sousa is credited with the idea for the sousaphone.

In the 1890’s Sousa’s band was using a helicon a type of tuba but he was unhappy with the sound that they produced. Sousa wanted an instrument that would be able to project the sound up and over the band and still be able to maintain the rich, warm, and full sound of the tuba. Working with J. W. Pepper, the first sousaphone was developed.

The sousaphone was not originally made for marching bands. The first sousaphone that had a bell that projected forward was not used until around 1924. It has been modified over time and today’s three-valve version is used for marching bands, with the weight of the sousaphone being carried on the shoulder of the musician.

Many of the modern sousaphones are made of fiberglass which makes them much lighter to carry by marching band musicians. Marching band sousaphone players in college and high school bands take delight in demonstrating how agile they can be while playing the instruments and are often seen performing intricate dance moves while performing.

The sousaphone is also mainstay instrument in Dixieland bands, with a considerable amount of music written that highlights the instrument. Typically the bell is covered with a cloth called a sock which was created primarily to prevent people from being able to throw objects into the bell as the sousaphones marched passed in parades.
String Instruments
Stradivarius
Owners: 66
While most often associated with the violin, A Stradivarius actually refers to any stringed instrument built by members of the Stradivari family - primarily Antonio Stradivari. The name "Stradivarius" has also become a superlative applied to designate excellence. To be called "the Stradivari" of any field is to be deemed the finest there is.
Woodwind Instruments
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Country Western Artists
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Jazz Artists
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Beatles
Abbey Road
Owners: 135
The Beatles' Abbey Road, is one of their best known albums. Aside from being the name of the eleventh official album released (and last to be recorded), Abbey Road was the location of the studios at which The Beatles recorded almost all of their singles and albums between 1962 and 1970. The cover of the album depicts the band walking across a zebra crossing (crosswalk) just outside the studios. The location became a place of pilgrimage for Beatles fans from all over the world.

Abbey Road's cover was fuel for the "Paul is Dead" urban legend, in which Paul McCartney was rumored to have died in a car accident. According to the rumor, the remaining members left clues in their songs and on album covers. It goes on to allege that the way the Fab Four were dressed on Abbey Road's cover was significant - John Lennon in a white suit was a priest; Ringo Starr in a black one was an undertaker; Paul McCartney barefoot and out of step with the others was the corpse; and George Harrison, dressed in denim working clothes was the gravedigger.

In any case, Abbey Road's album cover has become one of the most famous and imitated album covers in history. The album itself was named 14th greatest album by Rolling Stone magazine - a huge accolade for one of the greatest rock bands the world has ever seen.
Elvis
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Pink Floyd
Dark Side of the Rainbow
Owners: 84
What do you get when you combine Pink Floyd's 1973 album, "The Dark Side of the Moon," with the timeless movie classic, "The Wizard of Oz?"

According to some, you get a spooky, kooky synchronous effect, where the album seems to line up perfectly with the film. While many people say this is simply coincidence topped with a heavy helping of confirmation bias, the film-album combo has achieved cult status in some circles and a good deal of coverage and speculation in the traditional media. And despite the fact that all members of the band have denied writing the album to fit the film on numerous occasions, the phenomenon still proves to be popular among fans even today.

To hear the effect for yourself, pause the CD at the very beginning and press play when the black-and-white MGM lion roars for the third time.
While you can keep the CD on repeat and play the album through three times through the entire length of the movie, the effect is supposedly strongest during the first play through.
Grateful Dead
Touch of Grey
Owners: 50
"Touch of Grey," a 1987 single, is the Grateful Dead's biggest commercial hit.
The song went to the top 10 on Billboard's Hot 100 and number 1 on the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart, the only song by the band ever to do so on both charts.
Bolivia
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Alternative Dispute Resolution
Mediator
Owners: 120
The mediator, in the alternative dispute resolution process, is a neutral third party who assists two (or more) disputants negotiate an agreement, with concrete effects, on the matter of their dispute.
Welsh / Cymraeg
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Hindi
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Tango
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Senior Living
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Sci-Fi / Fantasy Films
Le Voyage dans la Lune
Owners: 261
Le Voyage dans la Lune is one of the earliest science-fiction films and was also reknown for its innovative animation. Filmed in 1902 by Georges Méliès, the 14 minute silent film was loosely based on two popular novels - From the Earth to the Moon (by Jules Verne) & The First Men in the Moon (by H. G. Wells). It told the story of a group of astronomers who agreed go to the moon, building a capsule and getting shot into space by a huge cannon, assisted by a bevy of beautiful women. While travelling they dream of celestial Folies-Bergères girls as the stars of the Big Dipper, Saturn and another moon. After awakening and seeking shelter, they are being captured by moon-men before escaping. They manage to return to earth and safety, where they are given a celebratory parade.

Méliès had intended to profit from its American release but Thomas A. Edison's technicans secretly made copies and distributed it nation-wide. The film is still in existence today in the public domain, with the one of the best copies being found in a French barn in 2002 and restored. It has inspired countless movie-makers and was the inspiration for the Smashing Pumpkin's music video Tonight Tonight in 1996.
Star Wars
Lightsaber
Owners: 250
The lightsaber is the traditional, elegant weapon of the Jedi Knights in the Star Wars universe. It is something akin to its namesake, the sabre; however, rather than a metal blade it is equipped with a blade formed from a tight loop of highly focused light, essentially a laser of immense power, able to penetrate and cut most solid materials with little or no resistance. They play a vital role in the Star Wars universe and feature in the movies, games and novels. They are often, less formally, referred to as "laser swords".
Lord of the Rings
The One Ring
Owners: 245
Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul,
ash nazg thrakatulûk agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.

(One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.)
Harry Potter Movies
Lightning Scar
Owners: 354
Harry Potter is a boy who gets recognized wherever he goes in the wizarding world. It's the lightning-shaped scar on his forehead, the one he got when You-Know-Who killed his parents. Extraordinary boy, that Harry Potter. The scar identifies him as the only person to survive an attack by the Dark Lord. Harry Potter is the Boy Who Lived.
Bird Watching
Twitcher
Owners: 278
Twitcher is a term used to describe a fanatical bird watcher who will literally drop everything and travel long distances to make a rare sighting. They are so keen that they carry around mobile phones or pagers in order to keep abreast of the latest sightings and they follow weather reports carefully in order to predict the possibility of drift migrations. The name twitcher comes from the frenzy that descends on some when they receive news of a rare bird and urban legend has it that it is derived from one of its first proponents in the early 1960's, who used to arrive on his motorbike in freezing weather, still "twitching" from the cold.

Twitching is probably most highly developed in the UK, The Netherlands and Ireland because their coastal locations add to the likelihood of rarities appearing there, and their small size makes it possible to reach any part of them (including most islands) in a few hours. Twitching is also highly popular in Finland and Sweden. In the United Kingdom there exists a particular twitchers' vocabulary which is surprisingly well developed and potentially confusing for the uninitiated. Similar vocabularies have developed in all countries where twitching is popular.
Train Spotting
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Papermaking
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Book Arts
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Bookbinding
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Intellectual Property Law
Napster
Owners: 255
In the late 1990's, the file-sharing program Napster was hugely popular among music lovers and college students everywhere. The peer-to-peer software allowed users to freely swap MP3 files of copyrighted music.

In December of 1999, several major music labels filed suit against Napster for violation of intellectual property and copyright laws, and individual artists such as Dr. Dre, Madonna, and most famously, Metallica, also sued the company for refusing to remove access to their music from the service. While these lawsuits were intended to curb the flow of illegal file sharing on the Napster network, the increased publicity actually caused a surge in use of the software.

In 2001, the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court issued an injunction against Napster, forcing the company to shut down and pay reparations of over $35 million to record labels and artists. The company attempted to resurface as a paid service in 2002, however they had difficulty obtaining licenses from many of the labels they had crossed in the past.

Napster's assets were later acquired by Roxio in a bankruptcy auction, and the service has since resumed in a revised capacity. The new Napster, however, is not widely used, and is virtually obsolete due to the growth of such popular services as iTunes.
Trademark
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Patent
USPTO
Owners: 188
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has its roots in the Patent Act of 1793 which established a patent board consisting of the Secretary of State, Attorney General, and Secretary of War. The Act was preceded by the Patent Act of 1790 signed into law by President Washington. Washington felt it was crucial for the country to quickly bring new inventions into the public domain. The patent offered inventors exclusive rights to sell their invention free from infringement, in exchange for disclosure of the invention to the public. Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton are credited for writing much of the Patent Acts, which went through many changes over the next several years. Ultimately, the Patent Act of 1836 refined the distribution of authorities within the Patent Office and also established the distribution of patents from the Patent Office to libraries in every state.

Today the USPTO is run by over 7000 employees and millions of pounds of paper are shuffled through the system every year. The Office processes about 340,000 patent applications every year, and the number is growing. Currently, the USPTO holds over 30 million patent documents in storage, which is why the office is converting (slowly but surely) over to a paperless, electronic system to track and handle more documents more efficiently.
Licensing
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Södermanland (County)
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Westerns (Films)
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Mystery Literature
The Moonstone
Owners: 181
Widely regarded as the precursor of modern mystery and suspense novels, The Moonstone, written by Wilkie Collins in 1868, involved several of what became classic elements in Mystery Literature: a country house, a large set of secret-bearing characters, an unexplained death, a mysterious stranger, and reconstruction of the characters' movements around the time of the death.
Origami
Akira Yoshizawa
Owners: 153
Yoshizawa is considered the father of modern popular origami crafts. While origami itself dates back many centuries, Yoshizawa organized the notation of folds used to create the art, and launched the system of such notations which is still in use today worldwide. Originally, Yoshizawa saw origami as a means to investigate geometry.
Dance
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Ballroom
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Erotic Literature
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Video Games
Ralph Baer
Owners: 479
In 1951, a 29-year old TV engineer named Ralph Baer worked at Loral, a TV company. His chief engineer, Sam Lackoff, asked him to, "Build the best television set in the world." Designing a TV set was an easy task for Ralph, and he wanted to add a new concept that his boss did not understand: playing games on the television set. The video game concept was born, but could not be implemented since Lackoff refused the idea. In September 1966, Ralph returned to his idea and started building the first video game prototypes. Ralph Baer is thus designated as the inventor of the video game.
Computer Games
Spacewar
Owners: 422
The first computer game is generally assumed to be the game Spacewar!, developed in 1962 at MIT (Stephen Russell a.o.). Spacewar originally ran on a PDP-1 computer the size of a large car. By today’s standards, the graphics are rather primitive, although less primitive than many games form the 1980’s. The game as such is not bad: Two players each control a spaceship circling a planet. The players can shoot each other, turn their ships, and accelerate. The goal is - naturally - to hit the other player before being hit yourself.
Card Games
United States Playing Card Company
Owners: 398
The United States Playing Card Company is the leader in the production and distribution of premier brands of playing cards, including BEE®, BICYCLE®, AVIATOR® and HOYLE® playing cards.

BICYCLE® has been the best selling playing card brand in the world for more than 100 years. The privately held company, based in Cincinnati, Ohio since its founding in 1867, manufactures, markets and distributes playing cards, children's card games, collectible tins, puzzles and card accessories.

BEE®, BICYCLE®, AVIATOR® and HOYLE® are registered trademarks of The United States Playing Card Company.
Board Games
Milton Bradley Company
Owners: 263
The Milton Bradley Company was established by Milton Bradley in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1860. Bradley designed a board game called The Checkered Game of Life. The object was to obtain a happy old age instead of financial ruin and a player's luck was decided by a numbered spinner. Players moved game pieces over sixty-four squares, which could be good, bad, or neutral according to their color.

It was taken over by Hasbro, Inc. in 1984. Now wholly owned by Hasbro, it is still retained as one of Hasbro's brands, similar to the manner in which Parker Brothers is one of Hasbro's brands. It is a board game and sometimes video game publisher. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Milton Bradley marketed a series of games in North America that were developed in the United Kingdom by Games Workshop that drew heavily from GW's Warhammer Fantasy universe, albeit without explicit reference to the Warhammer product line.
War Games
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RFID
Induced Power
Owners: 181
Passive RFID tags--the kind commonly used by major retail stores as anti-theft devices--are small and inexpensive because they carry no power source. Each tag consists of a coiled antenna attached to a tiny memory chip.

When a tag is brought near a tag reader--for a retail store, this would be on a post near the exit--the tag’s antenna picks up a minute current generated simply by being in the reader’s electrical field. The current flows from the antenna to the chip, thereby providing power for the chip to transmit its ID code out through the antenna to the reader.
Medieval History
Chronica Majora
Owners: 274
The Chronica Majora is a chronicle of world history written in the middle ages by a succession of monks at the Monastery of St. Albans in Hertfordshire, England. The most prolific and most famous of these monks was Matthew Paris. Even though the Chronica Majora had several authors through the years, Matthew Paris is the one most commonly associated with it. Writing in the mid-13th century, Matthew chronicled the Crusades, the gossip and goings on at the court of Henry III, international politics, interesting occurrences and weather anomalies. His prose was opinionated and fascinating and his facts were less than accurate. Still, his tirades make the Chronica Majora blog-worthy even today.
Graduate School
Thesis
Owners: 242
The bane of the graduate student’s existence, the thesis is the never-ending masterpiece, the brilliant examination of the esoteric, and the most fascinating interesting and most tedious document to be concocted by a human mind. It started out as such a good idea--how did it become such a millstone?
Impressionism
Light
Owners: 208
Light was of major interest to impressionist painters who flourished during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Impressionism began as a movement in France and is considered to consist of works from about to 1867 to 1886 by a group of artists who attempted to accurately and objectively record visual reality in terms of transient effects of light and color. Light was more readily observed in nature, so many impressionist paintings are landscapes painted in sunny climes where nature produces light of every intensity imaginable.
Ethics
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Legal Education
Law School
Owners: 128
While legal education never ends, the primary education on the law occurs in the law school. Law schools can be found in every state in the U.S.A. as well as in most foreign countries. While the method and length of education varies all law schools strive to provide their students with a basic understanding of the legal process and the application of law to facts.
Legal Practice
Bar Exam
Owners: 177
Before legally practicing the law in the several countries, an attorney must be admitted to the bar. Passing the bar exam is the final hurdle for a new lawyer and establishes her or him as someone with a broad understanding of legal concepts and the law.
Immigration Law
Green Card
Owners: 170
The hotly desired Green Card is the common name for the United States Permanent Resident Card, which is given to immigrants to the USA who do not have immediate citizenship options. The card allows them to live and work in the USA as long as they like. The card is issued by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, which is now a part of Department of Homeland Security. Obtaining the card is a three step process that involves a portioning out of the cards based on the country of origin and lottery selection. Prospective applicants must have a high school/secondary school education and/or several years employment in their chosen field. The initial application form was originally green, which lead to the term "Green Card." That form has been discontinued as applications must now be filed online. Card holders are required by law to carry the identification card at all times, and holders may eventually become naturalized citizens.
Military Law
UCMJ
Owners: 131
The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is the foundation of the law as it applies to members of the United States Armed Forces.
Property Law
Trover Damages
Owners: 136
In common-law practice, persons whose personal property has been wrongfully taken from them may sue for damages using the Trover lawsuit. In this type of lawsuit, Trover damages, when granted, amount to either the market value of the goods taken or, if sold by the thief at higher than market value, that amount. Other amounts can also be recovered as Trover damages, such as compensation for loss of use of the goods.
Tax Law
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Dressage
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Polo
Sagol Kangjei
Owners: 77
Polo is one of the most ancient sports known to man. Its origins are not easily documented, but much evidence points to the Indian state of Manipur, where it was known as Sagol Kangjei. While there is conflicting evidence of polo's existence in other locations and forms, modern polo appears to have originated in Manipur from Sagol Kangje
Rodeo
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Horse Racing
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Gymkhana (Equestrian)
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Elder Law
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Field Hockey
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Hockey
Hockey Stick
Owners: 80
Whether you play with a ball or puck . . .
Whether you wear ice skates, inline skates, or something else . . .
You can't play hockey without a hockey stick.
BMX
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Art Museums and Galleries
The Louvre
Owners: 258
Host to over six million visitors a year, the Louvre is known as much for its extensive art collection as its location in the heart of Paris. Open to the public since 1793, the collection at the Louvre contains key representative works in a wide range of artistic styles, from those popular at its inception to today’s contemporary works. Renovation and expansion projects maintain the diversity of the collection and keep the Louvre poised to embrace future artistic trends.
Circuses / Circus Arts
Circus Maximus
Owners: 100
Latin for 'largest arena', the Circus Maximus is the largest and oldest circus in Rome. It was the site of numerous festivals, Ludi Romani, races, and various other public events. Modern circus may not look a lot like what the Romans witnessed in the Circus Maximus, but they nontheless owe a great deal of inspiration to the venue for its magnitude, atmosphere, and lavish spectacles.
Fantasy Sports
The Draft
Owners: 271
The draft is the most common way of allocating players for rosters in fantasy sports leagues. The draft process can have different variants based on the league rules or sport being played. For example, the draft can be held in person or online. In most drafts only one participant can own each player. However, in some games more than one participant can own each player. Those games are more budget-based, meaning each participant has X amount of money to build his roster.

As fantasy sports have become more popular, a cottage industry has been created offering draft guides based on the statistical analysis of players from a fantasy standpoint, as opposed to looking at a team’s prospects for a given year. Draft kits, draft trackers, draft team managers and other draft tools are available to enhance the evaluation of information.

The draft also allows the players to begin the traditional teasing and chiding of fellow league players for selections deemed bad. Many leagues have a wide range of players and the players who keep up more with the status of players usually wait with baited breath for someone to take a player who has already been lost for the season.
Fantasy Baseball
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Fantasy Basketball
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Fantasy Football
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Recreational Vehicles
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Machine Embroidery
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Expat Life
The Lost Generation
Owners: 274
The lost generation refers to a group of American expatriate writers that lived in Paris in the 20's and 30's. The phrase was coined by Gertrude Stein, and popularized by Ernest Hemingway in 'The Sun Also Rises". Notable members of the group include Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, Waldo Peirce, Sylvia Beach, T.S. Eliot, and Gertrude Stein herself. These writers are often named as the cultural leaders of a generation disillusioned by the carnage of World War One, who were also living in a period of general prosperity and comfort, prior to the Great Depression.
UK Politics
Questions to the Prime Minister
Owners: 286
On Wednesdays when the British House of Commons is in session, the Prime Minister answers questions from Members of Parliament in a half-hour session officially known as Questions to the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister not only answers questions from MPs in his own party, but also questions from MPs from opposition parties. Questions to the Prime Minister often make for entertaining television, both inside and outside the United Kingdom, and they have been a regular part of programming for the American cable TV network C-SPAN for years.
South American Politics
Open Veins of Latin America
Owners: 104
When Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez presented his American counterpart Eduardo Galeano's book Las venas abiertas de América Latina (Open Veins of Latin America) many North Americans had never heard of the tract. The U.S President even mocked Chavez's gift, quipping "just because he handed me a copy of Peter Pan does not mean that I'm going to read it." But for South Americans it has been a mainstay of political discourse since being published in 1973. The book documenting the history of the continent's economic and political domination by outside powers, which required four years of research, earned its author the adulation of his countrymen, and exile from his native Uruguay.

Despite being banned at various times in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay Galeano's work became a defining political history of South America, both for the continent's inhabitants and outsiders.
Central American Politics
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Guatemala
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Costa Rica
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NFL
Vince Lombardi
Owners: 273
Born in 1913, Vince Lombardi is considered by many to be the quintessential NFL coach. After a career as an assistant coach at Fordham and the United States Military Academy at West Point, Lombardi moved to the NFL to be an assistant with the New York Giants, in charge of the team’s offense. Within 3 years the team had gone from a loser to a champion. By 1958 he felt ready to be a head coach in the NFL, and he took a position with the Green Bay Packers.

As coach of the Packers, Lombardi became famous for insisting on discipline, hard work, and dedication. He was also well known for his intense training camps. His promise to the players was that following his dictums would make the Packers a championship team, and 3 years later that promise became a reality. Over the next 9 years Lombardi led the Packers to six division titles, five NFL championships, and victories in the first two Super Bowls. In 1967 Lombardi retired as coach but stayed on as General Manger. But his taste for coaching remained and he accepted a position as head coach for the Washington Redskins in 1969, leading the team to it’s first winning record in 14 years. Unfortunately he was diagnosed in early 1970 with cancer, which proved terminal on September 3 of that same year.

In memory of his strong record and reputation for dedication to the game, the NFL named the trophy given to the winner of the Super Bowl “The Lombardi Trophy” in 1971, the same year he joined the Professional Football Hall of Fame, and in 2000 the NFL named him Coach of the Century.
NFL Europe
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Arena Football
Jim Foster
Owners: 99
Jim Foster founded the Arena Football League in 1987, a concept he may have derived from watching indoor soccer. A former NFL executive who also had connections to the failed USFL, Foster also ingeniously patented the arena football format, equipment, and rules, setting a high barrier to potential imitators. Despite many naysayers who proclaimed the immenent death of the AFL soon after it began, the league has endured to become a very popular and profitable sport.
American College Football
John W. Heisman
Owners: 329
John William Heisman was born in Cleveland, Ohio, October 23, 1869. He grew up on the oil fields of northwest Pennsylvania in the town of Titusville. He initially attended Brown University, transferring after two years to Penn to pursue a law degree. He played varsity football at Penn, although clearly outsized at 5'8" and 158 lbs. He played as a guard, center, tackle and sometimes as an end.

Although he obtained his law degree in the spring of 1892, he began his coaching career almost immediately upon graduation. His first coaching job was at Oberlin College, just outside of Cleveland, Ohio. In the second year of the football program, his team went undefeated with a 7-0 record.

His coaching career included stints at Auburn, Clemson, University of Pennsylvania, Washington and Jefferson and Rice, ultimately spanning more than three decades (1892-1927). His most impressive coaching reign was with Georgia Tech (1904-1919) where his Golden Tornado was a scoring powerhouse with an astounding 33 straight wins.

After the 1919 season, Heisman left Georgia Tech to return as head coach at his alma mater U. of Penn. After three years he bought out his contract. He spent one year at Washington & Jefferson and ended his career at Rice Institute. In 1927 at age 62, John W. Heisman retired from coaching the game he loved and developed.

John Heisman made American Football the sport that it is today. He considered the forward pass as his greatest contribution to the game. It was legalized in 1906, after three years of writing and pestering Walter Camp and the rules committee. Much of the official rule book used in those early years was adopted from Heisman's suggestions word for word.

In retirement, Heisman wrote articles and served in advisory positions. In 1930, he became the first Athletic Director of the Downtown Athletic Club of New York City. While in this position, he organized and founded the Touchdown Club of New York, and later the National Football Coaches Association.

He organized and set into motion the structure and voting system to determine the best collegiate football player in the country, although he initially opposed the idea of pointing out an individual over a team. The first Downtown Athletic Club Award was given in 1935 to Chicago's Jay Berwanger. Before the second award could be given out, Heisman succumbed to pneumonia. The officers of DAC unanimously voted to rename the award the Heisman Memorial Trophy.
Youth Football (American)
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American Gridiron Heroes
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Memorable Events
Celebration
Owners: 317
Birthdays, promotions, anniversaries, holiday parties - any event you can think of can be made more memorable by marking the occasion with a celebration.

Celebrations take many forms, from formal gatherings such as wedding receptions and Bar/Bat Mitzvahs, to informal ones such as dance parties and raves. Often the parties include decorations, from balloons to flowers, and food such as hors d'oeuvres and cake.

What party would be complete without liquid refreshments? Watch out for the after-party hangover, however. It can be a killer.
Weddings
The Bride
Owners: 47
They say that a little girl dreams of her wedding her whole life. She plans just how it will look, the colors, who will be in the wedding party, and where it will take place. A wedding is the bride's day. So guys just set back and enjoy the ride, you're not in control . . . even when your asked for your advice. It's all about the bride.
Bar / Bat Mitzvah
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Holidays
Greeting Card
Owners: 38
Name the holiday and there is probably a greeting card you can send to mark the occasion. Be they serious, funny, play music, large or small with a greeting card you can let anyone almost anywhere know that you're thinking of them.
Hentai / Adult Animation
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Graduation
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Living History
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Renaissance Fairs
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SCA
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Blood-Related Conditions
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Historic Costume
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Bonsai
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Design Arts
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Art Instruction / Lessons
Bob Ross
Owners: 162
Bob Ross rose to national prominence in the United States via his PBS television program, The Joy of Painting, where he taught viewers how to paint various landscapes. His trademarks were a bushy afro, a quiet voice and describing details in his work using phrases like "happy little trees". Typically Ross would walk the viewer through one painting per episode, which would be completed by the end of the program. While many didn't find the art very impressive, he did garner a large following that allowed him to sell various painting kits, videos and books. Ross died in 1995, but his program continues to air in various countries, and his bushy-haired visage remains recognizable to fans and detractors.
Transport and Transportation
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Water Transport
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Watercraft
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Aircraft
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Air Transport
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Road and Highway Transport
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Rail Transport
Standard Time Zones
Owners: 198
Until the adoption of standard time zones, the time of day was strictly was a local matter, with each city and town setting clocks as it saw fit. However, with the advent of the steam engine bringing a fast and routine means of transport between distant places came a need to synchronize schedules. Between 1840 and 1847, most of the railways in Britain had adopted a single time zone, although some other business sectors clung to local time for several decades, with the legal industry being one of the last major ones to hop on board.

The invention of international standard time zones is credited to Canadian railway planner and engineer Sir Sanford Fleming. In 1878, Fleming, a notable figure in the creation of Canada’s transcontinental rail line, developed the system of dividing the world’s geography into 15 degree increments of longitude, creating 24 zones each differing by one hour. This system was adopted by US railways in 1883 and formalized at an international conference in 1884, establishing the zero-degree meridian of longitude as the one passing through Greenwich, England. Standard time zones became mandatory in the US in 1918.

The adoption of standard time zones has not divided the world into 24 uniform segments, though. Instead, many countries use variations of Fleming’s time zones. China, for example, uses a single time zone even though it spans what should be five zones by Fleming’s reckoning. Other areas, such as Newfoundland and Labrador, use time zones that differ from their neighbours by half-hour increments.
Construction Industry
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Sports Memorabilia
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Transgender
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Porto (city)
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Korean
Sejong the Great
Owners: 84
Sejong, a Korean King, developed the Hangul, the Korean alphabet. Before the development of Hangul in 1446 only the elite, educated in Chinese, were literate. Sejong replaced the complex and cumbersome Chinese picture alphabet, over the objections of the nobility, with a 28 letter phonetic alphabet that could be learned easily in a few days. The creation of Hangul earned Sejong the distinction of one of only two Korean Kings to be dubbed the great and it helped to unify Koreans. It remained such a powerful source of national identity centuries after its creation that the Japanese felt obliged to ban the use of Hangul during their occupation of the peninsula.
Filipino
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Esperanto
Unua Libro
Owners: 142
Unua Libro (meaning First Book) was the first published document to lay out the case for Esperanto. Written by L.L. Zamenhof, the booklet included numerous short texts, including poetry, Bible verses, and grammar rules. Zamenhof's attempt at creating a universal language and grammar structure was naturally met with criticism and derision, but nontheless has endured over a century, and today, Unua Libro is considered the founding document in Esperanto.
Mexico City
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Houston (TX)
Johnson Space Center
Owners: 408
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is home of NASA's Mission Control Center, headquarters for all American manned spaceflights since Gemini 5. JSC was originally established as "Manned Spacecraft Center" in 1961 and subsequently renamed the "Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center" in 1973, honoring the late president Lyndon B. Johnson, a native son of Texas.

The first word ever spoken from a celestial body not the Earth was, 'Houston'. As in "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed."
Oklahoma City (OK)
The Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum
Owners: 129
The Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum was created to honor those who were killed, those who survived and those whose lives were changed forever by the April 19, 1995, bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. The Outdoor Symbolic Memorial was dedicated in 2000 on the fifth anniversary of the attack. The Memorial Museum was dedicated in 2001.

The outdoor memorial is flanked by two gates known as the “Gates of Time.” The 9:01 gate is a symbolic reference that represents the last moment of innocence for our nation in reference to domestic terrorism and of those affected by the bombing. The 9:03 gate is a symbolic reference that represents the first moment into the aftermath and hope for the future. 9:02, the time of the explosion, is represented between the gates.
Tulsa (OK)
Golden Driller
Owners: 320
Golden Driller
21st Street and Pittsburg Avenue

Built in 1966 for the International Petroleum Exposition, this 76-foot-tall symbol of an oilfield worker is one of the world’s largest free-standing statues and represents a major part of Tulsa’s history. More than two and one-half miles of rods and mesh are inside the Driller.

Funded by a 1966 $3.5 million bond issue, the 446,400 square foot Exposition Center was completed and became home to the International Petroleum Exposition, until the "oil bust" in 1980. The Golden Driller was added as a symbol of the IPE in 1966. Weighing 43,500 pounds and standing 76 feet tall, the Golden Driller has become the symbol of Expo Square.
Saudi Arabia
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Sri Lanka
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Somalia
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Johor Bahru
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Kuala Lumpur
Dataran Merdeka
Owners: 248
The Dataran Merdeka (or Independence Square) is located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Dataran Merdeka was formerly known as the Selangor Club Padang, and was originally the cricket green of the Selangor Club (now Royal Selangor Club). It was here, in front of the Sultan Abdul Samad Building with its Moorish architecture and clock-tower, that the Union Jack was lowered and the Malayan flag hoisted for the first time at midnight on August 31, 1957. A 100-meter flagpole, one of the tallest in the world, marks that spot with a flat, round black marble plaque.

Hari Merdeka or Independence Day is celebrated every year with a parade in which many Malaysian organizations participate.
Basel
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Moscow
Red Square
Owners: 211
That familiar red-bricked expanse in the heart of Moscow is located just outside the Kremlin, along its Eastern wall. Think of Red Square, and you'll undoubtedly recall pictures of those May Day parades, from the years when the Soviet Military displayed its might, respectfully passing before the Soviet leadership atop Lenin's tomb. But Red Square's history stretches back way before the Communist Soviet Union, back to the days of Czarist Russia. In the late 15th Century, people came to this square to purchase food, livestock, or other wares. By the late 16th Century, it was renamed Trinity Square, and served as the main entrance to the Kremlin. It wasn't until 1650 that it received the name Krasnaya Ploschad, 'krasnaya' meaning both beautiful and red. Added to UNESCO's List of World Heritage Sites in 1991, the Red Square of today is more than 500,000 square feet of open land - it's a place where people gather to celebrate official state events, to be photographed in front of favorite sites or to drink in the historic splendour, and a place often considered the central square of Moscow and of all Russia.
Tamil
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Nairobi
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Baltimore (MD)
The Poe Toaster
Owners: 129
The Poe Toaster is a mysterious figure who appears annually on January 19th at Edgar Allen Poe's grave, located in the Westminster Hall and Burying Ground in Baltimore. Starting in 1949, a black-clad figure with a silver-tipped cane appears on Poe’s birthday and toasts the grave with cognac. He then disappears, leaving behind three red roses and the half-filled bottle. The Toaster's identity has never been revealed and his visage is always concealed. Numerous people and media now turn out every year to observe the event.
Toronto
CN Tower
Owners: 347
As the world's largest Freestanding Structure On Land, the CN Tower graces the skyline of the city of Toronto at a height of 1,815.39 feet. It was built in 1976 as a giant antenna and has a number of accessible by stair or elevator observation decks. From the observation deck on a clear day you can see Niagara Falls. In 1995, the CN Tower was declared one of the modern Seven Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. It also belongs to the World Federation of Great Towers. The following year, the Guinness Book of World Records officially changed the CN Tower's classification to "World's Tallest Building and Free-Standing Structure".
Charlotte (NC)
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Breakdance
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Surfing
Duke Kahanamoku
Owners: 39
Duke Kahanamoku was born at the end of the 19th century in Honolulu, Hawaii. Growing up two of his favorite activities were swimming and surfing. Early in the twentieth century he participated in the Olympics where over the course of his career he won five medals, three gold and two silver. While still competing in the Olympics as well as after he traveled around the world exhibiting his swimming skills. During these exhibitions he also began to popularize the sport of surfing which until then had only been known in Hawaii. Duke spent a number of years of his life living in Southern California where he continued to publicize surfing while at the same time working in the movie industry in Hollywood as background and character actor. Following his time in California he spent the next thirty years as the sheriff of Honolulu, Hawaii.
Electronic Music
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Native American Cultures
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Kenya
Harambee
Owners: 206
Harambee was a Kenyan slogan which first appeared immediately following the nation's independence from British governance in 1963. The cry was used to emphasize the need for workers to put aside individual goals and work together to build a strong independent Kenya. To some extent, Harambee has become a way of life for many Kenyans, reflecting a focus on communal needs and projects, and an emphasis on helping others.
Library and Information Science
AACR2
Owners: 287
AACR2 stands for the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition. It is published jointly by the American Library Association, the Canadian Library Association, and the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals. AACR2 is designed for use in the construction of catalogs and other lists in general libraries of all sizes. The rules cover the description of, and the provision of access points for, all library materials commonly collected at the present time. The first edition of AACR was published in 1967. The second edition of 1978 unified the two sets of rules (Canadian and American) and brought them in line with the International Standard Bibliographic Description.
Academic Libraries
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Public Libraries
Public Lending Right
Owners: 234
The Public Lending Right (PLR) scheme compensates authors for loss in sales through their books being available in public libraries. First set up in Denmark in 1941, the idea spread slowly around the world. There are now nineteen nations (including Canada, Israel, Australia, New Zealand and several European countries) with countries such as the USA debating its implementation. The amount that an author actually receives is generally far smaller than royalties they would received upon purchase of their works. PLR programs vary from country to country. Differences include what books and authors can be included, the amount of and basis for payments and its links with copyright legislation.
Public Services Librarians
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Special Libraries
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Salsa
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School Library Media Centers
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Desperate Housewives
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Kosher Cooking
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Barbeque Cooking
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Spiritual Music
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Political Memorabilia
Campaign Button
Owners: 59
The most common form of political memorabilia is the campaign button. Worn on the lapel the campaign button is an immediate sign of who the wearer supports (or sometime opposes) in a political campaign. Campaign buttons have been made for candidates and causes dating back to at least the Presidency of George Washington. The use of campaign buttons has begun to diminish as campaigns have switched to stickers which are cheaper to produce and transport.
Computer Security
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Music Criticism
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Recreation
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Geocaching
Muggle
Owners: 141
Muggle is a word used in the Harry Potter books to refer to a human who does not have magical abilities. In geocaching, a Muggle refers to a person not familiar with geocaching or people around a cache location. Geocachers usually use stealth when looking for a cache, so they won't draw attention of Muggles. If a geocache has been vandalized or stolen, it is said to have been "muggled".
Walking
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Track and Field
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Paintball
Nelson Paint Company
Owners: 107
The very first paintball guns (markers) and paintballs were produced and sold by the Nelson Paint Company, originally used by forestry services to mark trees, as well as by cattle ranchers to mark their herds. When Bob Gurnsey, and his friend Charles Gaines began developing the ideas on how to safely replicate the thrill of hunt and survival, another friend, George Butler, showed them the Nelson 007 gun, manufactured by the Nelson Paint Company. To this day, Nelson continues to produce a wide range of Paintball products.
Bowling
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Backpacking
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Gymnastics
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Hunting
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Ambient and Space Music
Synthesizer
Owners: 174
Space music is a genre of music that takes you out to the stars and planets on an aural journey. Earth-based instruments and classical music connote Earth-based places; a synthesizer in the hands of a competent composer can emit other-worldly music that is both beautiful and evocative.
Weather
Weather Cock
Owners: 264
The weather cock, a wind vane cast in the shape of a cockerel, is one of the most basic instruments for weather observation and prediction. His behavior is the function of ingenious design: perfectly balanced weight on either side of his post permits him to turn freely, while larger surface area for his tail than for his head catches the wind. Perched on the highest rooftop away from all interference, he points his beak into the wind to watch whether the approaching skies be stormy or fair.
Geology
James Hutton
Owners: 165
James Hutton (1726-1797) was a Scottish physician who is considered by many to be the father of modern geology. With the publication of his book "Theory of the Earth" in 1795, he put forth a principle that is the pillar of geologic study to this very day. His "Principle of Uniformitarianism" states that, "...physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past." Which means that the forces of nature which shaped and created our planet in the past, continue to do so today, and in the exact same manner. So, by studying the present, we can understand the past. This is commonly stated as, "The present is the key to the past."

The acceptance of this theory meant that the Earth was not a few thousand years old as many had previously thought, but was in fact several billion years old. This shook the very foundation of many religious beliefs and principles of the day, but gave way to views of the Earth and her geologic processes as none had thought of them before.
Seismology
The Richter Scale
Owners: 41
Invented by Charles F. Richter in 1934, the "Richter Scale" is the standard today by which most all earthquakes are measured. The Richter magnitudes are based on a logarithmic scale (base 10). What this means is that for each whole number you go up on the Richter scale, the amplitude of the ground motion recorded by a seismograph goes up ten times. Using this scale, a magnitude 5 earthquake would result in ten times the level of ground shaking as a magnitude 4 earthquake (and 32 times as much energy would be released).
Target Sports
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Shooting
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Net Sports
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Roller Skating / Inline Skating
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Ice Skating
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Post Structuralism
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Music Audioblogs
MP3 Files
Owners: 139
The .mp3 file format is currently the most prevalent form of electronically encoded music and spoken word audio files. Development for the format began in the 80's, but a commercially available release of the format didn't come out until 1995. It was officially released one year earlier, but with a different extension type. The .mp3 format uses an algorithm that significantly reduces the file size of the original while still providing for accurate playback.

The MP3 format became fairly widely used prior to the debut of the online music stores, however, the format became even more popular after the likes of Napster and general torrent sites became prevalent. The RIAA has had heartburn with the .mp3 format for quite some time over unsubstantiated claims that the format significantly contributed to "piracy". They even took it to the extreme by pressing charges against Napster which eventually succumbed to the pressure and folded, albeit coming back later in an alternate form. At this time mp3 encoded music is widely available for purchase on many online sites, with Amazon.com and iTunes being just two of the largest. As well all major software and hardware audio players being compatible with the format as well.
Fly Fishing
A River Runs Through It
Owners: 68
A semi-autobiographical collection of stories by writer Norm MacLean (1902-1990), the title novella is set in 1937, with flashbacks to earlier eras in his life, focusing on a fateful period of fishing Norman engaged in with his troubled brother Paul in an effort to help him get his life back on track. MacLean considered fly fishing to be a near-sacramental religious experience through which a person could learn lessons about life and living, and achieve zen-like states of calmness and sanity, the perfect antedote for someone with problems to deal with.

This story was made into a motion picture in 1992 by Robert Redford, starring Brad Pitt, Craig Sheffer and Tom Skerritt as their presbyterian minister father. The film won an Oscar for cinematography.

It is credited with fueling a great expansion in the popularity of fly fishing in the 1990's, helping what was previously considered a dying sport to gain significant cultural prominence. The film was set in the Missoula, Montana area, however filming was done in Boseman and Great Falls, particularly on the Yellowstone, Gallatin, and Boulder Rivers.
Saltwater Fishing
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Ice Fishing
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Freshwater Fishing
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Fishing - Tackle and Gear
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Sumo
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Ultimate Frisbee
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Disc Golf
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Golf Equipment
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Parachuting / Skydiving
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Paragliding
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NBA
Larry O'Brien Trophy
Owners: 326
The Larry O'Brien Championship trophy is considered the most coveted honor a team can win in the NBA. It is awarded to the team that can endure the entire season, beating the best of the best. The two foot tall trophy is made of 16 lbs of sterling silver and vermeil, with a 24 karat gold overlay. It is handcrafted each year by Tiffany & Co. to resemble a regulation size basketball sitting on the rim of the hoop.

The trophy received its name in 1984 in honor of Commissioner Larry O'Brien who served the league from 1975-1984. His achievements included the merger of the ABA with the NBA, negotiating and signing a lucrative television contract with CBS, arranging a historic collective bargaining agreement with the NBA Players Association and introducing an innovative anti-drug program in 1983.

The Larry O'Brien Trophy replaced the original trophy that was created in 1977, The Walter A. Brown Trophy, which was named after the pioneering owner of the Boston Celtics.
WNBA
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College Basketball
March Madness
Owners: 274
Beginning with conference tournaments and ending with 3 frantic weeks in the NCAA Tournament, there is no greater symbol of the excitement and fierce competitiveness in college basketball than March Madness. Regardless of gender, teams turn up the effort to reach a Final Four, the climax of the end-of-season tournaments. There are physical games, buzzer-beating shots, unbelievable comebacks, cindarella upsets, emotional leaders, and unexpected heroes sprinkled throughout.

March Madness is also a time for college basketball fanatics who honor a strong tradition of filling out tournament brackets with predictions. Hundreds of thousands of office pools, with millions of participants, are organized on Selection Sunday (for men) and Selection Monday (for women). When tournament teams are announced, fans fill out their brackets with predictions and watch the tournament feverently in hopes of seeing their picks play out. Countless thousands of work hours are consumed each year during the tournaments as workers call in sick and take time out to watch or listen to games.
Youth Basketball
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Hardwood Heroes
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Birds
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Reptiles
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Snakes
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Amusing Animals
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Sheep
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BlogShares
New DB Box
Owners: 176
In 2006, the game of BlogShares suffered from an aging database box with too little RAM and dwindling free hard disk space. New hardware was badly in need, and the BOD/Admin launched the DB Fund Drive. A year later, after extremely generous donations from a wide swath of game players and fans, the $6000 goal was hit, and new DB box was ordered soon thereafter.

After tragedy struck lead programmer and sysadmin SubWolf in July 2007, plans for installing the new box were put on hold indefinitely. Finally, in November, the new box was installed and within two days was serving all game data to the world. With 8GB of RAM, RAID drives, Dozens of Gigs of free space, and all the latest kernel updates, the box performed amazing from the first day, and continues to quickly grind massive queries that once bogged down the old db, opening up new development opportunities like never before.

While the box might be the most tangible example of to praise, the people who helped fund and organize the DB have contributed more cycles than this box's CPU ever can. The future of BlogShares is forever changed by the success of the DB Fund and its participants, and once again, the most generous player community on the net has come through when the game needed it most.
Music Theory
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Eminem
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Hempware
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Thrift Stores
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Yard Sales
One Man's Trash
Owners: 10
One Man's Trash is Another Man's Treasure. Yard Sales, Garage Sales, Tag Sales, whatever you call them what one man wants to discard is just what you have been looking for.
Auctions
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Coupons, Rebates, and Discounts
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Prescription Drugs
Rx
Owners: 106
Rx or R/x is an oft-seen abbreviation for a prescription. Its origins are not definitive. The most common attribution is that it derives from the Latin word recipere (or recipe) meaning to take. Others believe it derives from the astrological sign for Jupiter, which was put on prescriptions to invoke his blessing for a fast recovery. A third explanation is that it is part of the symbol of the Eye of Horus, which was used as a way of ensuring good health.
Food Photoblogs
Food Porn
Owners: 315
Rife with connotation, food porn is, among other things, the guilty pleasure of the food photoblogger. Arranging the food in a manner designed to tantalize the reader then carefully photographing it to capture the essence of its color and texture, the food photoblogger seeks to evoke a mouthwatering response as the reader imagines the taste, texture and aroma of the dish.

Even though the model is sometimes treated like a piece of meat, the key to good food porn is sensuality, not sexuality or exploitation.
Sexual Accessories
Ben Wa Balls
Owners: 113
Ben Wa balls (or Geisha balls) are small hollow metal ball on a string which often contain a small free rolling weight. The balls are inserted into the vagina or anus and the movement of the balls (and the inner weight) provides sexual pleasure for many people. They have the benefit of not being seen during use which also is an aspect for even higher stimulation and pleasure.
Baptist
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Presbyterian
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Anglican
Archbishop of Canterbury
Owners: 226
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the head of the Anglican Church the world over, a role which is officially known as Leader of the Anglican Communion. In addition, the Archbishop of Canterbury fulfills three further roles, namely: Diocesan Bishop of Canterbury, Metropolitan for the Southern Province of the Church of England, and Primate of all England. He is one of the highest ranking individuals in the United Kingdom, only outranked by the members of the Royal Family. The first Archbishop of Canterbury was Saint Augustine, who was dispatched to Kent in 597 by Pope Gregory the Great. As a result, the Archbishop of Canterbury is said to occupy the Seat of St. Augustine. Since Henry VIII broke with Papal authority in the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury have been chosen by the British (previously English) monarchs, though nowadays the choice is made in the name of the Sovereign by the British Prime Minister. The Right Honourable and Most Reverend Dr. Rowan Williams, appointed in February 2003, is the 104th Archbishop of Canterbury.
Episcopalian
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Pentecostal
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Methodist
John Wesley
Owners: 298
John Wesley was an 18th century theologian and preacher, and the founder of the Methodist denomination of Protestant Christianity. As a theologian, he was a reluctant schismatic, preferring to alter the doctrinal focus of the Anglican Church than to form a new denomination. His focus on rigorous method was in keeping with contemporary psychological theory, in that it aimed at instilling an inward peace by maintaining an outward regimentation of time and practice.
Lutheran
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Zen
Koan
Owners: 255
A koan is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Zen Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are outside the realms of rational understanding, yet accessible to intuition. Koans are often used by Zen practitioners as objects of meditation to induce an experience of enlightenment or realisation, and by Zen teachers as testing questions for students claiming enlightenment. Arguably the most famous koan is, "Two hands clap and there is a sound; what is the sound of one hand?" (oral tradition, attributed to Hakuin Ekaku (1686-1769), considered a reviver of the koan tradition in Japan).

Koans typically include the words of, or dialog with, an awakened or enlightened person, generally one authorized to teach in a lineage that regards Bodhidharma as its ancestor. Informally, the term koan sometimes refers to any experience that accompanies awakening or spiritual insight.

English-speaking non-Zen practitioners sometimes use koan to refer to an unanswerable question or a meaningless statement. However, in Zen practice, a koan is not meaningless, and teachers often do expect students to present an appropriate and timely response when asked about a koan. Even so, a koan is not a riddle or a puzzle and appropriate responses to a koan vary according to circumstances: there is no single correct answer.
Music Technology
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Political Campaigns
The Promise
Owners: 96
There are many characteristics of a political campaign: plan of Government, strategies, Placards, Tours, and Speeches to name a few. But one thing all political campaigns have in common is, the promise. The candidate does not get tired of promising here, there and everywhere. Equally he promises to the worker and to the businessman, it is all the same, so as to obtain his votes.
Law Enforcement
Police Cruiser
Owners: 245
A police car, police cruiser, squad car, radio car or patrol car is a vehicle used by police forces around the world to patrol, temporarily detain and transport individual criminal suspects. Use of the police car has largely replaced the tradition of officers or constables "walking a beat" in most jurisdictions. Police cars are usually normal cars which are upgraded with a police package provided by the manufacturer. The police package often modifies the car for higher durability, speed and capability for high mileage driving and to accommodate the use of the electronic equipment used by police officers on patrol (laptop database, strobe lights/siren, radio etc.). This is usually accomplished by heavy duty suspensions, brakes, tires, transmission and cooling systems, and also sometimes includes slight modifications to the car's stock engine. Additional special equipment may include modified electrical wiring, inoperable rear door locks and rear windows, and other heavier-duty components.

Police cars may either be marked or unmarked, to catch suspects unaware. Marked cars have reflective decals and the word "police" on them to clearly mark them as police cars. Most, but not all, marked vehicles have a light bar on top with red and/or blue light beacons and sirens. Unmarked cars are devoid of any visible markings or equipment which can identify it as a police vehicle, making it appear identical to a regular car of the same model. The siren is hidden and the police lights are placed behind either the windshield or grill and back window.
Fire Fighting
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Nursing
Nursing Process
Owners: 316
The nursing process is a series of scientific steps that assist the nurse in using theoretical knowledge to diagnose strengths and nursing care needs of persons and to implement therapeutic actions for the purpose of attaining, maintaining, and promoting optimal biopsychosocial functioning.

The nursing process proceeds logically through this series of scientific steps or phases from data collection to evaluation of care. Most nurse scholars suggest that five distinct phases – assessment, diagnosing, planning, implementing, and evaluating – compose the nursing process. (Lindberg et al 1990, 208)
Hiking
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Cynicism
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Epicureanism
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Insects and Arachnids
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Blogosphere
Justin Hall
Owners: 542
Justin Hall, an actor and former video game designer is widely regarded as one of the earliest bloggers. While attending Swarthmore College in 1994 Justin began a personal webpage titled “Justin's Links from the Underground”, the site originally was an Internet guide, but he started to transform in to more of a personal diary over time. His near daily posts discussed intimate details of his life, and the standard blog was born. While Justin stopped updating the blog in 2005, his position as a blogging pioneer had already been established.
Blog News and Reviews
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Blog Guides
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Movable Type
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WordPress
Matthew "PhotoMatt" Mullenweg
Owners: 335
Matt Mullenweg used the liberties of the GPL to fork the Cafelog/b2 codebase from its usable but unpolished state through to a polished, mature product. Matt's affinity for jazz music, undoubtedly bolstered by his tenure at the High School for the Visual and Performing Arts in Houston, Texas, has influenced most of the codebase names for WordPress releases, with Mullenweg typically selecting a jazz great to honor with each milestone. Mullenweg left post-secondary school in Houston and moved to Houston, working for C|Net prior to forming Automattic, the corporate entity that powers WordPress.com.
Zoology
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Ecology
Biomes
Owners: 259
In the study of Ecology a meta view of the world’s systems is best found by examining a Biome. Biomes are area’s of the earth that have a shared set of descriptive characteristics including not only the geography but also the predominant vegetation and animal life found in those environments. Scientists typically agree that the Earth has seven distinct Biomes; desert, grassland, taiga, temperate forest, ocean, tundra and rain forest. By dividing the world into biomes we are better able to see the impact that we have on the world and the interactive combinations of biome transfer of impacts.

Biome communities have changed across the globe as temperature fluctuations, drought, and other natural cyclical phenomena have altered the Earth’s natural conditions. Ecologists are very concerned with the conservation and preservation of our natural biomes, especially, man's effect on the earth in regards to global warming and pollution.
Geography
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Cartography / Maps
Mercator Projection
Owners: 153
Representing a spherical (or if we're being pedantic, an oblate spheroid) Earth on a flat map is no easy task, yet in 1569 map-maker Gerardus Mercator accomplished just that, and his Mercator Projection is still in nautical use today.

Born Gheert Cremer, he followed fashion in university and adopted the Latinized version of his name, Gerardus Mercator. He was primarily a mathemetician and engraver, and taught at university. Mercator also developed a method for mass production of globes, and adopted the word atlas to describe a collection of maps, encouraging Abraham Ortelius to compile the first modern world atlas.

In the process of studying mathematics and making maps and globes, Mercator came to realize that the error in navigation charts of the day was the assumption that following a compass course would mean travelling in a straight line. Instead, Mercator saw, you would be following a rhumb line, or curve. He took that idea and developed the nautical chart in 1564 while working as court cosmographer to Wilhelm, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Mercator said of his nautical chart that it “... spread on a plane the surface of a sphere in such a way that the positions of all places shall correspond on all sides with each other both in so far as true direction and distance are concerned and as concerns true longitudes and latitudes.”

While a Mercator Projection does distort size, it allows for lines of true course, which made it the standard for nautical navigation until more modern techniques were developed. Interestingly, Mercator’s mathematics and maps were ahead of the available tools for navigators; it took nearly two centuries to develop a marine chronometer and understand the spatial distribution of magnetic declination, in order to fully take advantage of Mercator’s maps.

The Mercator Projection is the most famous 2-D representation of the globe and will continue to serve as a navigational tool as well as an historic accomplishment.
Free-Market Economics
The Invisible Hand
Owners: 102
The "invisible hand" was a term coined by Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith. Although first mentioned in his work "The Theory of Moral Sentiments", it is more well known in his later work, "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations".

In the Wealth of Nations, Smith argued that although consumers and producers make decisions based on their own personal gain, the end result is often that which is most advantageous to society, as if these people were led by an "invisible hand" to produce the most desirable outcome.

This term is still used by many economists today to describe free-market stabilization forces.
Conspiracy Theories
Tin Foil Hat
Owners: 202
Homemade tin-foil hats, usually made out of aluminum foil, are the headgear of choice among conspiracy theorists for their wide-ranging protective abilities, from preventing paranormal beings getting into their heads to deflecting mind control signals from secret government projects. While it has been shown that the shiny caps can partially block frequencies above 20 kHz, its effectiveness is greatly reduced by the fact that it is not a complete enclosure, i.e. waves that hit the inside of the cap from below the wearer would actually be reflected back towards the wearer's brain. In addition, a recent MIT study by some enterprising graduate students determined that tin-foil hats could either amplify or attenuate incoming radiation depending on frequency.

The term "putting on your tin-foil hat" has now become commonly used as a euphemism for being paranoid. One memorable scene in M. Night Shyamalan's movie "Signs," about an alien invasion on Earth, amusingly featured the protagonist's family all wearing tin-foil hats to protect themselves from alien signals.
Medical Marijuana
Proposition 215
Owners: 217
Prop 215, also known as the Compassionate Use Act of 1996, was the first major public referendum which decided in favor of personal medical marijuana legality. While this law became statute in California, it remains at odds with federal terms which provide for no exceptions to federal drug laws, even for medical marijuana. Many other states have taken up this issue, with several states passing more compassionate use and possession laws. Prop 215 provided an immediate legal legitimacy to proponents of medical marijuana, and has provided the backbone for many legalization arguments over the years.
Instrumental Music
Link Wray
Owners: 125
Link Wray was an American guitarist best known today for his instrumental guitar-based rock instrumentals. He was born Frederick Lincoln Wray, Jr. Due to the loss of a lung, Wray focused on writing and playing instrumental music. His band Link Wray and His Ray Men (also billed as the Raymen and the Wraymen), released their first hit, "Rumble," a slow 12-bar blues instrumental with a raw sound. Although it was banned by many radio stations for being too suggestive and animalistic despite it being purely instrumental, "Rumble" made the national charts. Other hits included "Raw-Hide" and "Ace of Spades." Wray is credited with having invented the power chord, which is associated with heavy metal, hard rock, and punk rock. Wray died in 2005.
Progressive Rock
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Christian Rock / Rap / Pop
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Vintage Items
Thrift Store
Owners: 166
The thrift store is THE place to go to find bargains on vintage items of all kinds, from sewing machines to lace tables cloths to clothing. All sorts of people donate their unwanted stuff to places like the Salvation Army or Goodwill. Not every thrift store will yield treasures, though, as a Goodwill store in the poor part of town will not have the same quality of items as one in the more well-off neighborhoods. Still, persistent digging can uncover exciting finds, and though you may find exactly what you want on eBay, the hunt is more fun at the thrift store.
Camping
None!

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Boating
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Nature and Outdoors
None!

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Poker
Royal Flush
Owners: 434
A Royal Flush is a poker hand containing an ace, king, queen, jack, and a 10 of the same suit (for example A♠ K♠ Q♠ J♠ 10♠). Because it is both a straight (having five cards in sequential rank) and a flush (having five cards of the same suit), it is also known as an ace-high straight flush or Super Flush.

A Royal Flush is not actually a separate type of hand in poker. It is ranked as a straight flush, but since it has an ace as the highest card, it is the highest ranking straight flush, and therefore the highest ranking hand in poker (sans wild cards).

The probability that a random five card hand is a Royal Flush is 1 in 649,740.
Chess
Gambit
Owners: 269
A gambit is a chess opening tactic involving an offer by one player to sacrifice a pawn or a minor piece, whether or not the opponent accepts the offer and captures the sacrificed material. Derived from the Italian gambetto, a wrestling term for tripping up the opponent by the heel, in chess the word is also used for specific named openings where a gambit stratagem is played. In contrast with sham sacrifices such as a supposed queen sac leading to an immediate checkmate, a gambit gives up tangible material to gain an intangible advantage, such as an open attacking line or the initiative in timing.

Almost as old as chess itself are the venerable King's Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.f4) and the most frequently played Queen's Gambit (1.d4 d5 2.c4), technically not even a gambit since white can always win the pawn back. Although usually played by white, black can also offer a gambit, as in the Winawer Counter-Gambit (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nc3 e5) or in From's Gambit (1.f4 e5). Gambits involving sacrifice of a minor piece include the Muzio Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.0-0) and the Cochrane Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nxf7). Rare curiosities include the Elephant Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d5) and the dubious Halloween Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 Nf6 4.Nxe5?! Nxe5 5.d4).

As use of the word has spread beyond the edges of the chessboard, gambits have shed the sense of sacrifice, indicating any devious ploy or merely a conversational opener meant to give an advantage to the speaker. At BlogShares, use the Gambit artefact to convert material possessions into a winning edge in your game.
Scrabble
CAZIQUES
Owners: 134
During a Scrabble match in 1982, held in Manchester, UK, Dr. Saladin Karl Khoshnaw played CAZIQUES as a bingo (using all seven letters in a player's rack in one word) through an existing letter and across two triple-word scores to produce the single highest-scoring play ever recorded, 392 points. Caziques are native chiefs of West Indian aborigines.
God Games
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Agricultural Science / Farming
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Planetariums
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Organic Fuels
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Bioinformatics
BLAST
Owners: 179
Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, or BLAST, is an algorithm for comparing biological sequences, such as the amino acid sequences of different proteins or the DNA sequences. Given a library or database of sequences, a BLAST search enables a researcher to look for sequences that resemble a given sequence of interest. For example, following the discovery of a previously unknown gene in the mouse, a scientist typically will perform a BLAST search of the human genome to see if human beings carry a similar gene; BLAST will identify sequences in the human genome that resemble the mouse gene based on similarity of sequence.

BLAST is one of the most widely-used bioinformatics programs, probably because it addresses a fundamental problem, and its algorithm emphasizes speed over sensitivity. This emphasis on speed is vital to making the algorithm practical on the huge genome databases currently available, although subsequent algorithms can be even faster.
Weapons
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Knives
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Bows
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Guns and Ammo
Kalashnikov
Owners: 309
The Kalashnikov is the weapon of choice for armies, mercenaries, and militia alike. The AK-47 assault rifle is used by more than 50 armies around the world. Not only that, in this world we live in, a country like Mozambique depicts this assault weapon on its national flag! Don't mess with this weapon!
Explosives
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Martial Arts Weapons
Nunchaku
Owners: 48
Nunchaku (nunchuck) is made of two sticks connected at their ends by a short chain or rope. Chinese nunchaku tend to be rounded, whereas the Okinawan version has an octagonal cross-section allowing more damage to an opponent.
Nuclear Weapons
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Toxins and Poisons
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Swords
Excalibur
Owners: 81
According to Arthurian legend, Excalibur is the mystical sword of King Arthur. Many different versions of Arthurian legend exist, and thus the origin of the sword is disputed. In some versions of the legend, Excalibur, or Caledfwich in Welsh, was given to Arthur by the Lady of the Lake after he has broken his weapon in a fight. In this version, King Arthur has the magical sword returned to the Lady as he lay on his deathbed. In other stories, Excalibur is the "Sword in the Stone" - only the rightful heir to the British throne would be able to take the sword from it's magical place, driven deep into the stone. It is Arthur's ease in removing the sword which proves him King.

While mythographers have long disputed the origins of Arthurian legend and the famous sword Excalibur, the power of this sword has never been questioned. Your opponents in Blogshares are sure to tremble before the PRDs and HTOs it signifies.
Houses of Worship
None!

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Eating Disorders
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Sleeping Disorders
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Pain Management
Wong-Baker Scale
Owners: 74
The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale is a pain rating chart that uses 'happy' to 'sad' face symbols to help patients rate their pain level. This chart is especially intended for children or patients that aren't able to speak, understand the language, or express themselves clearly at the time.
Playwriting
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Acting
The Actors Studio
Owners: 289
Founded in 1947 by Elia Kazan, Cheryl Crawford, & Robert Lewis, The Actors Studio is a professional actors organization located in New York City. Its best known for refining & teaching method acting, where an actor tries to create a realistic performance by recreating in real life the conditions under which the character operates. Members work together to develop their skills and can take risks without the pressures of being in a commercial role. Under the direction of Lee Strasberg (1901 – 1982) from 1952, it gained worldwide recognition and attracted many famous people as students, including Marilyn Monroe, Marlon Brando & James Dean. Today the studio offers a three-year MFA program through Pace University, and the program Inside the Actors Studio is broadcast on Bravo.
Film Making
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Auto Detailing
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Auto Modification
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Car Shows
The Chicago Auto Show
Owners: 223
McCormick Palace is the home to the annual Chicago Auto Show, North America's largest automobile showcase. It has been known to feature over 1,000 vehicles yearly, as well as concerts held by some manufacturers and indoor test tracks for attendees.

Beginning in 1901, the Chicago Tribune ran a small ad promoting the extravaganza. It has since then become the world's third largest car show, following behind the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung in Frankfurt, Germany and Mondial de l'Automobile in Paris, France.

Some of the vehicles unveiled at the 2006 Chicago Auto Show were the 2007 Dodge Charger Super Bee, the 2007 Bentley Continental GTC convertible, the 2007 Mitsubishi Galant Ralliart, and the 2008 Toyota Tundra.
Salvage Yards
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Interior Design and Decorating
The Eames Lounge Chair
Owners: 315
Developed over a number of years by the husband and wife design partnership of Charles and Ray Eames, The Eames Lounge Chair, and its accompanying Ottoman, were released to market in 1956. This classic chair and ottoman set has been in continuous production since then and is currently manufactured by Herman Miller. An Eames Lounge Chair and Ottoman are part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art, New York.

In contrast with traditional furniture being sold in the middle of the 20th century in America, the Eames Lounge Chair showed its underpinnings, its connections, and its structure instead of hiding those behind the dust ruffles and kick pleats of its contemporaries. As such, it exemplified the aesthetics of Mid Century Modern design -- the meticulous use of plain and honest materials and a willingness to show the mechanism of the design.
Natural Events and Disasters
None!

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Personal Hygiene
The Toothbrush
Owners: 36
The toothbrush as we know it today was not invented until 1938. However, early forms of the toothbrush have been in existence since 3000 BC. Ancient civilizations used a "chew stick," which was a thin twig with a frayed end. These 'chew sticks' were rubbed against the teeth.

The bristle toothbrush, similar to the type used today, was not invented until 1498 in China. The bristles were actually the stiff, coarse hairs taken from the back of a hog's neck and attached to handles made of bone or bamboo.

William Addis of England is credited with creating the first mass-produced toothbrush in 1780; the first patent for a toothbrush was by H. N. Wadsworth in 1857.

In January 2003, the toothbrush was selected as the number one invention Americans could not live without, beating out the automobile, computer, cell phone, and microwave oven, according to the Lemelson-MIT Invention Index.
PACs and Lobbies
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Civil Rights and Liberties
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Owners: 263
The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. was arguably the most important figure in the American civil rights movement in the late 1950's and 1960's. A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, King not only sparked off nation-wide non-violent protests of segregation, but also spoke vehemently against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, making him a target of J. Edgar Hoover's FBI. His well-known "I Have a Dream" speech, in which he spoke of a future society in which blacks and whites could coexist in harmony, is widely considered one of the most important and influential speeches in human history.

Dr. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, on the balcony of a hotel room in Memphis, Tennessee. Convicted felon James Earl Ray, a white supremacist, was later caught and confessed to the murder. King is honored annually in the United States with Martin Luther King Day, which is observed on the third Monday of January, around King's birthday. Martin Luther King day is one of only three U.S. federal holidays which recognize an individual.
Activism
Protest Song
Owners: 399
Music is persuasive. It taps into our deepest emotions and gives us a feeling of connection to other people. Compelling lyrics take this phenomenon to another level and none more so than the lyrics of a powerful protest song. Environmentalism and abortion, feminism and media, vivisection, censorship, gay rights, globalisation and war…there is no end to the list of controversial issues that have been played out in song.

Protest songs inform and educate. They raise and debate issues, and poignantly highlight the effect those issues have on real people’s lives. They give comfort and support to both the oppressed and those who fight for change. At rallies and protest marches they gather individual voices into a strong and vibrant collective expression of dissent, and motivate protestors to continue even when they are cold and scared and tired. Even after a just battle for change has been fought and won, protest songs chronicle the course of events for future generations.

Educate and motivate people with your very own protest song and the Activism industry cannot fail to respond.
Political Activism
Campaign Volunteer
Owners: 280
The poor. The ambitious. The under appreciated.

The campaign volunteer.

Without them, no non-multimillionaire candidate can mount an effective campaign. Volunteers provide free help to the campaign doing work from answering phones to taking an active part in the strategy of the campaign. Some volunteer to get political experience for a future run for office. Others want to back a candidate who champions a personal issue. But those who are politically active often find that they can have the greatest impact on the political process is to work to try and influence the outcome of a campaign.

The work is often thankless and difficult, coaxing hard-working people to donate, whether it be by phone or by foot. The weeks before the election are often filled with sleepless nights. And the election night party can be somber and morose should the candidate lose. But any volunteer who works on a political campaign will tell you that losing merely fires you up for the next election, and the prospect of your cause to be furthered.
Student Activism
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Religious Activism
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Pediatrics
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Child Care
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Career Planning
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Dentistry
Drill
Owners: 104
Perhaps only the words "We need to talk" strike more fear in the heart of 21st Century man than the sound of the dentist's drill. As it shreds enamel and decay alike with its unforgiving spike, hapless victims of its shrill whine must always remember that the drill is their friend, sparing them many aches to come. Though some may long for ancient days when the sharp stick was the showpiece of dental equipment, they will be thanking the drill when they are able to gnaw on their stewed prunes well past the age of 70.
Chiropractic
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Flowers
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Floral Design
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Record Albums
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Music Reviews
Lester Bangs
Owners: 304
Despite having a career that lasted barely more than a decade, Lester Bangs was perhaps the most influential critic rock music has ever seen. He began writing freelance for Rolling Stone, and was part of the improbably talented roster of writers for Creem magazine in the 1970s and 1980s. It was while writing for Creem magazine that he is said to have coined the term "punk rock," though like many such claims, this remains unverified. Cantankerous in his prose and combative with the musicians he interviewed, Bang's style earned him a loyal following and a problematic relationship with editors. He died in 1982 at the age of 33, as a result of an accidental Valium overdose.
Coursework
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Primitive Living
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Retirement
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Corporate Policy and Strategy
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Small Business and SOHO
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Militarism
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Gaming Platforms
Atari 2600
Owners: 250
The granddaddy of all gaming platforms, the Atari 2600, released in 1977, was the first console to use gaming cartridges and brought home video consoles into the mainstream. With its fabulous assortment of games, including Space Invaders, Donkey Kong, Pole Position, Joust, Pitfall, and Pac Man, the 2600 system reigned supreme for the first several years of the video game boom and made the Atari name synonymous with video gaming.

But alas, all good things come to an end. Atari collapsed along with the video game industry in 1983, at least partially thanks to self-inflicted wounds from the flawed 5200 console to video game flops such as E.T., largely considered to be the biggest commercial failure in video gaming history.

Despite Atari’s tremendous fall, without the 2600 the Wii, Xbox 360, and PS3 would likely not exist today.
PlayStation
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Higashiōsaka
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Xbox
Halo 2
Owners: 91
While the XBox Live service helped propel XBox ahead of its PS2 competitor, it was the introduction of Halo 2 that sealed the success of XBox as its killer app, setting a video game sales record of $125 million on its first day of sales. Halo 2 is a first person shooter video game developed by Bungee Studios and is a sequel to 2001's critically acclaimed Halo: Combat Evolved which was the XBox's first commercial success.. Halo 2 involves the continued future conflict between the humans of Earth and the various races of the Covenant empire across interstellar space and aboard various Forerunner installations, including the second Halo. Halos are capable of emitting a pulse that will exterminate all sentient life forms within 25,000 light years, an event the Covenant considers to be its Rapture....

He who controls the Halo, controls the galaxy...
Atari
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Animal / Wildlife Photography
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Lupus
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Genetics
DNA
Owners: 234
Artefact Description: Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, commonly known as the "blueprints of life" is a large molecule made up of nucleic acids that serves to transmit genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA contains all the information necessary to create the needed proteins for a particular organism, packaged into segments of DNA called genes. Changes in these genes over time, that can be passed onto one's progeny and increase the fitness of an organism, can lead to the diversification of individual organisms and species.

The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, who took several spectacular x-ray diffraction photographs of the molecule, and James Watson and Francis Crick who eventually worked out its structure from the images. Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins jointly received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 for the accomplishment. Franklin died in 1958 and was ineligible for the award. Watson described how he and Crick worked out the structure (as well as what it was like for himself in graduate school at the time) in his book "The Double Helix," which he published in 1968.

Most male children of the 80's learned of DNA when Dr. Mindbender collected it from the most infamous rulers in history to create the Cobra Emperor, Serpentor.
Bluegrass
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Trivia
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Trivia and Knowledge Games
Trivial Pursuit
Owners: 69
Developed in 1979 and released in 1982 Trivial Pursuit, the game where collecting colored "pie pieces" shows how smart you are, became an almost overnight success. Over 80 million games sets have been sold in multiple countries and in over 18 languages.
Micronationalism
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Meteorology
El Niño
Owners: 303
El Niño is an occasional phenomenon of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean, most recently appearing in late 2004 through early 2005, a year after the previous occurrence and seven years after the most recent major warm event. Its name refers to the Christ child, since South American fishermen who first noticed it found each episode arriving around Christmas.

El Niño's displacement of the atmospheric heat above the warm waters can profoundly affect weather around the entire earth. The warm pool feeds thunderstorms, increasing rainfall over the eastern Pacific Ocean. Equatorial South America sees flooding from very wet summers (December through February), while drier conditions in Indonesia fuels forest fires. North American winters are warmer than usual, while parts of Antartica have more sea ice. Central regions of North America and Africa see drought, while southern regions tend to be wetter than normal. Around the globe, cyclones and tropical storms can be influenced by El Niño.
Strategy Games
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Photojournalism
War Photography
Owners: 224
War photography is the powerful and often dangerous art of taking pictures of armed conflict and war-torn areas. Photographers who attempt to participate in this genre may find themselves placed in harm's way, and are sometimes killed trying to get their pictures to the outside world. In the Second Persian Gulf War, several photographers were captured and executed by terrorists or shot by armed insurgents. journalists and photographers are generally protected by international conventions of armed warfare, but history has shown that many factions are more then willing to kill them, sometimes to prove how much they hate their opponents and other times to prevent the truth from getting out. War photography has gotten more dangerous in recent years as some terrorists will single out journalists and photographers for targets as easy ways to show proof of their dedication to their cause.

As it is perhaps the most dangerous type of photography, most war photographers are young or energetic, often both, eager to see humanity at its worst and best, the terrors of war mingled with selfless acts of sacrifice. The work that they do and the images they show can be the most powerful and riveting art, as it will uncover the lies of politicians and generals and replace it with the truth. A leader can say that there is no genocide occurring in his country, but a single picture will say otherwise. War photography is an important field as rallying cries of political groups and some of the most powerful emotional images we have are found from glimpses of a battlefield.
Recalls and Alerts
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Anatomy
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Physiology
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Neuroscience
Otto Loewi
Owners: 246
In 1921, one of the most important developments in neuroscience arose from an experiment that came to Austrian-German-American pharmacologist Otto Loewi in a dream. Loewi (1873-1961) demonstrated the existence of neurotransmitters--chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another--by showing that a nerve action induced in a submerged frog heart could then be induced in a second frog heart simply by allowing the liquid to flow from the chamber containing the first heart to the second.

As Loewi wrote in From the Workshop of Discoveries (University of Kansas Press, 1953):
"In the night of Easter Saturday, 1921, I awoke, turned on the light, and jotted down a few notes on a tiny slip of paper. Then I fell asleep again. It occurred to me at six o'clock in the morning that during the night I had written down something most important, but I was unable to decipher the scrawl. That Sunday was the most desperate day in my whole scientific life. During the next night, however, I awoke again, at three o'clock, and I remembered what it was. This time I did not take any risk; I got up immediately, went to the laboratory, made the experiment on the frog's heart, described above, and at five o' clock the chemical transmission of nervous impulse was conclusively proved."

Among his many accolades, Otto Loewi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with friend and colleague Sir Henry Dale.
Neurotechnology
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Organic Farming
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Biochemistry
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Botany
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Oceanography / Marine Science
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Forestry
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Paleontology
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Tantrism
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Tantric
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Commodities
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Precious Metals
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Gems and Jewels
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Gospel Music
Mahalia Jackson
Owners: 131
Mahalia Jackson (October 26, 1911 - January 27, 1972) is considered the "Queen of Gospel Song." She made her first recordings as a soloist in the mid-1930s for Decca and Apollo, eventually signing with Columbia records in 1954. Ms. Jackson was involved in the civil rights movement taking part in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and singing, at the request of Dr. Martin Luther King, just before he delivered his famous "I have a Dream" speech.
Music Lessons
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Clarinet
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Saxophone
Adolphe Sax
Owners: 97
Sax invented the saxophone around the year 1840, one of many musical inventions he created over his lifetime. A Belgian, Sax studied flute and clarinet at the Royal School of Singing in Brussels. Originally, the saxophone was designed to be used by military bands, but the instrument has been accepted into such widely varying troupes as classical orchestras and rock bands, not to mention being a stable of jazz, soul, and popular music throughout the world.
Latin and Caribbean Music
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Samba
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Merengue
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Cumbia
Red Handkerchief
Owners: 81
Cumbia has a history of being used for courtship rituals in many Latin American locales. Rhythmic music set the backdrop for energetic dances. Following tradition, men wear a red handkerchief around their necks during cumbia dances, or alternately, wave it in the air as part of the dance.
Soca
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Reggae
The Harder They Come
Owners: 178
Directed by Perry Henzell in 1972, the legendary Jamaican movie The Harder They Come is the story of Ivanhoe Martin, a rural Jamaican musician who journeys to the city of Kingston in search of fame and fortune. With arguably some of the best music ever to come out of Jamaica, The Harder They Come introduced the edgy rhythms and lyrics of reggae to the U.S. and the world in the early ’70s.

Jimmy Cliff starred in the movie and wrote four songs of his own for the film: You Can Get It If You Really Want, Sitting In Limbo, Many Rivers To Cross and the title song, The Harder They Come. The rest of the soundtrack features such classics as The Slickers' Johnny Too Bad and Desmond Dekker's 007, all chosen by the director himself.

The introduction of this cult classic, along with the arrival of Bob Marley into the music consciousness, exposed the world to the melodic realities of life in Jamaica.
Calypso
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Violin
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Currencies
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Beach Life
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Farm Life
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City Life
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Country Living
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Mountain Life
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Desert Life
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Hare Krishnas / ISKCON
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Taxes
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Commerce
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Trade
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Britney Spears
Ooops!... She Did It Again
Owners: 123
Britney Spears, the eighth best-selling female artist in American music history, having sold 31 million albums in the U.S. and over 76 million records worldwide, is now more known for her personal life, put grotesquely on display by the multitudes of paparazzi hordes that follow her wherever she goes.

Spears rose to popularity on the New Mickey Mouse Club in 1993 and 1994, along with other future celebrities Christina Aguilera, Justin Timberlake, Joshua Chasez, Keri Russell, and Ryan Gosling. Her musical success began with her debut single "...Baby One More Time," in 1998 and became an instant international success. Her second album, "Oops!... I Did It Again," followed this success selling 20 million copies sold worldwide. Some say her meteoric rise to stardom contributed to her personal problems that followed. Others say it was the relentless media that hounded her. Regardless, starting in 2002 with her breakup with fellow Mickey Mouse alum Justin Timberlake, Britney began a downward spiral of media gaffes and personal foibles that left many of her fans simply shaking their heads.

Some of her more notable escapades include a Vegas marriage that only lasted 55 hours, shaving her head in the middle of the night, and a judge ordering her to rehab before she could take custody of her two children.

But despite all her troubles, Britney is still young, talented, and has legions of fans worldwide. And everyone still wants to know what she'll do next.
American Idol
Simon Cowell
Owners: 213
Simon Cowell is arguably one of the biggest draws for the reality TV show American Idol, and is infamous for reveling in his role of villain on the show. Many contestants have had to endure acerbic comments about their performances from the British judge, but many also acknowledge that while his comments may be downright nasty and harsh, there is an element of truth in them. Aside from appearing on American Idol, Cowell works as a record executive and has talent-spotted and signed numerous big acts, including Westlife and more recently, Il Divo.
Underwater Photoblogs
Waterproof Housing
Owners: 36
If you're going to take pictures underwater, you're going to need a waterproof housing to cover your camera. Without one, your pictures will be . . . well you won't have any and you'll be shelling out a lot of money for a new camera.
Cloning
Dolly the Sheep
Owners: 21
Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003), a female domestic sheep, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. Cloned and born at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh in Scotland, Dolly was known at the "world's most famous sheep."

The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. Dolly's name, according to Ian Wilmut (one of her creators) comes from Dolly Parton. He said "Dolly is derived from a mammary gland cell and we couldn't think of a more impressive pair of glands than Dolly Parton's".
Singapore Idol
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Aviation (industry)
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Porn Industry
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Political Science
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International Adoption
The Dossier
Owners: 210
To adopt legally in a country other than the one you reside in, you must file a dossier with your adoption agency, which will transmit it to the country you wish to adopt from. A set of legal documents, the dossier normally includes marriage license, criminal check, birth certificates, home study, and possibly other legal and important documents like divorce decrees, income/employment verification, church or ethnic documents, medical forms, and an agreement to follow legal requirements of the country from which the child(ren) is being adopted. Multiple certified copies must be submitted; standard copies are normally not acceptable.

Other requirements can include that documents be notarized and possibly apostilled, which certifies the documents are acceptable in the legal standards of the country the dossier is being submitted to. Some countries may require a copy in the original language as well as a translated copy in their native language.

The date the dossier is sent to (or received by) marks the start of the waiting time for a match of the pre-adoptive family with a child. Pre-adoptive families adopting from China have coined the abbreviation 'DTC'(dossier to China).
Statistics (Math)
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Geometry
Where Angles Fear to Tread
Owners: 107
As I ruminate about the exam in front of me.
No answers appear, only angst, and I need to pee.
I studied and prepared all night long.
Realizing now that I did it all wrong.
For you see I just don't understand.
I cannot vision these shapes at hand.
I must have a mental block.
The door simply won’t open when these angles knock.
Alternative History Literature
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Canadian History
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Political Ideologies
Partisan
Owners: 293
Liberal. Conservative. Moderate. Extremist. Wingnut. Moonbat.

How do you define yourself? How you describe who you would vote for?

Contrary to popular belief, studies have consistently shown that people very rarely change ideologies as they age, i.e. the party they often vote for when they first begin voting is the party they stick with for life. While this choice is sometimes come upon with careful scrutiny of the ideological issues the candidates align themselves with, more often than not young people end up voting for the candidates their parents and friends vote for and those who align themselves most closely with the ideology of the geographical region they live in.

But above and beyond this inherent loyalty, the Partisan will defend his or her choice blindly and fervently, without logic or reason, and will support their party regardless of their adherence to ideology; the Partisan is only concerned with keeping his or her party in power. While some people say the partisan nature of politics is worse than it has ever been, the truth is that militant support of ideologies has been around for ages and has been much, much more rancorous than anything we see today.
Civics
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Genomics
Human Genome Project
Owners: 78
One of the key contributions to the field of genomics was the complete sequencing of the human genome. Dubbed the "human genome project", it was a collaboration between an international consortium of scientists from the US, UK and other countries, and took about 13 years to complete.

Due to the largeness of the human genome (with over 3 billion DNA base pairs to sequence), solving the sequence of DNA base pairs in each chromosome truly represents a milestone in genomics. Its benefits are wide-ranging, and include aiding research on inherited diseases, test-kits for genetic predispositions and even in the controversial area of gene therapy.
Auto Maintenance and Repair
Car Talk
Owners: 51
Since 1977 Tom and Ray Magliozzi, also known as Click and Clack, the Tappet Brothers, have been giving out auto repair advice on their weekly radio show, Car Talk. First broadcast in Boston in 1977 the show was picked up in 1987 by NPR and is now heard nationwide.
Used Autos
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Boats
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Houseboats / Liveaboards
Kettuvallam
Owners: 93
In the Kerala, India area, Kettuvallam are a type of houseboat, often made of wood and held together with coconut fiber-ropes. Originally, Kettuvallam were used by traders and transporters to both move goods and house the boatmen. While many Western people think of houseboats being made of fiberglass, metal, and plastic, the Kettuvallam continues to be a popular means of transportation and housing in Kerala and increasingly, a tourist novelty.
Jet Skis
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Off-Road Vehicles
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R/C Models
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Tobacco
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Cigars
Alejandro Robaina
Owners: 50
Dubbed the "Godfather of Cuban tobacco" Alejandro Robaina (March 20, 1919 - April 17, 2010) was a world renowned tobacco grower. Alejandro's family began growing tobacco in Cuba in 1845 with Alejandro taking over the family farm in 1950. He is the only Cuban tobacco grower to have cigar named after him - the "Vegas Robaina."
Pipes / Pipe Tobacco
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Beauty and Appearance
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Makeup / Cosmetics
Elizabeth Arden
Owners: 279
Elizabeth Arden (1878 – 1966) was a Canadian woman who built one of the major cosmetic empires in the United States. She coined the name from an early business partner (Elizabeth Hubbard) and from Tennyson’s poem Enoch Arden. After traveling to France in 1912 to learn French beauty techniques, she introduced modern eye makeup to America and introducing the concept of makeovers into her salons. She was also notable for creating the idea of the “total look” in which eye, lip, cheek & fingernail colors matched or coordinated and Montezuma Red lipstick during World War Two for women in the armed forces (that matched the red on their uniforms). Her company continues to trade today and the current “face” is Catherine Zeta-Jones.
Hair
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World of Warcraft
Azeroth
Owners: 141
Azeroth is the name of the World in which the game World of Warcraft is Set. The game is host to several races including: Human, Orc, Elf, Dwarf, Tauren, Night Elf, Undead, Gnome and many others. The two main races on Azeroth battle for supremacy, the Alliance which consist mainly of Humans, Night Elves, Dwarfs and Draenei and the Horde which consist of Orcs, Undead, Tauren and Blood Elves. The two factions were once joined together to fight the scourge, but after the second war, peace dwindled between them and war, once again plagued their lands.

During the character creation process of the game, you can choose which faction and race you would like to play along with one of several different class types: Warrior, Paladin, Warlock, Mage, Priest, Shaman, Druid, Hunter, Rogue and the new Death Knigh Hero Class.
Ecotourism
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Extreme Tourism
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Wild Animals
Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom
Owners: 192
Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom was a Sunday night staple for many years. This long-running show premiered on January 6, 1963, and allowed viewers to study the natural habitats and habits of wild animals in the far corners of the world.

The show was a pioneer in a television genre that is now common to nature shows, which puts the viewer in the middle of a suspenseful story viewing what the hosts and crews experience. The show never depicted violent situations, only action, which made it a favorite with millions of American families.

The first host of the show was Marlon Perkins who was recognized as a world-leading ecologist and naturalist. He was with the show for 27 years. Subsequent hosts Jim Fowler and Peter Gros were two of Perkins' field correspondents on the show.

The original series won 41 awards, including four Emmys from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. It was also the first television series to receive the National Parent Teacher Association's (PTA) "Recommended for Family Viewing" designation.
Livestock / Farm Animals
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Chickens
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Zoos / Animal Sanctuaries
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Dream Journal
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Military Collectibles
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Survivalist
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Auditions and Tryouts
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Tournaments and Competitions
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Commercials
Speedy Alka-Seltzer
Owners: 181
Speedy Alka-Seltzer first appeared in magazine ads in 1953 with his Alka-Seltzer tablet body and his effervescent wand. But it wasn't until he appeared on TV in 1953 that he made a splash in the advertising world. Between 1954 and 1964, Speedy appeared in more than 200 commercials, with a voice provided by actor Dick Beals, becoming one of the most recognizable product icons in advertising history. Even though Speedy was retired in 1964, he has made brief appearances during the Olympics and other special occasions. Even though it wasn't Speedy who made "Plop, plop, fizz, fizz. Oh what a relief it is" famous, when many of us think of Speedy, we hear that jingle.
The Sims
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Depression
The Bell Jar
Owners: 250
The Bell Jar is the only novel published by American writer Sylvia Plath. Semi-autobiographical, the novel follows a young woman coming-of-age and struggling with the choices she faces in her lifetime. As she becomes increasing frustrated with her life, she becomes suicidal and depressed, describing depression's effect as like "being trapped under a bell jar, unable to breathe." She then describes her mental institution experiences with electroshock therapy, which she describes as helping her "lift the bell jar" she was trapped within. The end of the novel is left open ended as the protagonist steps into her doctor's office to decide whether she would leave the institution or not.

The book closely parallels Plath's life, so much so that she published the book under a pseudonym and changed the names of everyone in the novel. Despite this, Plath was successfully sued by a former classmate who said the book unfairly labeled her as a homosexual. Plath, struggling with depression herself, committed suicide just one month after the book's first publication.
Ailments, Illnesses, and Diseases
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Optometry
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Medical Science and Practice
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Treatment and Prevention
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Phobias and Fears
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Theme Parks
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Snowmobiles
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Elections
Chad-gate
Owners: 353
Everything has a name. There's a name for those things that go on the ends of your shoe laces (aglets). There is a name for that music that you can't get out of your head (ear worm). There's even a name for that tiny piece of confetti-like paper that is created when you punch (or don't quite punch) your vote on a voting card.

In 2000, the presidency of the United States was literally hanging by a chad. Hanging chads, swinging chads, pregnant, and dimpled chads! It was Chad-gate.

Voting officials in Florida attempted to determine voter intent by the type of chad they found on ballots that were hand-counted (and recounted) following the election. Hanging chads had one corner still attached. Swinging chads had two corners still attached. Tri-corner chads were attached by three corners. All of these counted as valid votes. A pregnant chad had an indentation, and was bulging or pierced, but still attached. There were also dimpled chads, which were indented but not pierced and definitely firmly attached to the voting card. Neither pregnant nor dimpled chads were considered to be valid votes.

In the end, the result was that the U.S. had a president who lost the popular vote and won the Electoral College utlizing a voting process that was clearly obsolete. And here you thought Chad was only a country in Africa.
National Guard / Reserves
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Snowboarding
The Halfpipe
Owners: 35
The halfpipe is a U-shaped man made slope. Snowboarders use the shape of the halfpipe, much like skateboarders, to perform aerial tricks and jumps while racing downhill. Competition events are held in halfpipes, and some snowboarders have become successful enough to earn sponsorship from famous sports outfitters and other companies.
Military History
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Protectionism
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Physicians
Hippocratic Oath
Owners: 403
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath of great traditional and historical significance to medical science and is seen as an important rite of passage for Physicians. Believed to have been written by the “father of medicine” Hippocrates of Cos (c460 BC – c380 BC), it has been the ethical basis of medical practice for centuries.

It has been re-worded, re-written and portions removed over the years by various schools, societies and countries to reflect changes in society, religion, politics and the field of medicine. But the basic principles have always remained the same. Upon taking the oath, a physician swears that that they will respect those who have imparted knowledge upon medical science, as well as their patients as well as to treat and heal patients to the best of their ability.
Law School
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Medical School
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Yu-Gi-Oh
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Magic: The Gathering
Black Lotus
Owners: 74
Ah, Magic. The true and original king of strategy card cames. In Magic, you play a wizard in a magical duel with you and each of your opponents starting out with twenty life points. Your goal is to reduce your opponent's life to zero before they do so to you. Early on, just after the game was first created, several cards were soon recognized as being too powerful or "broken" to keep in future card sets. The most powerful of these was the Black Lotus.

Spells are cast using what is called "mana." The more powerful the spell, the more mana it takes to cast and you can only use the available mana you have on your board. One of the pillars of Magic is the rule that you can only add one additional mana to your board per turn. This way, you can't cast very powerful spells early on when your opponent is weak and vice versa. Thus, any card that gets around this rule must have another associated cost or else it upsets the balance of the game.

The Black Lotus gave the player that played it three mana, immediately, with no cost or penalty. Having one or more of these cards in your hand on the first turn usually results in a huge spell being cast from which the opponent was rarely able to recover at such an early stage of the game (unless they too had a Lotus in their hand). So powerful was this card, it was one of the first banned from tournament play and never printed again in any subsequent sets.

Today, the Black Lotus is a collector's item, regularly the most sought after and expensive of all the out-of-print Magic cards, and the ultimate symbol of power among Magic players.
Roller Hockey
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Illusion and Magic
Pepper's Ghost
Owners: 220
In the late 19th century, a London showman named John Henry Pepper used a stage with a transparent window at an angle to the audience to display ghostly reflections of off-stage actors. It has now become a theatrical illusionary technique commonly referred to as "Pepper's Ghost." One of the world's largest implementations of this illusion can be found at Walt Disney World's Haunted Mansion, where you can see three-dimensional, translucent ghosts swarm through the ballroom.
Pokémon
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Paramedics / EMTs
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Shipping / Tankers
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Calculus
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Dice Games
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Budget Living
Coupons
Owners: 128
Each year families try to stretch their income by using coupons to save money on groceries and other items for their homes. The first coupon was issued in the mid 1890's for a free glass of coca-cola. Today coupons provide free products, discounts, free shipping, and almost anything you can think of to try and get the consumer to purchase a specific product. Coupons are so popular that despite the fact that only 1% of all coupons issued get redeemed, in 2006 manufacturers issued $279 billion worth of coupons.
Budget Travel
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Budget Eating / Dining
Ramen Noodles
Owners: 256
Ramen noodles are the heart and soul of what it means to eat on a budget. You can feed your whole family a hot and tasty meal for under $1. College students often consider ramen to be its own food group. A family on a budget can really mix things up by using ramen as a basis for any number of dishes, throwing in stir-fry meats and veggies, sour cream, or cheese. The bottom-line is: when ramen noodles are 10 packs for a dollar, stock up!
Household Tips
Hints from Heloise
Owners: 172
If you're looking for some handy household tips, just ask Heloise.

"Hints from Heloise", a nationally syndicated column, was started in 1959 by Heloise Bowles as "Readers Exchange", and picked up shortly after by King Features Syndicate. Heloise's daughter, whose given name was Kiah Michelle Cruse, worked with her mother for several years, and took over the column after her mother died in 1977. It's still one of the most widely syndicated columns.

In addition to the column, Heloise is a contributing editor for Good Housekeeping and has published eleven books.
Nutrition
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Allergies
EpiPen
Owners: 165
An EpiPen, short for epinephrine pen, is a device commonly carried by people with severe allergies in the case of anaphylactic shock. They usually contain spring-loaded needles that allow for easy injection by jamming the pen into the thigh and holding it for a few seconds. Because epinephrine is an immune system suppressant, it will reduce the inflammation caused by the allergic reaction, thus allowing the person to breathe again.

While EpiPen is an official brand, the name has now commonly come to refer to any epinephrine auto injector.
Black & White Photography
Ansel Adams
Owners: 106
Ansel Adams (1902-1984) created some of the most stunning black and white landscape photographs ever seen. His focus on the western United States, and especially the national parks, captured the beauty of nature, unspoiled by man. Widely recognized as a technical master early in his career, he wrote ten highly influential volumes of technical manuals on photography and served as a technical consultant to much of the photographic industry.
Occult
23 (twenty-three)
Owners: 162
Mathematically, 23 is a natural number; the ninth prime; and the sixth happy number.

Scientifically, it’s the number of chromosomes in a human germline cell; the number of pairs of chromosomes in somatic cells; and the atomic number of vanadium.

In astronomy, it’s the degree of the earth's axis and the number of hours in a Sidereal day (approximately, in both cases).

In the occult world, we find 23 as a phenomenon of numerology, the art or science of seeing spiritual, mystical, or esoteric truths reflected in relationships between certain numbers and events or objects of the phenomenal world.

23: lucky, unlucky; sacred, sinister; not 42, but everywhere!

The “23 Enigma” of the Discordians is a belief that the number 23 is (or can be) connected to all events. Information about the Law of 23 or the 23 Enigma can be found in the the Principia Discordia as well as in the Illuminatus Trilogy of Robert Anton Wilson and Robert Shea.

Skeptics view the 23 Enigma as an example of confirmation bias – “a tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions and avoid information and interpretations which contradict prior beliefs” (wikipedia).
Astrology
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Dinosaurs
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Puzzles
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Crossword Puzzles
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Jigsaw Puzzles
John Spilsbury
Owners: 63
John Spilsbury, a mapmaker and engraver, is credited with creating the very first jigsaw puzzle in England around the year 1760. Originally, jigsaw puzzles were created by attaching pictures to a piece of wood and then cutting with a jigsaw. Spilsbury's first puzzle was a world map, cut into pieces for each country. Later versions involved painting pictures onto wood. Many of Spilsbury's creations were used by instructors to teach geography. (source: about.com)
Divination
Omen
Owners: 116
There are many forms of divination, or the attempt to ascertain information; one of the more enduring methods is using omens. While omens can be either good or bad, the word omen is generally used to mean a sense of foreboding. The meaning of the omen is open to interpretation, and the same omen may be read differently depending on the culture and belief of the interpreter.

Omens or portents have been used for centuries; in ancient Rome, there were even professional omen readers. Some omens include reading of weather changes, particular events or actions, and astronomical events such as the appearance of a comet, notably Halley’s Comet.
Taoism
Lao Tse
Owners: 79
Lao Tse (or Lao Zi) is widely acknowledged to be the founder of Taoism. Lao Zi means "old master" in Chinese. This is likely an honorific term as his real name is not certain. He is recognized as a philosopher, thought to exist around 6th century BC.

Lao Tse's contribution to Taoism is said to be his work of 81 short philosophical poems, titled Tao Te Ching (or Dao De Jing). In it, he defines and details "Tao", the way of the universe. Though his actual existence is debated among scholars and historical records are unclear, he remains a figure of wisdom and is revered in Chinese culture.
Meditation
Ohm
Owners: 146
Ohm isn't just for meditating about electrical impedance – also spelled Aum, or Om, it's a meditative chant meant to represent the eternal, the divine, the ultimate reality. While there are other meditative phrases used by Buddhists, Jainists, and Hindus, Ohm is the most universally recognized by far.

Aum is thought by some to be the first sound, the one that was at the creation of the universe, and which contains all other sounds, words, and mantras. According to Hindu philosophy, the letter A represents Brahma or creation; the letter U represents Vishnu or preservation, and the letter M represents Shiva or destruction. In Tamil language, Om literally means "Yes, it is".
Chronic Pain / Fibromyalgia
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Spam / Spam Prevention
The Spamhaus Project
Owners: 144
Spamhaus tracks the Internet's Spammers and Spam Gangs. Spamhaus' goal is to provide the most dependable and reliable anti-spam provides dependable realtime anti-spam protection for Internet networks, and works with Law Enforcement to identify and pursue spammers worldwide. Spamhaus uses various methods of tracking spam & help provide Internet Service providers and law enforcement information on alleged spammers. They also provide a list that allows Internet Service Providers the ability to block spam from known spam sources.
Jam Bands
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Paralysis / Spinal Cord Injuries
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
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Deaf Culture
Deaf President Now
Owners: 101
The 1988 DPN (Deaf President Now) protests at Gallaudet University were a watershed moment in Deaf history in the United States. Gallaudet, the nation's most prestigious Deaf university, had been headed by a hearing person since the school's founding in 1857, and Deaf students wanted change – a Deaf president for a Deaf school.

Former US Postmaster General Amos Kendall started the school in 1857, and the first president, Edward Miner Gallaudet, while raised by a Deaf mother, was not Deaf himself. Nor were any of the suceeding presidents; many of the DPN protesters felt that this implied Deaf people were not perceived as competent to lead a university or, indeed, control their own fates.

When Gallaudet’s president resigned in 1987, students began advocating that a Deaf president be selected. There was a candlelight vigil on the eve of the selection, and on 6 March 1988, the board of trustees announced that Elisabeth Zinser, the only hearing candidate in the final three, had been chosen. Protesters closed down the campus, and among their demands were that a new Deaf president be appointed, and that the board of trustees be re-formed with a majority of Deaf members. Zinser hoped to find a resolution, but when it quickly became clear that the board and faculty would not back her, she resigned on 10 March. In a marathon meeting on 13 March, the newly-formed board of trustees elected I. King Jordan, the Deaf dean of the School of Arts and Sciences at Gallaudet, president. Dr. Irving King Jordan served as president from 1988 until his retirement in 2006.

The Deaf President Now protests succeeded both in finally instating a Deaf president and, thanks to extensive media coverage, raising awareness of both American Sign Language and Deaf culture.
Sign Language
William Stokoe
Owners: 144
William Stokoe (pronounced Stokie) is a linguist who researched American Sign Language (ASL) extensively while he worked at Gallaudet University. From 1955 to 1970 he served as a professor and chairman of the English department at Gallaudet. He published "Sign Language Structure" and co-authored "A Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles". Through the publication of his work he was instrumental in changing the perception of ASL from that of a broken or simplified version of English to that of a complex and thriving natural language in its own right with an independent syntax and grammar as functional and powerful as any found in the spoken languages of the world. Because he raised the prestige of ASL in academic and educational circles, he is considered a hero in the Deaf community.

Stokoe invented a written notation for sign language as ASL had no written form at the time. Unlike SignWriting which was developed later, it is not iconic, but draws heavily on the handshapes used in the production of signs. Thus the sign for the concept of mother is said to use the '5' handshape and this as one would logically deduce means the fingers are spread to display all five fingers. A flat hand is denoted by 'B', and '8' indicates that the thumb and middle finger are forward, maybe touching, while the others are spread. All the handshapes that occur in ASL are deliniated and labeled in a similar manner. As part of his system for describing the parts of signs he coined the words dez, sig, and tab for kinds of chiremes. Chiremes are the elemental units of manual language, analogous to phonemes in spoken languages.
Bones and Joints
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Arthritis
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Videoblogs
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Fashion Photography
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Job Hunting
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Leukemia
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Organizations and Groups
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Nonprofit / Not-for-Profit
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Community Centers
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Agnostic
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Mormon / Latter Day Saints
The Mormon Tabernacle Choir
Owners: 254
The Mormon Tabernacle Choir is a large choir of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons). It was founded in August 1847, one month after the Mormon Pioneers entered the Salt Lake Valley. Since July 15, 1929, the choir has performed a weekly radio broadcast called Music and the Spoken Word which is the oldest continuous nationwide network broadcast in the United States of America. The show has been televised since the early 1960s and is now broadcast worldwide through some 1,500 radio, television, and cable stations.

The Mormon Tabernacle Choir in their home, the Salt Lake Tabernacle. Called "America's Choir" by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir is made up of some 360 men and women, all of whom are volunteers. There are many husband-wife combinations and many families have participated in the choir for generations. Choir members are currently limited to twenty years of participation, allowing new members to join the choir on a regular basis.
Tape Trading
B&P
Owners: 195
Usually shortened to B&P, B+P, B and P, or BnP, “Blanks and Postage” was once the epitome of the free music movement. Now largely replaced by high-speed Internet downloads, the distribution of free music was previously commonly handled by mail, in exchange for the minor reimbursement of a blank tape or CD and the cost of postage. This method is still in use today when high-speed Internet access is a problem or a particular music selection or format is not available for download.

Since these tradables are usually concerts, a music collector willing to share a treasured recording in this way need only advertise a B&P offer including the artist’s name, the performance date and location, the necessary contact information, plus any noteworthy details about the recording. The time and effort of duplicating the recording is given freely, so quantities are usually limited. For the recipient, the cost is merely that of purchasing and mailing a “blank” and two padded envelopes, one self-addressed and stamped or otherwise postage-paid, sent inside the other.
Materials Science and Engineering
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Rafting
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Queer / Genderqueer
Leslie Feinberg
Owners: 110
Leslie Feinberg is perhaps one of the most well-known genderqueer authors, having written the ground-breaking novel Stone Butch Blues in 1993. Although the novel is not autobiographical, Feinberg hirself identifies as genderqueer and prefers gender-neutral pronouns. As a transgender activist, Feinberg is in demand as a speaker on issues of gender and living outside the gender binary. Born female in 1949, Feinberg has shaped hirself surgically and hormonally twice in her life and does not rule out the possibility of doing it again.
Missing Persons
Milk Carton
Owners: 127
Any child of the eighties living in the United States can remember a familiar morning ritual: Get up, pour yourself a bowl of cereal and munch your Captain Crunch while staring at a missing child's face underneath the words "HAVE YOU SEEN ME?" on the back of a milk carton. This program, developed to "get the faces out there" of kids that have run away, been abducted, or thrown out of their homes, was developed by the non-profit National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), founded by "America's Most Wanted" host, John Walsh and his wife. The NCMEC gathers the photos of the children that have been reported missing then distributes them to any group willing to print them on other media that will able to posted or seen by large numbers of people.

While milk companies are no longer printing faces on their packaging, the NCMEC has now developed a downloadable computer screensaver that flips through photographs of missing kids while you sit at your desk. You can download the screensaver for free at www.missingkidsaver.com.
Quotations
Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations
Owners: 233
Bartlett’s compendium of well-known English-language quotations was first published in 1855. Unlike other collections of quotations, Bartlett’s is organized chronologically rather than alphabetically by subject or author. John Bartlett himself supervised nine editions of this highly successful publication, the ninth appearing in 1891. The tenth edition was not released until 1914, nine years after Bartlett’s death.

Currently in its seventeenth edition (published in 2003), Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations has been criticized for the recent inclusion of lines from pop culture icons such as Jerry Seinfeld and J.K. Rowling. This is largely attributed to a change of scope imposed by the editor of the sixteenth edition, Justin Kaplan (1993). The impact of Kaplan’s political bias was even more controversial, resulting in Ronald Regan having only three questionably chosen quotations in that edition, versus 35 quotations from Franklin D. Roosevelt and 28 from John F. Kennedy.
Inspirational / Motivational
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Touring (Cycling)
Chainring Tattoo
Owners: 184
The classic chainring tattoo is a result of accidentally leaning the front gear against the back of your calf when standing still on the bike. The grease and dirt from the chainring leaves the imprint of its toothy grin on your skin. While not a real tattoo, these marks are notoriously difficult to wash off. Some hardcore tour riders have taken the chainring tattoo to the next level by getting real, permanent tattoos in the shape of the chainring.
Road Racing (cycling)
Peloton
Owners: 235
It's too early for you to join the small group of breakaway cyclists pulling away up ahead. But neither will you be sag wagon bait bringing up the rear late in the afternoon. For now you're pedaling with the huge mass of riders racing as though they were a single unit. The Pelaton. Like a flock of birds or a swarm of bees, over a hundred cyclists completely in synch, handlebar to handlebar, wheel to wheel, careening together around the curves, exploding down the straights like a huge wave, in unison riding the edge between perfect cooperation and mutual disaster. You've been rolling on kilometer after kilometer drafting off the peloton, conserving your energy, comfortably socializing with the other cyclists, but ever wary of peloton riders in front of you, knowing the slightest mistake can pile up dozens of bikes, even put a cyclist out of the entire event. If only you could move up on the tail of the yellow jersey up near the very front of the peloton, you know you've saved up enough to maybe attack the peloton yourself, perhaps even reel in those early breakaway rabbits. But if today isn't your stage to win, at least you’ll get the same finish time as everyone else in the peloton, whether front or middle or rear. So use the Peloton artefact to preserve your position and bide your time until the time is right for you to make your move.
Cocaine / Crack
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Glass Crafts
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Stained Glass
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Glass Blowing
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Opiates
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Orthodox Christianity
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Senior Centers
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Youth Centers
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UFOs / Aliens
Area 51
Owners: 245
Area 51 is a remote tract of land in southern Nevada, owned by the federal government of the United States, containing an airfield apparently used for the secret development and testing of new military aircraft. It is famed as the subject of many UFO conspiracy theories. Some of the unconventional activities claimed to be underway at Area 51 include the storage, examination, and reverse engineering of crashed alien spacecraft (including material supposedly recovered at Roswell), the study of their occupants (living and dead), and the manufacture of aircraft based on alien technology. Area 51 would seem to be a ufologist's paradise.
Jakarta
Tugu Monas
Owners: 213
Monumen Nasional, widely known as Tugu Monas (the National Monument tower) is the emblem of Jakarta. Tugu Monas is a 450 ft (137 m) tower located in Central Jakarta. The construction of this monument, which symbolizes the fight for Indonesia's Independence, began in August 1959 in the Sukarno era, but was not finished until July 1975 under President Suharto. Designed by two famous Indonesian architects, Soedarsono and Frederich Silaban (and Ir. Rooseno as the consultant), the tower was built on an 80 hectare plot of land and is topped by 14.5 tonnes of flame-shaped bronze, plated with 35 kg (1125 troy ounces) of gold.

Visitors can take a lift up to an observation platform to enjoy spectacular views of the Jakarta cityscape. Inside the base of the monument is the so-called Museum Hall, showing a series of dioramas depicting the Indonesian declaration of independence and the history of Indonesia.
Poodles
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Bogota (city)
Colombian National Museum
Owners: 65
The largest and oldest museum on Colombia, the Colombian National Museum housing collections on Colombia's history, art, and culture. Built in 1823 the museum houses a collection of over 20,000 pieces including works of art and objects representing different national history periods. Permanent exhibitions present archeology and ethnography samples from Colombian artefacts dating 10,000 years BC, up to twentieth century indigenous and afro-Colombian art and culture.
Bandung
Sangkuriang
Owners: 302
A long time ago, lived a beautiful woman named Dayang Sumbi. She lived alone and she was thirsting for a husband. One day when quilting, her quilt fell to the ground. Then she prayed to the gods "If a man picks up my quilt, he will be my husband. If a woman does, she will be my sister." Then, a male dog picked it up. So Dayang Sumbi got married to the dog, and called him Tumang. Dayang Sumbi gave a birth to a son, named him Sangkuriang, but never told him who his father was. One day, Sangkuriang was hunting with Tumang in the forest. They found nothing and Sangkuriang blamed the failure on Tumang and killed him. When Dayang Sumbi learned what Sangkuriang had done, she hit Sangkuriang's head with a big spoon and expelled him.

Years after Sangkuriang became a man with power and found a house in the forest where an an old beautiful woman lived. He fell in love with her. The woman was Dayang Sumbi (his mother) and she recognized him although he did not know her. Sangkuriang forced her to marry him. She compel Sangkuriang to build a vast boat and a lake in just one night until dawn.

Sangkuriang called on the ghosts and forest fairies to help him. Fearing the boat would be completed, Dayang Sumbi asked another women in the nearby forest to help her. The women caused a great noise and Dayang Sumbi made flashes of light that the fairies took to be the morning light. THe fairies fled and the boat was not completed. Enraged, Sangkuriang kick the boat. It turned upside down and turned into a mountain, called Tangkuban Parahu, and the lake slowly shrinked and became a land, a land surrounded by mountains, called Bandung.
Calcutta
Eden Gardens
Owners: 45
Eden Gardens is the largest cricket stadium in India, and the second largest in the world (based on seating capacity - 90,000 people). Called by some "cricket's answer to the Colosseum" Eden Gardens has hosted numerous major cricket including the Cricket World Cup.
St. Petersburg (Russia)
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Yokohama
Yokohama Marine Tower
Owners: 97
Standing 348 feet high, the Yokohama Marine Tower is the tallest lighthouse in the world. The flashing lights (every 20 seconds) rotate between red and green while the lights on the tower itself are white. On a clear day, visitors can see Mount Fuji from the observation deck.
Bangalore
Cubbon Park
Owners: 83
Originally created in 1884, Cubbon Park then covered 100 acres. Since that time it has expanded and now covers nearly 300 acres. The park is maintained by the Horticulture Department of the Government of Karnataka which oversees the landscape of rock outcroppings, bamboo, trees, flowers and grassy expanses. The park has many walking paths which are used by early morning walkers and the naturalists who study plants in the tranquil natural environment.
Santiago de Chile (ciudad)
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Cleveland (OH)
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Owners: 238
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was founded with the intention of recognizing those musicians and others who have had a huge influence on music in the “Rock Era”.

The first class of inductees was elected in 1986 and included Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, the Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis, Little Richard, and Elvis Presley. However, this class, and several that followed, had no actual hall to be in. The actual building was not begun until 1993, and was not completed until 1995. In the interim, annual induction ceremonies were held, and new members elected, but no permanent displays were available for fans.

The choice of Cleveland, Ohio, for the Hall was somewhat controversial. Many felt it should be in a town with a more active music scene. Others preferred one with more tourist appeal. But the organizers felt Cleveland's strong ties to the beginning of Rock and Roll made it the suitable home for the Hall of Fame. Cleveland, for example, was the home base of Alan Freed, a disc jockey who not only strongly supported the early rock acts but who is also credited with coining the phrase ‘Rock and Roll”.

To be eligible for membership, an act or individual has to have been involved in music for 25 years. Categories for membership include producers, songwriters, musicians, executives, disc jockeys, journalists and sidemen/session performers. The hall also recognizes acts that were not necessarily associated with rock music but that influenced the genre.
Minneapolis (MN)
Minneapolis Institute of Arts
Owners: 92
Located on an 8 acre campus, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts is home to over 80,000 pieces of art from 5,000 years of world history. Its collection includes paintings, photographs, prints & drawings, textiles, architecture, and decorative arts. Being a government-funded public museum, the Institute does not charge an entrance fee, except for special exhibitions, and allows photography of its permanent collection for personal or scholarly use only.
San Jose (CA)
Doc Herrold
Owners: 123
In 1909, college professor Charles "Doc" Herrold opened the Herrold College of Wireless and Engineering in San Jose with the goal of teaching wireless technology to students. Herrold built a 15 watt spark transmitter and connected a microphone to the transmitter, and in so doing put on the world's first radio station.

The station, which also had the world's first regularly scheduled broadcasts, was identified as "The Herrold Station" or "San Jose Calling". And, while this fell before the era of radio station licensing, the station adopted makeshift call letters including FN, 6XE, 6XF, and SJN.

Herrold's operation was shuttered in 1917 when the United States government ordered all non-military radio transmissions to shut down because of World War I. After the war, when the U.S. government began issuing licenses for radio broadcasting, Herrold obtained the license for KQW in 1921. Unfortunately for Herrold, he lacked the financial requirements to keep the station on the air, and he sold the license for what later became KCBS-AM.
Indianapolis (IN)
The Brickyard
Owners: 332
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway was built on 328 acres of farmland five miles northwest of Indiana's capital city in the spring of 1909. Financed by four local businessmen, Carl Fisher, James Allison, Frank Wheeler and Arthur Newby, it was planned as a year-round testing facility for the fast-growing automobile industry in Indiana. Occasional race meets would be presented at the track, featuring those very same manufacturers racing their products against each other. Spectators, it was reasoned, would be sufficiently impressed as to want to head downtown quickly to the showrooms for a closer look at one of these new-fangled contraptions.

Four turns, each banked at nine degrees and 12 minutes and measuring exactly 440 yards from entrance to exit, were linked together by a pair of long straights and, at the north and south ends of the property, by a pair of short straights to form a rectangular-shaped 2 ½ mile track as dictated by the confines of the available land.

With the original surface of crushed rock and tar proving to be disastrous at the opening motorcycle and automobile racing events in August of 1909, 3,200,000 paving bricks were imported by rail from the western part of the state in the fall, laid on their sides in a bed of sand and fixed with mortar, this inspiring the nickname "The Brickyard".

Poor attendance at a trio of three-day meets on the revamped surface in 1910 caused the owners to rethink their plans and focus instead on a single event for 1911. They envisioned it as an event of gigantic proportions offering a huge purse. On May 30 - Memorial Day - a grueling 500-Mile race paying $14,250 to win took place, enjoying instant success and attracting universal recognition…and making history as the inaugural Indianapolis 500.

Excerpted from: History of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway :: Where America Learned To Race®
Jacksonville (FL)
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Columbus (OH)
Kelton House Museum and Garden
Owners: 73
Now serving as a museum to "promote an understanding of daily life, customs, and decorative arts in 19th century Columbus and to educate visitors about the Underground Railroad" the Kelton House Museum and Garden was originally built in 1852 as the home for the Kelton family. Fervent abolitionists, the Kelton's used there home as a stop on the underground railroad. The home was owned by several members of the family until it was purchased by the Junior League and turned into the present museum. almost 90% of the furnishings in the home are original to the Kelton family.
Memphis (TN)
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Nashville (TN)
Music Row
Owners: 305
Music Row, an area just southwest of downtown Nashville, Tennessee, is home to hundreds of businesses related to the country music, gospel music, and Christian music industries. A major music recording and production center, the city is known as the home of country music.

Nashville's music business district is so central to the country music industry that the words "Music Row" are sometimes used to refer to country music as a whole.
Tampa (FL)
Plant Hall
Owners: 273
While it is part of the University of Tampa now, Plant Hall has a colorful history predating its academic incarnation. From the late 1880's to the early 1890's, Henry B. Plant - a "robber baron" of a shipping magnate - built a grand hotel. He wanted it to beat out all other luxury resorts of the day. It was called the Tampa Bay Hotel, and was built with Victorian architecture and decoration, and Moorish revival minarets, cupolas, and horseshoe-shaped doors.

For a short time the hotel was open and was as opulent as Plant had envisioned, with winter guests flocking to its comfort. Among the famous people that stayed in the Tampa Bay Hotel are Teddy Roosevelt, Babe Ruth (who signed his first baseball contract there), and the Queen of England. By 1933, the building was no longer a hotel and had become a museum.

What was once this playground for the rich is now the main academic and administrative building for the University of Tampa, and a reminder of Tampa's grand history. Plant Hall's minarets reach high into the skyline, majestic and unique among American cities. It is a symbol of Tampa that will continue to endure.
El Paso (TX)
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Fort Worth (TX)
The Stockyards
Owners: 314
The Fort Worth Stockyards were designated as a historial monument in 1976 and has come to represent everything "Fort Worth". Here you can find the Cowboy Hall of Fame, the Cowtown Colliseum, a Longhorn Cattle Drive, Billy Bob's of Texas (the world's largest honkytonk), and the Stockyards Station - a mall with over 25 stores.
Milwaukee (WI)
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Dominican Republic
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Haiti
La Citadelle Laferriere
Owners: 92
The La Citadelle Laferriere is the largest fortress in the Western hemisphere and an object of national pride for Haitians everywhere. The fortress was designed by King Henri Christophe and was built by up to 20,000 workers between 1805 and 1820. Sited atop Bonnet a L’Eveque at over 2000 feet, the Citadel offers perhaps the best view in Haiti--Cuba can even be spotted from the Citadel in clear weather.

The Citadel is one fortress of several designed to deter any French attack after Haiti declared independence in 1804.The walls of the Citadel rise up to 130 feet and measure up to 46 feet thick. The entire complex covers 108,000 square feet and is large enough to hold 10,000 people. The site is listed as a World Heritage site by UNESCO.
Apologetics
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Missions / Missionaries
Lausanne Covenant
Owners: 240
The Lausanne Covenant is a manifesto that was written and adopted by 2,300 evangelical Christians at the 1974 International Congress on World Evangelization in Lausanne, Switzerland. The covenant is a form of confession that the signatories have failed to spread the gospel of Jesus Christ and commit to spreading it further and fifteen specific beliefs which they testify to are listed.

The Introduction of the covenant is:
We, members of the Church of Jesus Christ, from more than 150 nations, participants in the International Congress on World Evangelization at Lausanne, praise God for his great salvation and rejoice in the fellowship he has given us with himself and with each other. We are deeply stirred by what God is doing in our day, moved to penitence by our failures and challenged by the unfinished task of evangelization. We believe the Gospel is God's good news for the whole world, and we are determined by his grace to obey Christ's commission to proclaim it to all mankind and to make disciples of every nation. We desire, therefore, to affirm our faith and our resolve, and to make public our covenant.
Motorcycles
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Volunteering
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Belize
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Emerging Church
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Omaha (NE)
Warren Buffett
Owners: 239
Dubbed "The Oracle of Omaha," Warren Buffett is the world's best known value investor, a witty and plainspoken Midwesterner known for his transformation of a flagging textile manufacturer, Berkshire Hathaway, Inc., into a truly diversified conglomerate, and his fellow investors and business partners into millionaires.
Wichita (KS)
Keeper of the Plains
Owners: 109
Created in 1974 by Blackbear Bosin (1921 - 1980), the Keeper of the Plains is a steel 44-foot tall sculpture of an Indian warrior. The sculpture stands at the confluence of the Big and Little Arkansas Rivers. The sculpture harkins to the Wichita Indian tribe for whom the city is named.
Colorado Springs (CO)
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Honolulu (HI)
Iolani Palace
Owners: 121
Situated in downtown Honolulu is ʻIolani Palace, the best know example of Hawaiian architecture, the only royal palace in the U.S, and the capitol of Hawaii from the days of the monarchy until the state inaugurated the present capitol in 1969. Construction of the palace began under the reign of King Kamehameha III, however as the king preferred to sleep in a nearby grass hut the palace was not befitted with bedrooms. By the time King Kalākaua came to the throne the building, more of a grand home than a palace to begin with, was in bad repair. While visiting the palaces of other nations on a world tour Kalākaua became convinced that Hawaii needed a true palace. He ordered the original ʻIolani Palace torn down and a new one built across the street. The new palace cost $360,000, an exorbitant sum for a small nation, but its unique architecture and grand stature gave Hawaiians a renewed sens of pride. The building even had electricity and telephones before the White House.

Today the palace's exhibits offer visitors the opportunity to explore Hawaii's, on display are Hawaii's crown jewels, a quilt made by Queen Liliʻuokalani during her captivity in a simple upstairs room, the royal bedrooms, regalia worn by high chiefs, a photographic display, and orders and decorations of the Hawaiian monarchs.
Oakland (CA)
Heinold's First and Last Chance Saloon
Owners: 294
Heinold’s First and Last Chance Saloon was opened in 1883 by Johnny Heinold as J.M. Heinold's Saloon. Built in 1880 from the timbers of an old whaling ship, it was constructed at the foot of Webster Street on the Oakland waterfront, located in what is now known as Jack London Square. Originally, the building was used as a bunk house by the men working the nearby oyster beds. After Johnny purchased the building in 1883 for the grand sum of $100, he and a ship's carpenter transformed it into a place where seafarers and others who worked on the waterfront would feel at home.

During the 1920's a ferry ran between the "dry" city of Alameda and city of Oakland, docking right next to Heinold's Saloon. The saloon became the commuters' last chance for liquid refreshment. It was also the last stop for many servicemen who shipped out of the Port of Oakland. As a result, the name was officially changed to Heinold's First and Last Chance Saloon.

Heinold's was also a favorite hang out of writer Jack London. As a schoolboy he studied at the very same tables he later sat at while taking notes for The Sea Wolf and Call of the Wild. Although Heinold lent London money for tuition at the University of California, he never made it beyond his first year. Instead, he became engrossed in the lives of those who frequented the saloon, which inspired him to write many of his books. In fact, Johnny Heinold and The First and Last Chance Saloon are referenced seventeen times in London's novel John Barleycorn. The saloon is also known as Jack London's Rendezvous.

In January of 1998, Heinold’s was named as a National Literary Landmark by the Friends of the Library, USA. In September 2000, Heinold’s was added to the National Registry of Historic Places.
Fresno (city) (CA)
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Mesa (AZ)
Arizona Museum for Youth
Owners: 32
Founded in 1980 as the only children's museum in the United States with a focus on fine art the Arizona Museum for Youth is primarily designed for young children but maintains exhibits, classes and activities that will appeal to everyone. A primary attraction of the museum is ArtVille, an art-town for kids ages 0 – 4. As part of the exhibits, art classes, workshops and family programs are available to teach art principles and techniques.
Virginia Beach (VA)
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Kansas City (MO)
Country Club Plaza
Owners: 360
The Country Club Plaza is a world renowned upscale outdoor shopping district in Kansas City Missouri. J.C. Nichols developed the Plaza on the outskirts of Kansas City in a area known as a swampland in 1922. The Plaza was designed with a Spanish theme including courtyards and towers. The shopping district has the distinction of being the first developed for suburbia and was designed specifically for customers using the automobile. During the Christmas season the entire district is wired with 75 miles of Christmas lights. Crews work nine months of the year stringing the lights. On Thanksgiving night up to 250000 people attend the largest ceremonial lighting display in the country.
Long Beach (CA)
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Albuquerque (NM)
Balloon Fiesta
Owners: 223
You've seen them on calendars, book and magazine covers and on TV: images of multi-colored hot air balloons floating in a clear blue sky. Albuquerque is well known for the largest hot air balloon festival in the world, called the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta. It was started in 1972 with 13 balloons and is now held every year in October. It had grown to a record 1000 balloons which attended and lifted off en mass back in 2000. Since 2000, though, fiesta officials have limited the entries to no more than 700 registered balloons for safety. It is possibly the most photographed yearly event in the world.
Arlington (TX)
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Osaka (Prefecture)
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Manila
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Lagos (Nigeria)
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Nagoya
Atsuta Jingu
Owners: 217
Atsuta Jingu (Atsuta Shrine), familiarly known as Atsuta Sama (Venerable Atsuta) or Miya (the Shrine), is been one of the greatest centers of worship in Japan from ancient times. The enshrined deity (Atsuta-no-Ookami) is Amaterasu-Oomikami as represented by the sacred sword Kusanagi-no-tsurugi, one of the three sacred treasures that symbolize the Imperial throne. The tradition says that this great god, by the divine decree of the god of creation Amatsu-mioya-no-Mikoto (Heavenly-Father-God), was the first to show the way of the gods to the world and bless mankind with the virtue of love.

Also enshrined here are the "Five Great Gods of Atsuta", all of whom are mythologically connected with the sacred sword. Among them, are Takeinadane-no-Mikoto and Miyasuhime-no-Mikoto, the first parents of Owari-Uji, the indigenous people of Nagoya and its neighboring districts.

Atsuta Jingu was originally founded about 1900 years ago, when the sacred sword Kusanagi-no-tsurugi (Grasscutter), one of the Imperial symbols, was enshrined. Ever since Atsuta Jingu has been specially revered by people, ranking second only to the Great Shrine of Ise. The geographical character of the fertile Owari Plain has fostered a faith in Atsuta Jingu as protector of agriculture. This can be observed in the many festivals and divine services which show close connection with popular life centering around agricultural industry.
Ahmedabad
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Belo Horizonte
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Pune
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Porto Alegre
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Monterrey (Mex)
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Busan
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Pyongyang
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Recife
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Ankara
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Salvador (Brz)
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Brasilia
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Fortaleza
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Surat
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Republic of the Congo
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Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Sudan
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Libya
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Cote d'Ivoire
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Jidda
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Ukraine
Pysanka
Owners: 40
A Pysanka is a Ukrainian Easter egg, decorated using a wax-resist (batik) method. The word pysanka refers specifically to an egg decorated with traditional Ukrainian folk designs, and is not a generic term for any egg decorated using wax resist.
Kiev
Great Patriotic War Museum
Owners: 25
National Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War (often referred to simply as the Great Patriotic War Museum) has been visited by over 21 million people since it first opened. The museum is one of the largest in the Ukraine featuring over 300,000 exhibits. The museum pays tribute to the German-Soviet war (1941 - 1945).
Jordan
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Syria
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Sepak Takraw
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Palestine
Yasser Arafat
Owners: 255
Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎) (August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004); President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) (1993–2004); and a co-recipient of the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize alongside Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin, for the successful negotiations of the 1993 Oslo Accords. Arafat, however, was a controversial and polarizing figure throughout his lengthy career. While his supporters viewed him as a heroic freedom fighter who symbolized the national aspirations of the Palestinian people, his opponents often described him as an unrepentant terrorist with a long legacy of promoting violence. Still others, on the Palestinian side, accused him of being a deeply corrupt politician or a weak leader who made too many concessions to the Israeli government during the 1993 Oslo Accords. However, Arafat has been widely recognized through-out the world for his leading of the Fatah, which he founded in 1957, to the 1993 recognition of Israel and the signature of the Oslo Accords. Scholars will long debate if he helped the people he sought to represent and lead toward self-actualization.
Leeds
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Newcastle (UK)
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Liverpool
The Cavern Club
Owners: 140
Located at 10 Matthew Street the Cavern Club, which opened it's doors in 1957, bills itself as the most famous club in the world. Of course, being so closely associated with The Beatles makes such a claim easier to live up to. In 1961 The Beatles made their first performance in the dank underground club with the very appropriate name. Over the course of the next 2 years The Beatles performed almost 300 times in the club until they were eventually signed by EMI, and the rest is history. Since that time "new' acts at the club have included the likes of The Rolling Stones, The Who, The Yardbirds and The Kinks. The club was closed in 1973, and the "cavern" was filled in as part of a subway construction project.

In 1984 most of the property that housed the original club was purchased by Tommy Smith. He then rebuilt the club with the intention of replicating the original atmosphere as closely as possible. Today the club remains open not only as a nightclub, but as a very popular tourist attraction, and a must see for visiting Beatles fans.
Sheffield (UK)
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Bristol (UK)
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Brighton & Hove
Royal Pavilion
Owners: 210
The Royal Pavilion is a former royal residence located in Brighton, East Sussex, United Kingdom. Now considered one of the most resplendent buildings on the south coast, it was originally built in the early 19th Century as a seaside retreat for the then Prince Regent, who later became King George IV. It is built in the Indo-Saracenic style prevalent in India for most of the 19th century.

After the death of George IV in 1830, his successor King William IV also stayed in the Pavilion on his visits to Brighton. However after Queen Victoria's last visit to Brighton in 1845, the Government planned to sell the building and grounds. However the Brighton Commissioners and the Brighton Vestry successfully petitioned the government to sell the Pavilion to the town for £53,000 in 1849.

Today The Royal Pavilion is open to visitors and is also made available for education purposes, banqueting, and weddings. The admission fee is reduced for local residents in the winter.
Portsmouth (UK)
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Leicester
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Lille
Jardin des Plantes de Lille
Owners: 37
Located in Lille, France, and established in 1948, the Jardin des Plantes de Lille is a municipal botanical garden and home to the city's astronomical observatory. It is open daily and admission is free.

The garden's botanical plots contain more than 1,500 plants. The Garden also contains an orangery, a tropical greenhouse, and a rose garden. Trees in the garden grouped by geographical origin.
Toulouse
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Bordeaux
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Nantes
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Toulon
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Frankfurt
Frankfurter Buchmesse
Owners: 117
The annual Frankfurt Book Fair, known as the "Frankfurter Buchmesse", is the world's largest in terms of the number of publishing companies that are represented at the event. Held annually in October, the five-day fair features more than 7,000 exhibitors and draws in nearly 300,000 visitors per year.

The roots of the Frankfurt book fair go back more than a half-century; the inaugural event took place soon after Johannes Gutenberg unveiled his movable type printing press in 1450 in nearby Mainz, Germany. The event is considered pivotal for both the debut of new books as well as the negotiation of international book deals by publishers.
Dortmund
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Essen
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Stuttgart
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Dusseldorf
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Hannover
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Duisburg
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Bonn
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Mannheim
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Nuremberg
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Rotterdam
Port of Rotterdam
Owners: 106
The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and stretches over a distance of 40 kilometers. It is one of the few ports,if not the only one in Europe that can easily harbour all the largest vessels in the world. Just off the coast in the North Sea a giant shipping-lane gully named Eurogeul has been dug for this purpose. With a depth of 23 meters and a distance of almost 60 kilometers it permits access for any super tanker to reach Europoort, the big port area which is full of petrochemical refineries and storage tanks.
The Hague
The ICC
Owners: 135
The Hague is home to over 150 international legal organizations. Among these, it is the official seat of the International Criminal Court (ICC), established in 2002. This court has responsibility for criminal proceedings covering such crimes as genocides and war crimes. The court is designed to be a court of 'last resort' for when a member state's own judicial system has been exhausted and/or the state has accepted the court's jurisdiction.

Article 5 of the Rome Statute (the document covering the ICC) states the court should be used for "the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole." These include the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
Naples [Province] (Italy)
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Turin (Italy)
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Palermo (Italy)
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Bologna [Province]
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Florence
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Venice (Italy)
The Gondola
Owners: 86
Once the primary method of travel between the 118 islands that make up Venice the Gondola has slowly been pushed aside by motorized water taxis. These traditional Venetian rowing boats are still popular with tourists and are often used during weddings and funerals.
Verona (Italy)
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Bari
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Sicily
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Thessaloniki
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Belfast
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Prague
Staromestske Namesti
Owners: 187
"Staroměstské Náměstí " literally means "Old Town Square" in the Czech language. This world famous Prague landmark, located between Charles Bridge and Wenceslas Square in the part of Prague known as 'Old Town', draws hordes of tourists every year. The square has seen many historical events including the execution of 27 insurrectionists in 1621 and the burning Old Town Hall at the end of World War Two by the Nazis. The square is also home to the equally famous "Orloj" (Astronomical Clock), constructed in 1410.
Vienna (city, Austria)
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Warsaw
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Krakow
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Lodz
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Danzig
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Wroclaw
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Poznan
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Bucharest
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Vladivostok
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Novosibirsk
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Ekaterinburg
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Samara (Rus)
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Omsk
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Kazan
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Chelyabinsk
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Rostov-na-Donu
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Bratislava
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Valencia (city, Spain)
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Sevilla (city)
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Saragossa (city)
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Malaga (city)
Fundación Picasso
Owners: 68
The Fundación Picasso (a/k/a Pablo Ruiz Picasso Foundation) is based in Malaga and works to promote the work of Pablo Picasso. Their offices are located in the building where Picasso was born. In addition to working to promote Picasso, the Fundación Picasso maintains a collection of work by Picasso as well as other artists.
Canary Islands
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Rosario
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Cordoba (Province) (Arg)
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Mendoza Province
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Santa Cruz (city, Bol)
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Curitiba
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